Haut PDF What could be a radioactive ion beam facility at GANIL

What could be a radioactive ion beam facility at GANIL

What could be a radioactive ion beam facility at GANIL

The ECR ion source working in the highly radioactive environment of the target, it is more appropriate to built it using only permanent magnets ; such an ECR [r]

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Radioactive ion beam facilities in Europe: current status and future development

Radioactive ion beam facilities in Europe: current status and future development

Development of high-power, multi-MW targets will be the most immediate problem, and will draw on the experience of the MEGAPIE group at PSI (Pb-Bi liquid- metal targets) and ongoing research into spallation neutron sources like the SNS and the Japanese Joint Project (liquid-metal targets). A EURISOL Design Study has very recently been approved for funding by the European Commission over the next 4 years, involving some 25 laboratories. A site has not yet been selected for EURISOL, but it would seem logical to locate it at one of the large laboratories in Europe currently involved in RIB developments (e.g. GANIL, LNL Legnaro or CERN).
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SPIRAL2 at GANIL

SPIRAL2 at GANIL

SPIRAL2 GENERAL LAYOUT The facility consists of a linac driver able to accelerate a 5mA deuteron beam up to 20A.MeV as well as light ion (q/A=1/3) 1 mA beams up to 14.5 A.MeV. The 200 kW deuteron beam impinges on a carbon converter to produce neutrons, used via the fission process of uranium carbide for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs). All these fission products, extracted from a source, are sent through a 2-exit separator, which allows us to send two simultaneous radioactive beams through two different lines. One beam is sent to a low energy experimental cave, and another beam is transported towards a charge breeder, and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron to maximum energies between 5 and 10 A.MeV, according to the ion q/A ratio. The driver’s stable ion beams can be used also for the production of RIBS on different target types, or sent directly towards an experimental cave, for nuclear physics experiments. Fig. 1 shows a schematic layout of the planned facility.
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Final report of the EURISOL Design Study (2005-2009) A Design Study for a European Isotope-Separation-On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

Final report of the EURISOL Design Study (2005-2009) A Design Study for a European Isotope-Separation-On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

This insulator is in contact with both hot target and cathode, and therefore has to be cooled. This need brings the water very close to the fission target with the consequent risk of a water leak onto the hot uranium target. Since the cooling serpentine is on the external side of the insulator, any such a leak will first allow water to make contact with external target container, delaying the contact with uranium. Vaporization will take place in the large volume of the vacuum tube, suddenly degrading the vacuum level and consequently the primary beam will be stopped. The water is used also for the cooling of cooper bars feeding and polarizing the TIS components. The rectangular shape of the vacuum tube has the advantage of allowing a separating panel between these bars and the radioactive beam line, which will also act as a screen for the fission target in case a water leak occurs at the level of these bars. As shown in figure 5, Einzel lenses are employed after the extraction electrodes. To transport the beam through some 6 metres, other focusing elements are required. In the current design, three electrostatic quadrupole doublets are installed along each near-vertical RIB line (see figure 7). To control beam centring, fixed insulated collimators (each split into 4 quadrants) are placed at the entrance and exit of each doublet. To read the current on these slits and for powering the quadrupole elements, many additional HV and current bars are required (in blue on figure 7). Because the current in these beam transport elements is low and they are already far from the maximum neutron flux, cooling is not considered necessary for them. It should be mentioned that the RIB pipe (magenta in figure 7) has only a screening role against the electromagnetic fields that may be induced by the high-voltage line (bars) parallel to the beam axis. Apart from this, the line is open to the vacuum in the tube.
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Fusion reactions involving radioactive beams at GANIL

Fusion reactions involving radioactive beams at GANIL

Fusion reactions involving radioactive beams at GANIL. Gilles de France GANIL, BP55027 F-14076 CAEN cedex 5 The ISOL type SPIRAL facility at GANIL has been commissioned recently and delivers radioactive beams (RIBs) for physics since a couple of years. Despite many difficulties arising from both the complexity to produce good beam quality and intensity as well as to setup the appropriate detection system, the first experiments with SPIRAL have demonstrated that nuclear dynamics studies (nuclear structure and low energy reaction mechanism) at the Coulomb barrier are possible with that kind of beams. RIBs like 76 Kr and 6,8 He have been used to produce exotic nuclei via fusion evaporation or to study reaction mechanisms at low energy. These two examples will be detailed in this talk.
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Diagnostic system dedicated to the radioactive ion beams at the SPIRAL facility

Diagnostic system dedicated to the radioactive ion beams at the SPIRAL facility

In order to be able to tune the CIME cyclotron and the associated beam lines with the radioactive ion beams, dedicated diagnostic sytems have been built.. This equipment will be [r]

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Ion sources at GANIL

Ion sources at GANIL

primary beam transfer tube Figure 4:The Nanogan 3 configuration A eighteenth of target ion sources have now been irradiated on the SPIRAL facility for the production of radioactive argon, neons and kryptons during 15 days with till 1.4 kW of primary beam power. A new target has been developed for 6 He and 8 He production which is divided into two parts because of the long range of He in carbon (see reference 6). In all cases, it has not been observed any decrease of the multicharged radioactive ion beam intensity during the long term irradiation that proves that the permanent magnets have not been damaged. The two first irradiated ion soures have been dismounted in order to change the target. The magnetic fields of these sources have been measured before and after irradiation and no significant change has been observed.
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Microstructural characterization of Eurofer-97 and Eurofer-ODS steels before and after multi-beam ion irradiations at JANNUS Saclay facility

Microstructural characterization of Eurofer-97 and Eurofer-ODS steels before and after multi-beam ion irradiations at JANNUS Saclay facility

the comparison of these two types of irradiation demonstrated that hydrogen injection induces additional cavity growth and swelling. In our experiments, the cavity sizes and densities seem to be slightly higher when hydrogen in injected in both materials. However, due to large error bars at such small cavity sizes, it is difficult to conclude that hydrogen has effectively played a role. This discrepancy with work by Tanaka et al. may be due to the lower temperature in our study. It could also be related to the lower dose in our study: cavity growth, for which hydrogen may play a role, is not yet active. Note that Farrell and Lee concluded for their ion-irradiations of a Fee9Cre1Mo steel [38] that the co- injection of hydrogen had a low impact on the overall cavity microstructure. More dual- and triple-beam irradiations at other temperatures and doses are necessary to comprehend the effect of hydrogen.
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Electron scattering on radioactive ions at GANIL

Electron scattering on radioactive ions at GANIL

Reconsidering the original objectives by taking into account a 10-fold increase of the dimensions of the IP, the constraints on the electron machine are somewhat relaxed. The achievable luminosity has to be optimized by increasing the number of trapped ions rather than on reducing the size at the IP, which is another challenge. To further validate the above considerations we have also performed dynamical simulations of the ion trapping using the WARP simulation code (see Appendix B.2 for details). The main outcome is that, in all considered cases (i.e. varying radii of the electron beam and the ion cloud, the ion charge state, the trap length, testing different species), the simulated trapping capacity is close to the maximal theoretical capacity (full compensation between the ions and the electron beam space charge). Some examples are shown in Fig. III.4a, where the simulated number of ions overlapping with the electron beam is displayed as a function of the number of injected ions, for different trapping conditions. As visible from the lower curves, even when the injected ion beam has a size larger than the electron beam, a significant fraction of the injected ions ends up overlapping with the electrons (up to a few times 10 8 ).
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Status report on ECR ion source operation at GANIL

Status report on ECR ion source operation at GANIL

Meanwhile a low-intensity uranium beam with a high charge state, i.e. U 31+ , was requested. The sputtering method could be use for that purpose. Previous runs in 1996 using neon as support gas for producing U 25+ and U 28+ gave intensities of 2 eµA and 0.8 eµA respectively, but with a high consumption rate, around 7 mg/h [9]. This time the source was tuned for U 31+

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The EURISOL report - A feasibility study for a european isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

The EURISOL report - A feasibility study for a european isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

• Technological irradiation tools for the development of new radiation-resistant materials. These need neutron sources able to provide fluxes of some 10 15 n/cm 2 .s, corresponding to proton beam powers of the order of 10 MW. Concerning the reference proton accelerator [27] of the PDS-XADS, it is obvious that the conceptual machine design is rather similar to that of the EURISOL baseline solution for a proton driver. In fact, we note that several institutions have been involved simultaneously in both projects, and certain work done for EURISOL has been applicable to the XADS and vice-versa. This will partly hold true for the future activities of both projects as proposed within FP6, i.e. the EURISOL Design Study and the Accelerator Working Package of the Integrated Project EUROTRANS on demonstration of transmutation. However, there will also be a very important and major difference which arise from the specific requirement for extremely high reliability of an ADS accelerator. It is as stringent as specifying only a few permissible beam ‘trips’ per year lasting longer than 1 second, because of the thermo-mechanical load to the sub-critical assembly, which is a dominant safety issue. Of course, such ‘trips’ would be rather irrelevant for a EURISOL facility where the reliability (and availability) requirements are those of a classical fundamental research facility. Even if many of the components are rather similar (e.g. the cryomodules) – and clearly some benefit is to be expected from this at least indirectly – the planned EUROTRANS R&D is exclusively focused on the reliability qualification rather than pushing the boundaries of performance (high energy, real-estate gradient, low cost, etc.) which are of concern for EURISOL.
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At what extend a key microbial functional community (the denitrifiers) could be modified by agricultural practices: the case of direct seeding in Madagascar

At what extend a key microbial functional community (the denitrifiers) could be modified by agricultural practices: the case of direct seeding in Madagascar

Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) are increasingly adopted worldwide to minimize soil erosion and improve soil quality. In Madagascar, where the study was performed, DMC including mulches of soybean and rice residues is combined with mineral/organic fertilization on a clay ferrallitic soil. Previous studies showed that this land use induces significant changes on chemical, physical and biological soil properties such as soil carbon content, soil structure and diversity indexes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate in which extent these practices (land use + three levels of organic/mineral fertilization) impacted on the denitrifiers community. In order to characterize the respective influence of crop rotation (rhizosphere effect) and mulch quality (residusphere effect), plots were sampled twice ; in February 2005 corresponding to soybean crop under rice mulch and in February 2006 corresponding to rice crop under soybean mulch. Soil samples were analyzed in terms of denitrifier density (quantitative PCR of narG/napA/nirK/nirS/nosZ genes), potential activity (nitrate reductase activity, Denitrification Enzyme Assay ±C2H2, DEA).
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At what extend a key microbial functional community (the denitrifiers) could be modified by agricultural practices: the case of direct seeding in Madagascar

At what extend a key microbial functional community (the denitrifiers) could be modified by agricultural practices: the case of direct seeding in Madagascar

performed, DMC including mulches of soybean and rice residues is combined with mineral/ organic fertilization on a clay ferrallitic soil. Previous studies showed that this land use induces significant changes on chemical, physical and biological soil properties such as soil carbon content, soil structure and diversity indexes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate in which extent these practices (land use + three levels of organic/mineral fertilization)

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Project "OAE" at GANIL a project for increasing the heavy ion energies

Project "OAE" at GANIL a project for increasing the heavy ion energies

Secondly, the energy of the injected beam should be raised becauae the cyclotron behaves aa an energy amplifier, whoa* gain is fixed and equal to tha square of tha ratio of ejection a[r]

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The radiation safety access control at GANIL and the RiB SPIRAL facility

The radiation safety access control at GANIL and the RiB SPIRAL facility

controlled rooms (e.g. Target_Ian_Source room, cyclotron ClME room,), two gating locks equipped with access badge readers for individual counting purpose and ten doors [r]

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Research at GANIL - A Compilation 1998-2000

Research at GANIL - A Compilation 1998-2000

Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and their Applications CAEN (FR). 14 Juin 1998 99 40H[r]

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Could antiretrovirals be treating EBV in MS? A case report

Could antiretrovirals be treating EBV in MS? A case report

2. Discussion Multiple cases of patients with HIV and MS who experienced in- definite remission or resolution of MS symptoms on HAART regimens have been reported in the literature ( Maruszak et al., 2011; Skarlis et al., 2017; Chalkley and Berger, 2014 ). These have raised an im- portant question of whether or not it is HIV infection that modulates MS or if treatment with HAART could directly impact MS. We report this case of an HIV-negative patient on antiretroviral therapy to support the possibility that antiretroviral drugs may directly affect MS. In parti- cular, this case supports careful examination of drugs in the class of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues.
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NUCLEAR PHYSICS at GANIL - A COMPILATION 1989-1991

NUCLEAR PHYSICS at GANIL - A COMPILATION 1989-1991

In Fig. I we exhibit the inclusive neutron multiplicity distributions obtained with these detectors for Ar + Th at the four different bombarding energies, and in doing so we confront the[r]

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NUCLEAR PHYSICS at GANIL - A COMPILATION 1983-1988

NUCLEAR PHYSICS at GANIL - A COMPILATION 1983-1988

We have first compared the inelastic spectra from these re- actions with those obtained at MSU at lower incident energies(25 MeV/u and 30 MeV/u) on the same systems [7|. At these lower e[r]

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Water radiolysis with heavy-ion beams at GANIL. Back to 20 years of investigations

Water radiolysis with heavy-ion beams at GANIL. Back to 20 years of investigations

Acknowledgements The author thanks Dr. B. Hickel for his brilliant ideas during the first experiments at GANIL, for his management of the first studies in France with pulsed heavy ions. The experiments were performed at GANIL in collaboration with our first local contact Dr S. Bouffard and these last years with Dr E. Balanzat. We thank their availability and their great knowledge of the beam control. We acknowledge also the GANIL staff and the colleagues in the Laboratoire de Radiolyse at Saclay for their great help during the runs: Dr S. Pin, G. Vigneron, Dr J. P. Renault, Dr S. Le Caër, Dr S. Pommeret and Dr J.-C. Mialocq. The first experiments were also performed in collaboration with Pr M. Gardès-Albert (Paris Descartes University) and Pr S. Deycard (Caen University). Chemistry at GANIL was a big challenge at this time. They had the privilege to start the first irradiations of solutions in the 90’s. Thanks for their help and discussions.
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