Water and sanitation

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Challenges of water and sanitation service co-production in the global South

Challenges of water and sanitation service co-production in the global South

water depends on local wells, but this increasing water usage results in groundwater exploitation. As this exploitation lowers the water table, it contributes to groundwater salinization. Centralized water and sanitation services, characterized by standardized solutions, leave limited room for the recipient–resource interaction. In co-production, by contrast, the recipient–resource relation is inherently dynamic, responsive to both the availability of the resource and/or the changing conditions of the recipient (e.g. increased financial availability). In Cochabamba, for instance, the extension of the small-scale water networks operated by the OLPEs is facilitated by the availability of common water resources. In Dar es Salaam, due to increasing groundwater pollution and salinization, the resource–recipient relation embedded in the co-production of supply water has evolved, since the local communities have increasingly had to search for water at deeper levels – from shallow wells to deep wells. This has contributed to recipients’ awareness of the resource and its dynamics. All cases fail to address the closed-loop nature of the water service cycle, due to poor or even absent
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A comprehensive framework for analyzing co-production of urban water and sanitation services in the Global South

A comprehensive framework for analyzing co-production of urban water and sanitation services in the Global South

38 relationships between factors and by examining differences and convergences between multiple cases of WSS co-production. Several relationships between the Actor-Flow-Area dimensions of WSS co- production emerge from its first application in the three case studies. In urban areas, such as the ones in Addis Ababa and Hanoi, WSS co-production appears as a transitory practice based on a process of adaptation to the shortcomings of the centralized system. This dynamic differs according to the specific type of area, the technical complexity, the user’s motivations and their socio-economic capacity. In areas with higher risks of social/technical exclusion, such as in Addis Ababa’s slums, co-production develops from the motivation to satisfy individual basic needs at the lowest cost. Co-production may be very basic in these places, involving simple connected (water) or separated (sanitation) infrastructure configurations, shared by small groups of inhabitants. In collective areas like Hanoi Soviet Blocks, co-production arises from the individual need to fill the gap in accessing the centralized network through simple complementary low- tech devices (water tanks) or as a part of a successive process of spatial and social consolidation, mainly guided by the state (sanitation).
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Cross-sectional epidemiological study on water and sanitation practices in the northern region of Ghana

Cross-sectional epidemiological study on water and sanitation practices in the northern region of Ghana

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a social business enterprise to implement, monitor, and evaluate household drinking water treatment and safe storage technologies in the N[r]

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Water, Megacities and Global Change

Water, Megacities and Global Change

The water tariff Water and sanitation services in Chicago, London, New York City and Paris are entirely (or almost entirely) funded by income from water and sanitation charges, and not (or almost not) by the municipal budget or state grants. The water tariff must finance all operating costs and asset requirements of the water and sanitation system, including capital costs related to large-scale construction projects and significant modernization works. To this end, the price of water has risen by 186% since 2007 in Chicago, from US$5.03/m 3 to US$14.42/m 3 . Conversely, in Buenos Aires billing income for the water and sanitation operator, AySA (Agua y Saneamientos Argentinos, SA – Argentine Water and Sanitation, PLC) barely covers 41% of operating costs. AySA receives significant grants from the federal government. A substantial cross- subsidy system between the various users is applied here, as is the case in Mumbai. Overall, the principle is based on a system in which industrial and commercial users subsidize the inhabitants of slums and people living in precarious conditions. In Lagos, the water tariff is extremely unequal, with the difference between the prices charged by Lagos Water Corporation and informal private operators amounting to a ratio of 1:33. In Beijing and Istanbul, the application of a gradual tariff has become a major tool for developing a policy of optimum allocation of scarce water resources and improving effective water use by consumers, including industry.
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Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

tado Novo), the Brazilian welfare state developed under a mixture of authoritarianism and populism. This expansion of infrastructure took place in a new regulatory climate 15 which eventually evolved into a highly centralized system of electric energy regulation and large scale water resources management at federal level. Urban sanitation ser- vices partially escaped that model, and from 1940 to 1960, water supply and sewerage often continued to be run by municipal departments, but a “public service” logic domi- nated and tariff issues were kept on the backstage. Costs were covered by taxes and
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Assessing wastewater and sanitation conditions and management in the Ramotswa transboundary aquifer area between South Africa and Botswana

Assessing wastewater and sanitation conditions and management in the Ramotswa transboundary aquifer area between South Africa and Botswana

To reuse greywater, the system design must consider public health risk, greywater chemical properties, prevention of pollution of soil and water and reuse purpose. Household with no greywater manage- ment and using on-site sanitation have low income. An easy and cheap way of domestic greywater treatment is recommended. The greywater tower garden was already applied in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. A primary treatment with a grease and grit trap can be installed. The structure of the greywater management system consists of poles and shading material surrounding soil and a central stone-packed drain, presented in Figure 34. The water flow thoughout the column is spread because of the stones. Into the slits, leafy vegetables such as spinach are planted. On top of the column, tomatoes and onions may be planted. Two to three buckets of greywater are needed per day to prevent the soil from drying out. A puddle on the top of the column means an excess of water. This kind of greywater management is adapted for bath, shower, laundry and kitchen wastewater. The tower should be fenced in if free animals share the same space. It is not recommended to consume raw harvested vegetables.
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Converging intentions, diverging realities : rights vs. growth-based approaches to safe sanitation provision in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Converging intentions, diverging realities : rights vs. growth-based approaches to safe sanitation provision in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

This plan for improvement is a part of the Second Ethiopia Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project, and gathers its funding from the World Bank and the countr[r]

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Sanitation and risks of waterborne diseases in Aholouyèmè in the commune of Sèmè-Kpodji (Benin, West Africa)

Sanitation and risks of waterborne diseases in Aholouyèmè in the commune of Sèmè-Kpodji (Benin, West Africa)

and long term (MMEH, 2005). Unfortunately, the current system of working and management of natural resources represent serious threats to the protection and preservation of water resources and consequently the survival of future generations (Yélognissè, 2007). The United Nations (UN, 2005) estimated that among the 37 major diseases in developing countries, 27 are related to water. In the least developed countries, 15 million children die every year from contaminated drinking water, poor hygiene and malnutrition. WHO (1994) estimated that 80% of all diseases are related to a nutrition with dirty water and inadequate sanitation. Drinking water remains in the early twenty-first century an inaccessible good for a large portion of the world population (MMEH, 2005). That report was the same in the district of Aholouyèmè in Benin. In addition, the existent water points were unsanitary. Those water points are traditional wells and boreholes constructed by the hydraulic office of Benin. They were not functional at all. Therefore, the majority of people consumed water from unprotected wells.
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Income versus Sanitation; Mortality Decline in Paris, 1880-1914

Income versus Sanitation; Mortality Decline in Paris, 1880-1914

Introduction The growth in life expectancy over the past two centuries is one of the most striking accomplishments of economic development. Humans born today in high income economies can expect to live twice as long as their forebears of two centuries ago. This gain results from the growth of both private resources (such as the direct effect of income on life expectancy through better nutrition) and public investment (such as the building of water and sewer networks). Evaluating the impact of private and public contributions is necessary if one is to consider how best to reduce mortality in developing economies. The problem, however, is that these contributions are jointly determined and feedback into each other. A society or locality with low income is unlikely to be able to afford the expensive investments required to procure clean water and to dispose of soiled water. Conversely, a population with access to good sanitation will lose fewer work-days to illness and thus enjoy higher private incomes. Moreover, inequality affects the distribution of both private income gains and infrastructure. Given that local infrastructure is an excludable local service (not a pure public good), it is clear that income inequality may play an important role in shaping conflicts over the extent of redistributive policies that provide or deny health-improving infrastructure access to the poor. 1 For instance, faced with significant connection fees, the poor will not take advantage of the most valuable benefits of this infrastructure (Devoto et al. 2012). Finally income and sanitation affect both current health status and human capital. For instance, nutrition in childhood matters over the whole life course, while sanitation networks are built over time and older building are usually grandfathered into a regime of voluntary connection.
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QTL for water stress resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa

QTL for water stress resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa

A F1 mapping population of 224 individuals was obtained between two plants originating from South of France (Magali) and from a Tunisian oasis (Gabes). The Tunisian plant was supposed to be adapted to water stress conditions. SSR markers were tested for amplification and polymorphism among the parents. Eighty five markers were used, generating 280 alleles. The map, calculated with TetraploidMap software, comprised 8 linkage groups for each parent. Water use efficiency was measured at Montpellier in six growing cycles under well- watered conditions. Plants were transplanted in 2m-high columns, filled with soil. Aerial dry matter was measured at the end of each growing cycle. The consumed water by individual plants was precisely measured. WUE for each plant was calculated as aerial dry matter (g) / consumed water (1000 g). Average value of WUE over the six cycles was calculated. QTL detection was carried out by analysis of variance. In a first step, a simple ANOVA with each allele was made. The significant alleles were then submitted to a multiple ANOVA, using the option SS2 of proc GLM of SAS.
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Phase separation in polysulfone/solvent/water and polyethersulfone/solvent/water systems

Phase separation in polysulfone/solvent/water and polyethersulfone/solvent/water systems

This publication could be one of several versions: author’s original, accepted manuscript or the publisher’s version. / La version de cette publication peut être l’une des suivantes : la version prépublication de l’auteur, la version acceptée du manuscrit ou la version de l’éditeur. Access and use of this website and the material on it are subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth at

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The water absorption and water vapor permeability of clear organic coatings

The water absorption and water vapor permeability of clear organic coatings

This publication could be one of several versions: author’s original, accepted manuscript or the publisher’s version. / La version de cette publication peut être l’une des suivantes : la version prépublication de l’auteur, la version acceptée du manuscrit ou la version de l’éditeur. Access and use of this website and the material on it are subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth at

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Desalination of brackish groundwater to improve water quality and water supply

Desalination of brackish groundwater to improve water quality and water supply

the desalination landscape, as the electricity generated by new solar and wind power projects is becoming cheaper than the electricity generated by new coal and gas power plants around the world. According to a 2019 report from the business intelligence company Bloomberg NEF [ 40 ], recent onshore wind and solar power plants have achieved parity with average wholesale prices in parts of Europe, California and China, some of the world’s largest markets. The ex- pected levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of recently financed solar projects ranges from 0.027–0.036 $/kWh in India, Chile, and Australia [ 40 ] and is less than 0.020 $/kWh in California, the U.A.E. and Portugal [ 41 ]. In the U.S., the average LCOE of wind power dropped from 0.070 $/kWh in 2009 to less than 0.020 $/kWh in 2017 [ 42 ]. The cost-competitiveness of wind and solar power has motivated increased development of large-scale desalination plants powered by renewable energy, in addition to the already implemented small-scale systems 5 [ 35 ]. Brazil’s Agua Doce Program consists of brackish water desalination sys- tems powered by PV that aim to provide high quality water to 500,000 people in the semi-arid region of Brazil [ 37 ]. The Arabian Gulf is increasingly shifting its entire desalination infrastructure to PV, with such RO plants operating at up to 100,000 m 3 /day in Saudi Arabia [ 36 ]. Australia contains wind-powered RO
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Climate change and water availability in north-west Algeria: investigation by stable water isotopes and dendrochronology

Climate change and water availability in north-west Algeria: investigation by stable water isotopes and dendrochronology

Materials and methods Water stable isotopes In order to determine the water origin, the tributaries and springs of the Tafna River as well as different groundwaters were sampled, put in capped vials (10 mL for water) and sent to Iso-Analytical Ltd, Sandbach, UK. Oxygen-18 analysis of the samples was performed in triplicate by equilibration with carbon dioxide in septum-capped contain- ers. Deuterium analysis of the samples was performed in triplicate by equilibration with hydrogen gas catalysed by platinum in septum-capped containers. The head spaces of the containers were subsequently measured on a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer system (Europa Scientific ANCA-GSL and GEO 20–20 IRMS). The equipment was calibrated by using two water standards that are traceable to the primary reference standards V-SMOW2 (Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water) and V-SLAP2 (Vienna-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) distributed by the IAEA, Vienna. A third traceable water standard was analysed alongside the samples to check the accu- racy of the data.
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Towards sustainable water management in Algeria (2012) Desalination and Water Treatment

Towards sustainable water management in Algeria (2012) Desalination and Water Treatment

ABSTRACT: Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria's 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country's water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by
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Water orientation and hydrogen-bond structure at the fluorite/water interface

Water orientation and hydrogen-bond structure at the fluorite/water interface

interface by the Richmond group 6,7 have revealed dramatic changes in the interfacial hydrogen bonding structure upon changing the pH of the aqueous phase. In particular at low pH, the VSFG experiments have suggested that positive charge develops on the surface, causing orientation of water molecules into highly ordered, tetrahedrally coordinated states. At near-neutral pH, the VSFG signal vanishes and this has been interpreted as the result of a more random orientation of the interfacial water molecules at a near-neutral surface. Finally in the basic pH regime dissociative adsorption was hypothesised to take place on the solid surface resulting in the formation of Ca-OH species. Open questions are still: how do these OH groups contribute to the VSFG spectrum? What type of order is established in the interfacial water region?
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Water, arroyos, and blackouts : exploring political ecologies of water and the state in Barranquilla

Water, arroyos, and blackouts : exploring political ecologies of water and the state in Barranquilla

175 Finally, faulty readings can be a result of technician error either by inflating meter readings or not performing individual meter readings but using rough estimates based on the average consumption of the sector. In some cases, like in Celina’s, these faulty readings were easy to prove. After receiving two very high bills Celina, from barrio Paraíso, wrote down the consumption she had been reading in her water meter which differed from what was billed. After she spoke with Agustín, he advised her to gather her last three bills and to take a picture of the meter with her cellphone, making sure that the meter’s serial number was visible. She also needed to make sure that there was a witness who could corroborate the dates when the pictures were taken by signing a sworn and notarized statement. He also advised her to file the formal complaint as soon as possible. This, because the moment a formal complaint is filed, the utility cannot suspend the service until a decision is made regarding it. After Celina came back, Agustín’s niece Leonor printed the pictures and provided a template of a sworn statement for the witness to fill in. She also pointed Celina to a nearby notary to have it signed and notarized. Agustín charged the usual COP $10,000 ($5.51 in constant 2016 USD) and then dictated the document to his assistant, made photocopies of the bills and of Celina’s identity card and filed all the documents at Triple A on the next day. He and Celina made an appointment for 16 days later, when they visited Triple A together, to find out that the process was ruled in favor of Celina. Since the original bill was for COP $125,000 ($68.9 in constant 2016 USD), Agustín received $25,000 ($13.8 in constant 2016 USD) in cash.
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Water quality and water-use conflicts in Lake Taabo (Ivory Coast)

Water quality and water-use conflicts in Lake Taabo (Ivory Coast)

therefore exposed to severe anthropic pressure leading to weakening of the ecosystem, and disruption of the bal- ance between the various uses of water. In conflicts over water use (Figure 1) it appears that socio-economic driv- ers, the services expected, and the problems directly linked to water use are both interdependent and contra- dictory. This study, carried out on Lake Taabo reflects these conflicts over water use in a region currently un- dergoing rapid development. On the basis of the water quality data measured, this study draws up an inventory of the topics that are leading to problems and the indica- tor parameters, which constitutes a first step towards finding solutions in the medium term, with regard to de- velopment, sustainable management and monitoring of water resources.
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18 ̊water : thermal and dynamical balances

18 ̊water : thermal and dynamical balances

cycle was subjected to a "severe" winter he found that although ero- sion into the main thermocline occurred, it was minimized because the seasonal thermocline had [r]

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Europa and Ganymede's Water-Product Exospheres

Europa and Ganymede's Water-Product Exospheres

pansion. One mechanism could be O2 collisions with the background H 2 O and H 2 atmosphere mentioned above. Additionally, the interaction with the Io-plasma torus could result in ion-neutral scattering of the near- surface component, enhancing escape rates, which are uncertain at the present. At Ganymede, [2] showed that uncertainties in water vapor sublimation fluxes can produce vastly different behavior of the H 2 O col-

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