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Clinical-genetic model predicts incident impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease

Clinical-genetic model predicts incident impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease

ABSTRACT Objectives: Impulse control disorders (ICD) are commonly associated with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Our aims were to estimate ICD heritability, and to predict ICD by a candidate genetic multivariable panel in PD patients. Methods: Data from de novo PD patients, drug-naïve, and free of ICD behaviour at baseline were obtained from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative cohort. Incident ICD behaviour was defined as positive score on the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in PD. ICD heritability was estimated by restricted maximum likelihood analysis on whole exome sequencing data. Thirteen candidate variants were selected from the DRD2,
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Longitudinal analysis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease

Longitudinal analysis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease

To investigate the longitudinal dose-effect relationship between dopamine replacement therapy and impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods We used data from a multicenter longitudinal cohort of consecutive patients with PD with ≤5 years’ disease duration at baseline followed up annually up to 5 years. ICDs were evaluated during face-to- face semistructured interviews with movement disorder specialists. Generalized estimating equations and Poisson models with robust variance were used to study the association between several time- dependent de finitions of dopamine agonist (DA) use, taking dose and duration of treatment into account, and ICDs at each visit. Other antiparkinsonian drugs were also examined.
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Exome Sequencing Reveals Signal Transduction Genes Involved in Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Exome Sequencing Reveals Signal Transduction Genes Involved in Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Prud’hon et al. Genetics of ICDs in PD INTRODUCTION Impulse control disorders (ICDs) and related behaviors are defined by the failure to resist an impulse to perform a self- rewarding act that will cause longer-term harm to oneself or others. Their prevalence is estimated between 1 and 3% in the general population while it raised up to 17% in treated Parkinsonian patients ( 1 , 2 ). Common manifestations in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are pathological gambling (PG), hypersexuality, and compulsive eating and buying. Clinical risk factors associated with ICDs in PD include younger age, younger age of PD onset, unmarried status, current smoking, novelty seeking traits, and family history of gambling ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). Above all, ICDs in PD are strongly associated with the dopamine replacement therapy as demonstrated by a similar prevalence of ICDs in untreated Parkinsonian patients as compared to healthy controls ( 5 ) and their independent association with dopaminergic drugs, particularly dopamine agonists ( 1 ).
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Is RBD a risk factor for impulse control disorder in Parkinson's disease?

Is RBD a risk factor for impulse control disorder in Parkinson's disease?

0.58 † Antidepressant use [nb (%)] 75 (18.7) 28 (28.0) 47 (15.6) 0.006 † RBD medication use [nb (%)] 19 (4.7) 10 (10.0) 9 (3.0) 0.004 † PD = Parkinson’s disease; RBD: REM sleep behavior disorder; yrs.= years; med= median; SD: standard deviation; nb: number; H&Y: Hoehn and Yahr Stage; MDS-UPDRS: Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease rating Scale; LEDD: Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose, DA: dopaminergic agonist, GDS-15: Geriatric Depression Scale;  according to GDS-15 score  5; ICB: Impulse Control disorder Behaviors; ICD4: according to the Questionnaire for Impulse Compulsive disorder in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP, impulse control disorders including pathological gambling, compulsive eating, compulsive sexual behavior and compulsive shopping; ICD-RB: ICD-related behaviors including punding, hobbyism and walkabout.
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Predicting Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: A Challenging Task

Predicting Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: A Challenging Task

Optimal hyperparameter values are computed on the training set using grid search, and predictive performance is evaluated on the test set. The mean and standard[r]

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Sleep in disorders of consciousness

Sleep in disorders of consciousness

VEGETATIVE STATE Only a few research groups have written about sleep in VS (Table 2). Compared to the healthy control group, only minor sleep alterations were found in 9 traumatic patients with good outcome and no sleep patterns were found in one permanent VS patient. 36 In another study it was brought to light that patients "in the last remission stages" went through all sleep stages with an increase of total sleep time and the amount of all sleep stages in comparison to patients "in the first remission stages" of VS. 37 As discussed above, spindle activity may be related to both injury severity and recovery. Evidence of spindles, although always reduced in density and duration, was found in 11 out of 20 traumatic and 3 out of 10 hypoxic VS patients. 38 In addition, the authors showed an increase of spindle density from 5 to 12 per min paralleling the clinical recovery of traumatic patients. As for coma, these results suggest spindles as potential markers of good outcome in VS but more studies are warranted.
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Traceability of impulse test for diagnostic measurements of power apparatus

Traceability of impulse test for diagnostic measurements of power apparatus

II. SENSORS FOR IMPULSE MEASUREMENT To be able to measure the impulse voltage and current dedicated voltage dividers and shunts are used. These are specially designed and constructed to be able to measure fast impulses. The frequency band width of these devices should be high enough to cover the frequency spectrum of the applied impulse. These device should not only be able to measure the correct peak value, but also give a exact representation of the waveform, without interference due to EMI and other disturbances. The devices should be corona free. The location and measurement arrangement of the sensors are very important. The voltage divider should be connected to the test object by its own lead directly to the test object. By doing so
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Swallowing in disorders of consciousness

Swallowing in disorders of consciousness

– Cet article pre´sente une revue de la litte´rature concernant l’e´valuation et la prise en charge des troubles de la de´glutition chez les patients en e´tat de conscience alte´re´e, un[r]

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Interpolation of room impulse responses in 3d using compressed sensing

Interpolation of room impulse responses in 3d using compressed sensing

4 Conclusion Starting from a random array with a small number of mi- crophones, and exploiting two sparsity assumptions of the acoustic wavefield in reverberating room (sparsity in frequen- cy and sparsity in time), we have shown that it is possible to use the Compressed Sensing framework to interpolate in space the Room Impulse Responses. Consequently, we can seperately sample the low frequencies and the early reflec- tions of the Plenacoustic Function (respectively part A and part B of fig. 1), but using the same measures. Then, part C can be synthesized using a stochastic model (cf. [2]).
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Investigation of the stray field of a minesweeping impulse generator

Investigation of the stray field of a minesweeping impulse generator

Archives des publications du CNRC Access and use of this website and the material on it are subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth at Investigation of the stray field of a minesweeping impulse generator Kusters, N. L.; Morris, R. M.; Pedersen, B. O.

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The renewable resource management nexus: impulse versus continuous harvesting policies

The renewable resource management nexus: impulse versus continuous harvesting policies

This allows us to laim that our model is a meta-model. The link between these models an be expressed through their responsiveness to the submodularity ondition. Re ent bioe onomi models have strengthened the importan e of un ertainty , for example linked to whether onditions or to the availability of sto ks. F urther resear h ould in lude su h un ertainty and also onsider the manager's risk aversion in a similar impulse ontrol framework. E onometri appli ations ould help to he k whether ontinuous or dis rete representations of the harvest

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Sleep in Disorders of Consciousness

Sleep in Disorders of Consciousness

Sleep in Disorders of Consciousness M. Schabus¹ ,2 , V. Cologan², K. Weilhart¹, N. Chwala¹, C. Pelikan¹, K. Hödlmoser¹, W. Klimesch¹, P. Maquet², & S. Laureys² ¹Laboratory for Sleep and Consciousness Research, Dept. Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria 2 Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Centre and Neurology Department, University of Liège, Belgium

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Convex regularizations for the simultaneous recording of room impulse responses

Convex regularizations for the simultaneous recording of room impulse responses

deconvolved (linear) impulse response. ” This metric implicitly assumes that the difference between the estimated RIR and the true RIR is a stationary signal, so that the amount of noise and distortion in the tail is proportional to the total estimation error. In the underdetermined context considered in this paper, the linear inverse problem (2) admits infinitely many solutions, most of which are completely inconsistent with this assump- tion. Therefore we chose a performance measure that reflects the estimation accuracy with respect to the ground truth. As a

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Impulse-Response and CAD-Model-Based Physical Modeling in Faust

Impulse-Response and CAD-Model-Based Physical Modeling in Faust

We plan to improve IR2dsp.py by using a better T60 measurement algorithm. Indeed, the T60 of each mode is currently computed by measuring its bandwidth after taking the FFT of the entire impulse response. A better approach would be to extract this information from a time-frequency representation of the sig- nal (i.e., spectrogram), which would be more accurate.

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Protein translation and psychiatric disorders

Protein translation and psychiatric disorders

Concluding Remarks Aberrant synaptic plasticity is a common feature found in a number of psychiatric disorders, including addiction. As experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength are controlled in part by rapid local translation of mRNAs at synaptic sites, it is likely that impaired local translation is a central point for abnormal synaptic function and a common feature in the mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. For example, impairments in mTORC1 function have been associated with a variety of psychiatric diseases such as MDD, SZ, and BD and addiction, even though each of these disorders has different characteristics and symptoms (Fig. 7). Interestingly, mTORC1 signaling is also linked to the mechanism of action of diverse classes of drugs of abuse, that is, psychostimulants, opiates, alcohol, and cannabis (Fig. 7). It is therefore intriguing that different drugs of abuse, by activating different receptors and downstream signaling pathways, converge on mTORC1 to induce maladaptive synaptic plasticity to promote addiction-related behaviors. Although the precise mechanisms underlying drug-dependent modulation of mTORC1 activity and the consequent modifications in synaptic plasticity are only beginning to be understood, all these findings point toward mTORC1 as being a key effector of drug of abuse-dependent neuroadaptations. As mTORC1 is a master regulator of local dendritic translation and synaptic plasticity, it is not surprising that impaired synaptic plasticity through mTORC1, underlies the development of numerous psychiatric disorders (Fig. 7).
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Innovative Therapies for Hemoglobin Disorders

Innovative Therapies for Hemoglobin Disorders

ABSTRACT -globin gene transfer has been used as a paradigm for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy, but is subject to major difficulties, such as the lack of selection of genetically corrected HSCs, the need for high-level expression of the therapeutic gene, and cell-specific transgene expression. It took more than 40 years for scientists and physicians to advance from the cloning of globin gene and discovering globin gene mutations to improving our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved, the detection of genetic modifiers, the development of animal models and gene transfer vectors, comprehensive animal testing, and demonstrations of phenotypic improvement in clinical trials, culminating in the authorization of the first gene therapy product for -thalassemia in 2019. Research has focused mostly on the development of lentiviral gene therapy vectors expressing variants of the -globin gene, or more recently targeting a -globin repressor, some of which have entered clinical testing and should soon diversify the available treatments and promote price competition. These results are encouraging, but we have yet to reach the end of the story. New molecular and cellular tools, such as gene editing or the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, are being developed, heralding the emergence of alternative products, the efficacy and safety of which are being studied. Hemoglobin disorders constitute an important model for testing the pros and cons of these advanced technologies, some of which are already in the clinical phase. In this review, we focus on the development of the advanced products, and recent technological innovations which could lead to clinical trials in the near future, and provide hope for a definitive cure of these severe conditions.
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EUAs and CERs : Vector autoregression, impulse response function and cointegration analysis

EUAs and CERs : Vector autoregression, impulse response function and cointegration analysis

4.4.1 Shocks analysis: Impulse Response Functions Figure 2 shows the results of the IRF analysis. We observe that both price series react rapidly (at time t = 2) and positively to a shock on the other variable in the system. The effects of the initial shock are dampened are time t = 3, and disappear at time t = 5. EUAs and sCERs therefore exhibit the same pattern in terms of responses to exogenous shocks. Besides, this oscillation towards zero is characteristic of stationary VAR models.

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Treatment for illegal drug use disorders: the role of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders.

Treatment for illegal drug use disorders: the role of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders.

Abstract Background: Our aim was to examine whether comorbid mood and anxiety disorders influence patterns of treatment or the perceived unmet need for treatment among those not receiving treatment for illegal drug use disorders. Methods: Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001–2002 and 2004–2005, n = 34,653). Lifetime DSM-IV illegal drug use disorder (abuse and dependence), as well as comorbid mood (major depression, dysthymia, manic disorder, hypomanic disorder) and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety) were ascertained by a standardized psychiatric interview. Treatment for illegal drug use disorders and perceived unmet need for treatment were assessed among individuals with illegal drug use disorder. Odds of treatment and odds of perceived unmet need for treatment were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, treatment for mood and anxiety disorders, and comorbid alcohol use disorder.
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Antioxidants and glucose metabolism disorders

Antioxidants and glucose metabolism disorders

Catherine Bisbal a,b , Karen Lambert a,b and Antoine Avignon a,b,c Introduction Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at the forefront of the growing epidemic of chronic diseases. They are at the core of a great number of cardiovascular disorders that still represent the leading cause of mortality in most developed countries. Apart from their impact on health and well being, these conditions have a considerable economic cost (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ FASTATS/lcod.htm). Unfortunately, the burden of obesity and its associated complications is not limited to economically developed countries and is increasingly affecting economically developing countries [1]. Diet and nutrition are key factors in the regulation of glucose metabolism. On the one hand, chronic overnu- trition is associated with insulin resistance. On the other hand, nutrition itself is a tool in regulating glucose metabolism, as it has been shown that some types of foods like the Mediterranean diet might be protective [2]. The wealth of fruits and vegetables included in this diet, and consequently the supply of antioxidants, may be essential for its beneficial effects.
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Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

Conclusions EDs, particularly AN in female adolescents, require integration of different perspectives for pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Age and developmental stage at occurrence of the disease determine differences in short-term consequences on growth and sexual development as well as long-term outcomes. A common feature to these patients, however, is the requirement of time for improvement, accounting possibly for similar feelings and attitudes among patients, families and even care-givers: denial or minimization, opposition or control, failure or powerlessness. Therefore, clarifying and supporting can help and global appraisal is needed together with constant re-evaluation in a network of care providers. Several conditions such as adolescents involved in strenuous physical activities, are to be separated from EDs but can predispose to EDs. This should be kept in mind to propose, when appropriate, preventive measures that could hopefully reduce the frequency of true EDs that remain serious and life-threatening conditions.
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