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Compilation of lists of IAS considered to constitute the highest risk with respect to likelihood of arrival, establishment, spread and impact on

biodiversity and ecosystem services per thematic group

Each thematic group was asked to assemble lists of IAS that they considered to constitute the highest risk with respect to likelihood of arrival, establishment, spread and impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services, within the EU region over the next ten years. It was expected that they would derive these lists from a combination of literature searches (including academic journals, risk assessments, reports,

authoritative websites and other ‘grey’ literature), querying of IAS databases (including the 43 identified in Task 2 but also databases not available on-line but accessible to the experts) and their own knowledge and expert opinion. The approaches adopted by each thematic group differed slightly with respect to data sources accessed as expected because of the diverse nature of the groups (Annex 2).

The scope of the exercise was clearly stated alongside a number of exclusions:

a) Species that arrive by natural spread/dispersal without human intervention in response to changing ecological conditions and climate change

b) Species that are native somewhere in the EU

c) Pathogens that cause animal diseases (including to wildlife)

d) Harmful organisms listed in Annex I or Annex II to Directive 2000/29/EC e) Species listed in Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 708/2007 when used in


f) Species or taxonomic groups that are regulated under other EU legislations g) Micro-organisms

h) Genetically-modified organisms


i) Species having adverse impacts only on economic interests (such as

agriculture, horticulture, timber production) or human health and wellbeing, unless these impacts are in addition to separate impacts on native biodiversity (in which case, these additional impacts were noted, but not used as primary selection criteria).

Species that have been included in other prioritization exercises, but do not appear on any dedicated EU Regulation, were eligible for selection (for example, species on the EPPO A1 and A2 lists, but see further below in “Group-specific approaches to species selection”). It was clearly stated that the lists should only include species alien to the EU acknowledging that the EU does not encompass all of Europe. Additionally

consideration was only given to species that were currently absent or already present and/or established in the EU but with a limited distribution (not widely spread) (this proved to be problematic in terms of achieving consistency across thematic groups and is discussed further below in “Group-specific approaches to species selection”).

The temporal scope of the horizon scanning exercise was stated such that only species likely to arrive in the next 10 years on EU territory should be included. This temporal limit has important consequences, because it limits the relevance of climate change considerations and the way in which changes in climatically matched areas are assessed.

For species likely to invade the EU, the geographic scope of the search needs to be worldwide. A potential, but not exhaustive, list of search criteria include species that:

(i) are present in countries adjacent or physically connected to the EU; (ii) are present in areas of the world that are climatically matched to the EU; (iii) have documented histories of invasion and causing undesirable impacts in other areas; (iv) are found in trade to the EU or are present in areas that have strong trade and/or travel

connections with the EU and where there is a recognised potential pathway for arrival.

Each of the five thematic groups took a slightly different approach to achieving this aim and this is documented below in Task 4 (“Group-specific approaches to species selection”). However, the general approach was that co-leaders of each of the thematic groups collated and harmonised the lists of IAS received from the experts within their group into a single list for their group.

The following core information for each species was then assembled in a spreadsheet arranged in a standard-format: accepted scientific name; any vernacular (English or common) name(s); taxonomic group; functional group (Table 3.2); native distribution (Table 3.3); whether or not the species is already present in the EU; and the most likely pathway through which the species could arrive in the EU (Table 3.4).

Table 3.2 Functional groups and associated codes used in the compilation of information on IAS for consideration within the horizon scanning

Functional group Code

Detritivore Det

Primary producer PP

Filter feeder Filter

Herbivore Herb

Predator or parasite Pred

Omnivore Omni

Pollinator Poll


Table 3.3 Native distributions (geographic region) for terrestrial and freshwater species and associated codes used in the compilation of information on IAS for consideration within the horizon scanning; for marine bioregions see Table 4.5

Geographic region Code

Europe Eur

Africa Afr

Asia-temperate As

Asia-tropical At

Australasia Aus

Pacific Pac

N America NAm

S America SAm

Antarctica Ant

Table 3.4 Potential pathways through which IAS could arrive were classified according to the scheme outlined by the CBD (CBD 2014). Multiple pathways are relevant for many species and these were documented as a list.

Category Subcategory Code

Release in nature Biological Control

Erosion control / dune stabilisation (windbreaks/hedges)

Fishery in the wild Hunting

Landscape/flora/fauna improvement in the wild

Introduction for conservation purposes or wildlife management

Release in nature for use (other than above) Other intentional release


confinement Agriculture Aquaculture

Ornamental other than horticulture Research

Live food and live bait

Other escape from confinement



Category Subcategory Code


contaminant Contaminant nursery material Contaminated bait

Food contaminant

Contaminant on animals (except parasites) Parasites on animals

Contaminant on plants (except parasites) Parasites on plants

Seed contaminant Timber trade

Transportation of habitat material


Angling/fishing equipment Container/bulk

Hitchhikers on airplane Hitchhikers on ship/boat Machinery/equipment

People and luggage / equipment Organic packing material

Ship/boat ballast water Ship/boat hull fouling Vehicles

Other means of transport

Ang Corridor Interconnected waterways – Water Tunnels

and bridges Tun

Unaided Natural dispersal across border of IAS that

have been introduced through pathways 1-5 Nat