The Spiral2 driver uses a slow chopper situated in the common section of the low energy beam transport line to change the beam intensity, to cut off the beam in case of critical loss and to avoid hitting the wheel structure of rotating targets. The device has to work up to 10 kV, 1 kHz repetition frequency rate and its design is based on standard power circuits, standard vacuum feed-through and custom alarm board. The paper summarizes the design principles and describes the test results of the final device, which has been installed on the beam line test bench.
TheSPIRAL-2project aims at building at GANIL a new ISOL-type facility forthe production of high intensity rare isotope beams. Theproject has now entered the construction phase, for first beam production around 2012. The driver accelerator must accelerate a 5 mA CW deuteron beam up to 40 MeV, and a 1 mA CW ion beam with mass-to-charge ratio A/q=3 up to 14.5 A.MeV. It must also have the capability to accelerate protons (new requirement) and, in a future stage, to host a second injector to accelerate ions of mass-to-charge ratio A/q up to 6. Naturally, this driver accelerator is a linac with independently-phased superconducting cavities for high safety and maximum flexibility in the acceleration of different ion species with different charge-to-mass ratios at various final energies. The linac is divided into 3 main parts: injector, superconducting linac, and high-energy beam transport lines (HEBTs).
Fig. 1: structure of an UCx target by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The graphite appears in black, the uranium carbide UC and UC 2 in white. The uranium carbide grain size is about 20 to 30 µm.
2. TheSpiral2 target
FortheSPIRAL2projectthe specification is to reach 10 13 fissions/s in the case of UCx target using a 40 MeV/5 mA deuteron beam with a rotating carbon converter . The production of a target irradiated by fast neutrons is estimated using the FICNER code . Thanks to this code one can see the effect of geometrical parameters onto the production. The figure 2 illustrates the importance to put the target as close as possible to the converter.
The target and the ion source will be placed in a rectangular module (called plug) that is surrounded by 2 m of concrete for shielding of workers and equipment. The same principle has been applied on the ISAC facility at TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada), forthe production of radioactive beams with a 500 MeV, 100 A primary beam. At this time, two solutions are under studies : the first one consists in sending the primary beam vertically while the second one prefers to send it horizontally. These two solutions will be studied in details during the next months and a final approach will be taken considering the advantages and the disadvantages of each one. Two turbo molecular pumps and the insulators are thereby located on the top of the plug where they are protected from radiations. This increases the life time of the different components and permits the manual disconnection of the electrical powers.
The main objective of MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) at SCK•CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is to demonstrate the large scale feasibility of nuclear waste transmutation using an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). It is based on a high power cw operated 600 MeV proton Linac with an average beam power of 2.4 MW. Due to the coupling of the accel- erator with a fast reactor, a major concern is reliability and availability of the accelerator. Only 10 beam trips longer than 3 s are allowed per 3-month operation cycle, resulting in an overall required Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of at least 250 hours. The MYRRHA Linac consists of a room temperature 17 MeV Injector based on CH-cavities and the superconducting main Linac using different RF structures as Single Spokes, Double-Spokes and elliptical cavities. In 2017 it has been decided to stage theproject and to start with the construction of a 100 MeV Linac (Injector and Single Spoke section) including a 400 kW proton target station. This facility will be operational in 2026 aiming to evaluate the reliability potential of the 600 MeV Linac. The Front- End consisting of an ECR source, LEBT and 1.5 MeV RFQ is already operational while the first 7 CH-cavities are under construction. The presentation gives an overview about the MYRRHA Project, its challenges and the status of construc- tion and testing.
The high current driver accelerator of theSPIRAL2project uses independently phased SC resonators working at 88 MHz. Solid state power amplifiers equipped with circulators are foreseen to drive the cavities with widely ranging conditions of beam loading. These power devices are developed by industrial companies and a test bench has been studied and manufactured to test the prototypes, to commission all the units before their installation on the accelerator and to be used to test repaired modules. Even if designed to be used at 88 MHz, the test bench can be used at higher frequencies too. The poster describes the test bench as well as the results on the first amplifiers bought forthe cryomodule power tests.
Rising tall of cancer cases in present day societies requires improvement of availability of the modern high technology based therapies, in particular of hadrontherapy. Recently the rebirth of FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) accelerators resulted in several designs for medical facilities based on this principle [1,2]. The potentially high repetition rate (up to 100 Hz) of FFAG, which allows the use of the Bunch to Pixel treatment strategy together with the variable extraction energy enables to substantially simplify the operation of the medical accelerator comparing to conventional installations based on synchrotrons or cyclotrons. The design undertaken in the framework of the RACCAM French National Research Agency (ANR) project  focuses on proton machine as protontherapy has a big chance to become a radiotherapy of choice in the near future .
Basic parameters of SPIRAL-2
A huge number of high energy neutrons (in the range between 1 and 40 MeV), produced in the carbon converter via C(d,xn) reaction, will be present at theSPIRAL-2project at GANIL (Caen, France) aiming to produce neutron-rich fission fragments . The main goal of this study is to provide quantitative estimates on the possibility of using a 40 MeV (5mA) linear deuteron accelerator in a combination with a rotating carbon target, as projected at SPIRAL-2, for material irradiation purposes. It is also aimed to give a direct comparison with the ITER irradiation environment as well as the IFMIF project, introduced briefly below, in terms of available neutron fluxes, energy spectra, material damage rates and irradiation volumes.
Forthe GANIL safety revaluation and the new project of accelerator SPIRAL2, it was decided to replace the existing access control system for radiological controlled areas. These areas are all cyclotron rooms and experimental areas. The existing system is centralized around VME cards. Updating is becoming very problematic. The new UGA (access control unit) will be composed of a pair of PLC to ensure the safety of each room. It will be supplemented by a system UGB (radiological control unit) that will assure the radiological monitoring of the area concerned.
Two cryomodules (one of each beta value) have been designed and constructed and its test will allow the launch of the series units construction. Both cryomodules integrate all the needed components and are completely equipped to be eventually installed in the Driver Accelerator. All the components forthe first cryomodules are now available: the β 0.12 Cryomodule is presently assembled and final tests have started, the integration of the β 0.07 Cryomodule components is planned forthe end of this year (Fig. 12 a, b). The cryomodules tests include the assessment of two major design aspects: 1) cryogenic operation and static losses measurements, and 2) complete RF tests with a final check at full RF power. This test phase will end in December 2007, in order to launch the cryomodules series production in the period 2008-2009.
Figure 1: General layout of the SPIRAL2 injector.
The maximum power of the beam under the nominal C.W. mode operation reaches 7.5 kW at the exit of the M.E.B.T. In order to lower the beam average power, Low Duty Factor Pulsed mode operation is also planned for commissioning periods. For this purpose, the operation of the source may be pulsed. A slow chopper located in the shared LEBT may pulse the beam in order to obtain duty cycle as low as 0.1 %. This mode of operation allows also the interceptive diagnostics to withstand the beam during the tuning of the injector. At last, a fast chopper located in the MEBT line removes selected bunches from the beam according to special experiment needs.
TheSPIRAL2project  aims at delivering high intensities of rare isotope beams by adopting the best production method for each respective radioactive beam. The unstable beams will be produced by the ISOL “Isotope Separation On-Line” method via a converter, or by direct irradiation and by in-flight techniques. The combination of all these techniques (i.e. via fission induced by fast neutrons in a uranium target or by direct bombardment of the fissile material, or via fusion- evaporation with unstable beams or heavy ion beams) will allow to cover broad areas of the nuclear chart. In addition to fundamental research in nuclear physics, theSPIRAL2 facility could also offer a high performance multidisciplinary tool, especially in fields of science requiring high fluxes of neutron, such as material
LAYOUT AND PERFORMANCES OF THESPIRAL2 FACILITY
TheSPIRAL2 facility (fig. 2) is based on a high-power, superconducting driver LINAC, which will deliver a high-intensity, 40 MeV deuteron beam as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass-to-charge ratio of 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/nucleon. Using a carbon converter, the 5 mA deuteron beam and a uranium carbide target, fast-neutron induced fission is expected to reach a rate of up to 10 14 fissions/s. The RNB intensities in the mass range from A=60 to A=140 will be of the order of 10 6 to 10 11 particles/s (pps) surpassing by one or two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. For example, the intensities should reach 10 9 pps for 132 Sn and 10 10 pps for 92 Kr. A direct irradiation of the UC
needed and thus to ensure the smooth and successful completion of theproject.
II. E-L EARNING E NGINEERING C OURSES
During the last decade, many established Universities started offering undergraduate e-learning programs, in addition to their classic on-site programs, creating specific e-learning frameworks and adapting their traditional offer to be delivered remotely. At the same time, some more recent Universities, like The Open University founded in 1969 , only offer online undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In spite of that, some courses, like languages and engineering, require attendance at a residential school. Even though, while postgraduate level engineering programs awarding a final Certificate, Diploma or Master degree are easy to find, the undergraduate offer is restricted to no-engineering areas. The exception are the widely available fully online information and computer technology (ICT) undergraduate programs, since the same computer used by the students to follow an ICT program may be used to perform practical work in the field.
attaining specific learning objectives and to allow different learning strategies (project based learning, collaborative / cooperative learning). This task deals with e-learning, for life- long learning as well as initial education. To achieve the task’s aim we propose to set up a mediatheque of pedagogical resources available through internet in EIE, as a census of existing resources. The aim is here to implement Quality in education to pedagogical resources in EIE available via Internet. On the one hand this means to select and classify educational materials for EIE on the basis of the quality of content in relation with the concepts, models and competences required in EIE, and the potential effectiveness as teaching- learning tools for EIE education; on the second hand, we will make them available to the EIE community. The work will be a continuation of some activities of the THEIERE project and completed with the selected resources.
Continental Automotive GmbH, Siemensstrasse 12, 93055 Regensburg, Germany.
Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
Abstract: The paper presents the actual results of the TIMMO-2-USE project dedicated to time modeling and analysis in the domain of automotive embedded system design. A first result is the Timing Augmented Description Language (TADL2) that offers capabilities for symbolic time expressions modeling, probabilistic timing information and timing constraints applied on mode definitions. The syntax and semantic of such extensions are presented. These extensions are aligned with EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR timing models. Based on these extensions, new algorithms and tools are developed to analyze and validate TADL2 specifications. Conjointly with these aspects, a new methodology based on industrial use cases is proposed compatible with those of TIMMO, ATESST2 and AUTOSAR. This methodology solves specific issues related to timing in an automotive system design, such as time budgeting. The TIMMO-2-USE work and results are driven by industrial use cases. Use cases are the corner stone of theproject as they are used as input for providing requirements forthe language, the algorithm development, and the methodology development but also because the same are used for a validation of the results.
The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change is an organization for research, independent policy analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership in understanding scientific, economic, and ecological aspects of this difficult issue, and combining them into policy assessments that serve the needs of ongoing national and international discussions. To this end, the Program brings together an interdisciplinary group from two established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR). These two centers bridge many key areas of the needed intellectual work, and additional essential areas are covered by other MIT departments, by collaboration with the Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biology Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, and by short- and long-term visitors to the Program. The Program involves sponsorship and active participation by industry, government, and non-profit organizations.