Haut PDF Energy efficieny routing protocols for wireless sensor networks : Contribution to lifetime maximisation

Energy efficieny routing protocols for wireless sensor networks : Contribution to lifetime maximisation

Energy efficieny routing protocols for wireless sensor networks : Contribution to lifetime maximisation

94 CHAPTER 4. HIERARCHICAL ROUTING ALGORITHMS CONTRIBUTIONS 4.4 Reducing Cluster Control Energy technique for heterogeneous networks In order to enhance the network lifetime by the period of a particular mission, many routing protocols have been proposed. SEP [G. Smaragdakis, 2004] is a proposed scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is composed of two types of nodes according to the initial energy. The advanced nodes are equipped with more energy than the normal nodes at the beginning. This technique prolongs the stability period, which is defined as the time until the first node failure. DEEC [L. Qing, 2006] is a distributed clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. In DEEC the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. In the last cited works, for each round, a new cluster-heads are chosen, so, many control messages are exchanged between these CHs and their closest nodes to form the clusters. These control messages makes a some energy lost. Kumar et al. [D. Kumar, 2009] proposed the EEHC: Energy efficient heterogeneous clustered scheme for wireless sensor networks. This scheme permits to extend the lifetime of a network that presents three degrees of heterogeneity. This heterogeneity concerns the initial resource energy of the node. The authors assumed the case where a three population of nodes based on their initial energy: Normal, advanced and supper nodes. Rather than LEACH, EEHC adapted the election process of cluster heads appropriately to deal with heterogeneous nodes, which means that not all the nodes in the field have the same initial energy. So, for each type of nodes, an optimal pourcentage to become cluster-head is defined. This work still an extension of SEP protocol since it adds only another node type in this study, the principle is the same.
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Improving Decision-Making for Fuzzy Logic-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Improving Decision-Making for Fuzzy Logic-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract—The task of routing data from a source node to the base station is a critical issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Fuzzy logic is the main proposal of a number of papers in the literature as an effective method for making decisions to transfer data towards the destination. Although fuzzy logic has a very important role in designing routing protocols for WSNs, identifying its fuzzy sets and defining best possible rules is a complex challenge. This paper introduces Improved-fuzzy logic (I-fuzzy), a simple and effective method that helps to address the weakness of fuzzy logic in terms of defining rules. The I- fuzzy method is tested in several scenarios by using GloMosim simulator and compared to a classic fuzzy logic approach and to a traditional minimum hop routing. The results show that the I-Fuzzy method outperforms the other approaches in terms of data delivery, energy conservation and load distribution.
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A Location Routing Protocol Based on Smart Antennas for Wireless Sensor Networks

A Location Routing Protocol Based on Smart Antennas for Wireless Sensor Networks

In [9], the authors propose a new family of protocols that try maximizing efficiency and minimizing energy consumption by favouring certain paths of local data transmission towards the sink by using switched beam antennas at the nodes. Just like flooding, the protocol requires nodes to forward every new incoming packet, avoiding network resources depletion by restricting the nodes that receive and hence retransmit the message with the use of switched beam antennas. The mechanism that controls this propagation of information is the following; during the initialization phase of the network, the base station transmits a beacon frame with adequate power to be able to reach all the network’s nodes. Each node switches among its diverse beams and finds the one that delivers the best signal. After the initialization phase, the nodes will use this beam only for transmitting data, and they will use the beam lying on the opposite side of the plane only for receiving data. During normal operation, nodes retransmit every new incoming packet that has not received before. Figure 2.8 shows a conceptual representation of the protocol.
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Exploiting redundancy for energy-efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks

Exploiting redundancy for energy-efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract —Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used today in many applications that differ in their ob- jectives and specific constraints. The common challenge in designing WSN applications comes from the specific constraints of sensors because of their limited physical resources such as weak computational capability, small memory capacity, and especially limited battery. In this paper, we consider sensor redundancy in WSN and we conduct an experimental study to better highlight the importance of its exploitation. We also implement OER ’Optimization of Energy based on Redundancy’, a protocol that exploits redundancy in order to save energy. Moreover, we extend OER by a fault tolerance mechanism. Through extensive simulations, we show how OER combined with FTMOer outperforms tradi- tional routing protocols that do not exploit redundancy.
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Network lifetime management in wireless sensor networks

Network lifetime management in wireless sensor networks

which leads to the “big data” problem. In addition to that, the connectivity between the nodes and their different manu- facturers/producers stands as a crucial objective. Moreover, most of the IoT system’s associated devices appear to suffer from a low battery life. As nodes are most often deployed in very peculiar sites, the access to theirs power supply stand as a very serious problem for the node. In this respect, the entirety of the network’s lifetime would be affected. The lifetime of the network is defined as the period of time that the node could live and be able to well communicate with the other member of the network, in our work the lifetime is just linked to the energy problem without considering the other sources of the node’s death. For this reason, several research works, including this present work, have been established in order to resolve such issue such as the energy trouble and the problem relating to the network’s data transmission associated faults [7]. The IoT is manipulated in a large domains and sectors, namely, the healthcare systems, transportation, agriculture, home moni- toring and industry. This need for minimum energy consump- tion with maintaining an efficient wireless communication, lead to the apparence of the Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR WPAN) scheme [4]. In its full version, the latter is dedicated to defining the network with respect to the low power consumption, range, as well as throughput. As part of the Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), the LR-WPAN appears to display various benefits, mainly, ease of installation, short-range operation, remarkably low costs, reliable information-transmission procedure, moderate energy consumption, along with a selection of noticeably flexible protocols [8]. Our paper is organised by the way that section 2 presents a general overview about the standard IEEE 802.15.4. In the third section, a related work, about some other approaches which interest to same issu, is provided. In the next section, Both the proposed methods are explained. Section 5, presents the different simulation results. Then, the validation concept is described through the section 6. in the last section this paper is concluded.
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RTXP: A Localized Real-Time MAC-Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

RTXP: A Localized Real-Time MAC-Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

firstname.lastname@insa-lyon.fr ABSTRACT Protocols developed during the last years for Wireless Sen- sor Networks (WSNs) are mainly focused on energy effi- ciency and autonomous mechanisms (e.g. self-organization, self-configuration, etc). Nevertheless, with new WSN appli- cations, new QoS requirements appear, such as time con- straints. Real-time applications require the packets to be delivered before a known time bound which depends on the application requirements. We particularly focus on appli- cations which consist in alarms sent to the sink node. We propose Real-Time X-layer Protocol (RTXP), a real-time communication protocol. RTXP is a MAC and routing real- time communication protocol that is not centralized, but instead relies only on local information. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first real-time protocol for WSNs us- ing an opportunistic routing scheme in order to increase the packet delivery ratio. In this paper we describe the protocol mechanisms. We give theoretical bounds on the end-to-end delay and the capacity of the protocol. Intensive simulation results confirm the theoretical predictions and allow to com- pare RTXP with a real-time scheduled solution. RTXP is also simulated under harsh radio channel, in this case, the ra- dio link introduces probabilistic behavior. Nevertheless, we show that RTXP performs better than a non-deterministic solution. It thus advocates for the usefulness of designing real-time (deterministic) protocols even for highly unreliable networks such as WSNs.
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PiRAT: Pivot Routing for Alarm Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks

PiRAT: Pivot Routing for Alarm Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks

Figure 12 shows the participation of all the nodes in the routing process for the PiRAT protocol. The pivot nodes selected by the sources are represented using dashed circles. The routes from the sources to the destination avoid the central area in order to reduce congestion. The probabilistic nature of PiRAT can be seen as each node uses several paths to reach a given destination (either the pivot node or the sink). While the shortcut tree routing protocol used 21 nodes, PiRAT uses a total of 42 nodes. Thus, PiRAT doubles the number of nodes used, and then, it reduces the amount of the transmitted packets per node. This leads to reduce the overloaded paths and balance the energy consumption of the nodes. This phenomenon greatly improves the network lifetime.
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Maximally Radio-Disjoint Multipath Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Maximally Radio-Disjoint Multipath Routing for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

ter suitable to mesh networks while they are not adapted to WSN due to the overhead and energy consumption needed for channel switching. In this paper, we consider the problem of interfering paths in WMSN. We assume that only one channel is available and thus we do not address intra-path interferences. Instead, we focus on inter-path interferences and consider both intra- session (for one source) and inter-session (typically, multiple sources) interferences. Our main objective is to provide nec- essary bandwidth to multimedia applications through non- interfering (radio disjoint [7]) paths while increasing the net- work lifetime. To achieve our twofold goal, we chose to adopt an incremental approach where only one path is built at once for a given session. Additional paths are built when required, typically in case of path congestion or lack of bandwidth. When a given path is selected to be used, all nodes interfer- ing with it are put in a passive state. Passive nodes do not further take part in the routing process so they could not be used to form a new path that consequently, will not interfere with previously built ones. Moreover, passive nodes can be put in sleep or idle modes, thus allowing for energy saving and hence increasing the network lifetime.
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Pivot Routing Improves Wireless Sensor Networks Performance

Pivot Routing Improves Wireless Sensor Networks Performance

Index Terms—Pivot routing, congestion, packet loss, end- to-end delay, node usage, load-balancing. I. I NTRODUCTION Most wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of cheap battery-powered devices that are able to sense their environment and to communicate with each other in a wireless manner. Their low-cost and energetic autonomy has enabled environmental monitoring applications to emerge in the recent years. For instance, WSNs have been used for wildlife tracking [1] and monitoring [2]. In order to last for years with the current technology, it is crucial to save nodes energy in a WSN. As the radio module of a sensor node generally needs several times more energy than its processor [3], many researchers have focused on implementing energy-efficient communication protocols, where sensor nodes go to sleep mode periodically.
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Communications protocols for wireless sensor networks in perturbed environment

Communications protocols for wireless sensor networks in perturbed environment

Given the extent of certain Hydro-Quebec HV substations, the first solution may be dif- ficult to exploit. The energy constraints linked to the sensors must always be taken into account. For this purpose, we propose a second solution based on multi-antenna tech- niques (MIMO). MIMO systems achieve both very high spectral efficiency and effectively combat signal fading. The general idea is to take advantage of the spatial dimension of the channel and exploit multiple paths rather than deleting them. MIMO systems are very efficient because they can use all the techniques of SISO transmissions, in addition to their techniques. MIMO systems have several advantages that can be employed to reduce the transmission energy in the sensor networks for the same transmission reliability and rate. However, because of the limited size of the sensor, the direct application of MIMO is difficult. Given the constraint above, the solution is to consider the principle of sen- sors cooperation (or cooperative MIMO) to achieve MIMO transmission. The principle is to form virtual antennas in order to transmit using a MIMO technique. This solution is particularly attractive when very simple nodes are spatially distributed in a multi-path environment. Our contribution is the proposal of a closed-loop coded cooperative MIMO system based on the concatenation of rank metric and convolutional code with max −dmin precoder. The results obtained show not only that the performance concerning BER are improved but also the energy consumption has been reduced.
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Network lifetime management in wireless sensor networks

Network lifetime management in wireless sensor networks

which leads to the “big data” problem. In addition to that, the connectivity between the nodes and their different manu- facturers/producers stands as a crucial objective. Moreover, most of the IoT system’s associated devices appear to suffer from a low battery life. As nodes are most often deployed in very peculiar sites, the access to theirs power supply stand as a very serious problem for the node. In this respect, the entirety of the network’s lifetime would be affected. The lifetime of the network is defined as the period of time that the node could live and be able to well communicate with the other member of the network, in our work the lifetime is just linked to the energy problem without considering the other sources of the node’s death. For this reason, several research works, including this present work, have been established in order to resolve such issue such as the energy trouble and the problem relating to the network’s data transmission associated faults [7]. The IoT is manipulated in a large domains and sectors, namely, the healthcare systems, transportation, agriculture, home moni- toring and industry. This need for minimum energy consump- tion with maintaining an efficient wireless communication, lead to the apparence of the Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR WPAN) scheme [4]. In its full version, the latter is dedicated to defining the network with respect to the low power consumption, range, as well as throughput. As part of the Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), the LR-WPAN appears to display various benefits, mainly, ease of installation, short-range operation, remarkably low costs, reliable information-transmission procedure, moderate energy consumption, along with a selection of noticeably flexible protocols [8]. Our paper is organised by the way that section 2 presents a general overview about the standard IEEE 802.15.4. In the third section, a related work, about some other approaches which interest to same issu, is provided. In the next section, Both the proposed methods are explained. Section 5, presents the different simulation results. Then, the validation concept is described through the section 6. in the last section this paper is concluded.
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2019 — Communications protocols for wireless sensor networks in perturbed environment

2019 — Communications protocols for wireless sensor networks in perturbed environment

Given the extent of certain Hydro-Quebec HV substations, the first solution may be dif- ficult to exploit. The energy constraints linked to the sensors must always be taken into account. For this purpose, we propose a second solution based on multi-antenna tech- niques (MIMO). MIMO systems achieve both very high spectral efficiency and effectively combat signal fading. The general idea is to take advantage of the spatial dimension of the channel and exploit multiple paths rather than deleting them. MIMO systems are very efficient because they can use all the techniques of SISO transmissions, in addition to their techniques. MIMO systems have several advantages that can be employed to reduce the transmission energy in the sensor networks for the same transmission reliability and rate. However, because of the limited size of the sensor, the direct application of MIMO is difficult. Given the constraint above, the solution is to consider the principle of sen- sors cooperation (or cooperative MIMO) to achieve MIMO transmission. The principle is to form virtual antennas in order to transmit using a MIMO technique. This solution is particularly attractive when very simple nodes are spatially distributed in a multi-path environment. Our contribution is the proposal of a closed-loop coded cooperative MIMO system based on the concatenation of rank metric and convolutional code with max −dmin precoder. The results obtained show not only that the performance concerning BER are improved but also the energy consumption has been reduced.
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Dependable Routing Protocol Considering the k-Coverage Problem for Wireless Sensor Networks

Dependable Routing Protocol Considering the k-Coverage Problem for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract—Fault tolerance and periodical changes of the network topology are two important attributes that should be carefully designed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In this paper we propose a new routing protocol for improving fault tolerance of WSN which takes into consideration the measurement accuracy requirements (expressed as a lower limit on k-coverage) and network performance. The main idea of the k-coverage problem is to schedule the sleeping time of sensors in order to preserve their energy and maximize network lifetime. The proposed routing protocol offers a protection against link and node failures by computing k disjoint paths. It also takes into account the changes of the network topology caused by the scheduling of sensor sleeping.
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RTXP : A Localized Real-Time Mac-Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

RTXP : A Localized Real-Time Mac-Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Research Report n° 7978 — version 2 † — initial version May 2012 — revised version March 2013 — 29 pages Abstract: Protocols developed during the last years for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are mainly focused on energy efficiency and autonomous mechanisms (e.g. self-organization, self- configuration, etc). Nevertheless, with new WSN applications, appear new QoS requirements such as time constraints. Real-time applications require the packets to be delivered before a known time bound which depends on the application requirements. We particularly focus on applications which consist in alarms sent to the sink node. We propose Real-Time X-layer Protocol (RTXP), a real-time communication protocol. To the best of our knowledge, RTXP is the first MAC and routing real-time communication protocol that is not centralized, but instead relies only on local information. The solution is cross-layer (X-layer) because it allows to control the delays due to MAC and Routing layers interactions. RTXP uses a suited hop-count-based Virtual Coordinate System which allows deterministic medium access and forwarder selection. In this paper we describe the protocol mechanisms. We give theoretical bound on the end-to-end delay and the capacity of the protocol. Intensive simulation results confirm the theoretical predictions and allow to compare with a real-time centralized solution. RTXP is also simulated under harsh radio channel, in this case the radio link introduces probabilistic behavior. Nevertheless, we show that RTXP it performs better than a non-deterministic solution. It thus advocates for the usefulness of designing real-time (deterministic) protocols even for highly unreliable networks such as WSNs.
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Random Walk Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Random Walk Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Many earlier recent research efforts have raised this vision by focusing primarily on basic properties of random walks. For example, in [14] the authors addressed the problem of data gathering in large-scale WSNs with static sensor nodes and one mobile collector node that performs a random walk on a square lattice. Whenever the collector node enters the transmission range of a sensor node, the data are collected. In this context, the authors derived analytical bounds for the expected number of distinct visited sensor nodes within a given time frame. To improve this performance metric, they proposed a practical algorithm that constrains the ran- dom walk and validated it by simulations. Constrained ran- dom walk techniques, already suggested in [19] for multi- path routing, have the advantage to achieve load balancing property in uncontrolled dynamics characterized by random ON-OFF transitions to save energy. Besides the load bal- ancing property, which is difficult to achieve for other rout- ing protocols, it is also proven in [20] that a random walk based routing in regular patterned WSNs consumes the same amount of energy as the shortest path routing provided that messages are of small size, which characterizes many WSN applications.
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Energy efficient cluster-based routing in wireless sensor networks

Energy efficient cluster-based routing in wireless sensor networks

Abstract—Because of the lack of a global naming scheme, routing protocols in sensor networks usually use flooding to select paths and deliver data. This process although simple and effective, is very costly in terms of energy consumption, an important design issue in sensor networks routing protocols. Cluster-based routing is one solution to save energy. In this paper, we propose a combination of an improved clustering algorithm and directed diffusion, a well-known data-centric routing paradigm in sensor networks. Our aim is to prolong the network lifetime by modifying passive clustering rules for building/maintaining the topology so an energy load balancing is achieved among the network nodes. We performed extensive computer simulations and showed that our solution outperforms original directed diffusion as well as when it is combined to passive clustering without energy considerations.
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Energy-efficient cooperative relay protocols for wireless sensor networks

Energy-efficient cooperative relay protocols for wireless sensor networks

Energy is really not only a crucial factor for economic competitiveness and employment but also a vital key for human life. In fact, adequate and affordable energy supplies are significant to economic development and energy is indispensable to most industrial and commercial wealth. It is a sign for relieving poverty, improving human welfare and raising living standard. However, like the other resources (e.g. water, minerals, etc.) energy is limited. In addition, that energy needs nowadays increase quickly leads to many problems such as greenhouse effects, resource depletion, etc. Consequently, scientists have recently focused on the sustainable development (i.e. development that meets the needs of the present without promising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs). Therefore, sustainable energy defined as energy which is replenishable within a human lifetime and causes no long-term damage to the environment is a very hot topic. It includes renewable energy and energy efficiency. Renewable energy terminology (i.e. green energy) focuses on the ability of an energy source to continue providing energy without any significant negative impact to the environment. On the other hand, moving towards energy sustainability will require changes not only in the way energy is supplied, but in the way it is used with the objective of reducing the amount of required energy. It relates to energy efficiency that represents the main interest of this thesis.
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Tee: Traffic-based Energy Estimators for duty cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

Tee: Traffic-based Energy Estimators for duty cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

Keywords—Wireless Sensors Networks, Internet of Things. I. I NTRODUCTION A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network formed by tiny devices, with limited computation, storage and com- munication capabilities, whose role is to report measurements. In classical surveillance and monitoring scenarios [1], these devices self-organize to form a multi-hop wireless network around a central, more powerful node, that either plays the role of a gateway towards a more classical network, or acts as a data collection point. As wireless sensor nodes are generally deployed for long-lasting operations, dynamically adapting nodes parameters to satisfy lifetime objectives is a key feature. In most of research works, the WSN gateway has been seen as the source or destination of most application traffic. It plays the role of a reference node for several protocols (e.g., Routing Protocol for Low-power and lossy links, RPL, [2] or slotted 802.15.4 [3] MAC protocol). More recently, the gateway has been considered as a full network orchestrator that sets routes and organizes medium access, like in the 6TiSCH [4] group at IETF, where the aim is to manage label-switched networks
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A multipath energy-conserving routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks lifetime improvement

A multipath energy-conserving routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks lifetime improvement

In recent years, the research community has focused on the improvement of ad hoc routing, with the development of several routing mechanisms. Multipath routing seems to be an effective mechanism in ad hoc networks with high mobility and high load to guard against the problem of frequent changes of the network topology caused mainly by link failures. The concept of multipath routing is that the source node is given the choice between multiple paths to reach a given destination. The multiple paths can be used alternately; the data traffic takes a single path at one time or several paths simultaneously. A multipath between a source and destination must be chosen wisely so that a path failure does not disturb other paths as less as possible. There are two types of disjoint paths: link disjoint paths and node disjoint paths. Node disjoint paths have no node in common except the source and destination. Link disjoint paths have no common links, while they may share some nodes. Any path of a multipath can be used to transmit a data packet between a source and a destination. Thus to maximize the data flow and to get a larger share of the network bandwidth, the data packets of a flow between a source and a destination can be split between the paths [12]. Multipath routing is highly suitable for multimedia applications, to ensure secure transmission and it is proposed for industrial ad hoc networks for improving reliability and determinacy of data transmission. Another benefit of multipath routing protocols is the reduction of the routing overhead, for which several multipath routing protocols have been developed [8,13–15]; these works propose a single path discovery process able to build several link or node disjoint routes towards the destination based on broadcast requests. The approaches in [16,17] are improvements of single path routing protocols. They contribute in reducing delays and increasing throughput because they resist node mobility in comparison with single path approaches.
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HarvWSNet: A co-simulation framework for energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

HarvWSNet: A co-simulation framework for energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

2 IRISA/INRIA - University of Rennes 1, Lannion, France Abstract—Recent advances in energy harvesting (EH) tech- nologies now allow wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to extend their lifetime by scavenging the energy available in their en- vironment. While simulation is the most widely used method to design and evaluate network protocols for WSNs, existing network simulators are not adapted to the simulation of EH- WSNs and most of them provide only a simple linear battery model. Therefore, there is a need for a framework suited to EH-WSN simulation and to lifetime prediction. We propose a co-simulation framework, HarvWSNet, based on WSNet and Matlab, that provides adequate tools for the simulation of the network protocols and the lifetime of EH-WSN. Indeed, the framework allows for the simulation of multi-node network scenarios while including a detailed description of each node’s energy harvesting, management subsystem and its time-varying environmental parameters. A simulation case study based on a temperature monitoring application demonstrates HarvWSNet’s ability to predict network lifetime while minimally penalizing simulation time.
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