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Becoming a tutor in the best interest of the child

Becoming a tutor in the best interest of the child

WHEN IT IS NOT POSSIBLE FOR A CHILD TO RETURN TO HIS FAMILY, THE DYP MUST SEE TO IT THAT HE IS PLACED IN ANOTHER STABLE ENVIRONMENT. IN THIS WAY, SOMEONE SIGNIFICANT TO THE CHILD MAY BE RECOMMENDED BY THE DYP TO BECOME A TUTOR IN THE BEST INTEREST OF THE CHILD . THIS BROCHURE IS FOR THOSE WHO ARE APPOINTED TUTORS UNDER THE YOUTH PROTECTION ACT (YPA), FOSTER FAMILIES, AND ANYONE INVOLVED IN THE TUTORSHIP OF A CHILD.

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Interagency, network and co-governance in the child care sector

Interagency, network and co-governance in the child care sector

I NTERAGENCY , NETWORK AND CO - GOVERNANCE IN THE CHILD CARE SECTOR 74 5.8.3 Canadian Child Care Federation The Canadian Child Care Federation (henceforth CCCF) was created in 1987 from a meeting with representatives of provincial and territorial child care associations. CCCF is the largest national child care organization with 21 affiliate organizations and over 11,000 members (data from 2007). Its main focus is on research and knowledge dissemination. For that goal, CCCF publishes the weekly newsletter “Interaction”, maintains a resource library for its members (digital access), and divulges its studies through published reports. the CCCF also seeks to establish and promote professional networks to encourage the exchange of information amongst its members. For that purpose, the federation creates and coordinates many events like conferences and meetings where members could participate and discuss specific topics of professional interest. Amid its main research interests, the Federation has carried research on topics such as wages and working conditions in child care organizations, quality in child care, training and professional development, aboriginal child care etc. Some of its most important products are the “Occupational standards for child care practitioners” published in 2004, and the “National Statement on Quality Early Learning and Child Care” published in 2007. For practitioners, CCCF provides a series of toolkits and information packages to its members on many topics around childhood education such as: numeracy, literacy, children and nature, children’s rights etc. The Federation also have many resources available to parents and families to help them choose their child care provider and “manage the early years”.
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The child care conundrum : the costs and consequences of unmet early child care needs among parents working at academic institutions across the United States

The child care conundrum : the costs and consequences of unmet early child care needs among parents working at academic institutions across the United States

Submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning on May 23, 2019 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in City Planning ABS T R AC T Cities across the United States are saddled with a burgeoning child care conundrum, a mismatch between the skyrocketing need for child care and the fundamental insufficiency of child care infrastructure and policies to address the growing demand. To be sure, the broken child care market—characterized by too few spots, mediocre quality, and exorbitant costs—forces parents to make tradeoffs in order to fully meet their child care needs. These tradeoffs not only perpetuate deep-seated gender inequalities and compromise family economic security, but they also have broader social and economic consequences. Though research shows that large public investments could go a long way in fixing the child care conundrum and its pernicious effects, current political gridlock has hindered efforts to create universal child care programs and policies.
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The child as hacker : building more human-like models of learning

The child as hacker : building more human-like models of learning

requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Cognitive Science Abstract Cognitive science faces a radical challenge in explaining the richness of human learning and cognitive development. This thesis proposes that developmental theories can address the challenge by adopting perspectives from computer science. Many of our best models treat learning as analogous to computer programming because symbolic programs provide the most compelling account of sophisticated mental representations. We specifically propose that learning from childhood onward is analogous to a style of programming called hacking— making code better along many dimensions through an open-ended and internally-motivated set of diverse values and activities. This thesis also develops a first attempt to formalize and assess the child as hacker view through an in-depth empirical study of human and machine concept learning. It introduces list functions as a domain for psychological investigation, demonstrating how they subsume many classic concept learning tasks while opening new avenues for exploring algorithmic thinking over complex structures. It also presents HL, a computational learning model whose representations, objectives, and mechanisms reflect core principles of hacking. Existing work on concept learning shows that learners both prefer simple explanations of data and find them easier to learn than complex ones. The child as hacker, by contrast, suggests that learners use mechanisms that dissociate hypothesis complexity and learning difficulty for certain problem classes. We thus conduct a large-scale experiment exploring list functions that vary widely in difficulty and algorithmic content to help identify structural sources of learning difficulty. We find that while description length alone predicts learning, predictions are much better when accounting for concepts’ semantic features. These include the use of internal arguments, counting knowledge, case-based and recursive reasoning, and visibility—a measure we introduce to modify description length based on the complexity of inferring each symbol in a description. We further show that HL’s hacker-like design uses these semantic features to better predict human performance than several alternative models of learning as programming. These results lay groundwork for a new generation of computational models and demonstrate how the child as hacker hypothesis can productively contribute to our understanding of learning.
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The Best Interest of the Child

The Best Interest of the Child

Copyright jz, nov. 09 Page 24 maker has an obligation to hear the child if s/he is capable of forming and communicating her or his views in matters that affect her or him. This is a mandatory step for the decision-maker. As noted above, the views of the child are not likely the only competing elements at stake when establishing the best interests of the child. Yet they do represent an important factor in reaching the final decision. In accordance with the age and maturity of the child (and their competence or evolving capacity), the views of the child will be of crucial importance to the decision. This approach has been confirmed by the European Court of Human Rights in a case entitled, Hokkaen vs Finland. As noted by Professor Van Bueren: “In particular when considering the best interests of the child, the Court places great weight on the exercise of the child’s right to freedom of expression and the wishes of the child.” 25 There is no tension between Articles 3 and 12 of the CRC. There is only a complementary role between these two inter-dependent general principles. One establishes the objective for achieving the best interests of the child (art. 3) and the other provides the methodology for realizing the goal of hearing the views of the child/children (art. 12). In fact, there can be no correct application of Article 3 if the components of Article 12 are not also respected.
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18 Candles : The Convention on the Rights of the Child Reaches Majority

18 Candles : The Convention on the Rights of the Child Reaches Majority

 In the eighties, on observing that neither the first nor the second model was leading to solutions or that nothing works, the restorative justice movement was born. Obvious realities remerged and were scrutinised: the necessity for the child to become aware of his/her deed, to make amendments, and to restore social cohesion. A careful reading of the texts mentioned above makes it quite clear that children’s rights are not close to the justice model, particularly when it comes to incarceration matters. Indeed, the most serious violations of children’s rights occur in this field, which is probably the issue with the highest improvement potential regarding the lot of children in conflict with the law. There are four issues here: lawfulness, the use of administrative detention, the conditions of enforcement of the deprivation before or after the trial, and finally, systematic or, at least exaggerated recourse to deprivation of liberty as the only, or the priority, response to youth crime. The model, being based on this kind of response, is quite clearly out of favour with the Committee. Although no text states this, it is conceivable that the new solutions provided by restorative justice hint at a preference for care, jointly with awareness and restoration of the link between perpetrator and society.
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Sleep-disordered breathing in the child and adolescent orthodontic patient

Sleep-disordered breathing in the child and adolescent orthodontic patient

NOTICE This document was digitized by the Records Management & Archives Division of Université de Montréal. The author of this thesis or dissertation has granted a nonexclusive license allowing Université de Montréal to reproduce and publish the document, in part or in whole, and in any format, solely for noncommercial educational and research purposes.

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The Child is Prey

The Child is Prey

would brand me a coward and an easy mark, fodder for anyone’s predation. There was only one path open to me if I were able to survive in this hellish place – I had to fi ght once again. So I turned up and confronted John. He rushed me and we went down in a tangle of limbs. At that time I had not much fi ghting experience, but what I did have was a background in freestyle wrestling. Those hours spent in the gym at school all came back to me then and I used them to full advantage. I fought for leverage, suffering several blows from my older, larger attacker before succeeding in pinning John’s arms beneath my knees, effectively immobilizing him – to his shock and to the surprise of the growing crowd.
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Role of vascular plasticity in muscle remodeling in the child

Role of vascular plasticity in muscle remodeling in the child

22 Vincent, 2009). In particular, the Notch signaling pathway has been involved in satellite cell activation and cell fate determination in postnatal myogenesis (Conboy and Rando, 2002) and also appears to play myriad roles during vascular development (Gridley, 2010). The role of Notch signaling in regulating vascular development is intertwined with another major regulator of vascular development and physiology, the VEGF pathway. Myofibers targeted- VEGF deficient mice (mVEGF -/- ) present a significant decrease of muscle capillary to fiber ratio (-48%) and in capillary density (-39%) in gastrocnemius, without changes in muscle fiber type composition, leading to a major intolerance to aerobic exercise. These results indicate that since muscle-VEGF-deficient mice survive to adulthood, VEGF is essential to the physiologic regulation of postnatal muscle capillarity and therefore to the maintenance of adult skeletal muscle microvasculature (Olfert et al., 2009). Thus, the development of muscle vasculature before and after birth needs coordinated angiogenesis and myogenesis. Interactions between vessels and muscle are also required upon various physiological conditions (hypoxia, exercise, and aging) in which both muscle fibers and vessels adapt to changing demands by altering myofiber size or type composition and capillary density, respectively. All the pathways studied during development may be also recruited postnatally in response to muscle injury. For example, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling was demonstrated to be further reactived in adult ischemic tissues and to be impaired in aging mice (Pola et al., 2003; Renault et al., 2013a, 2013b).
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[Maternity for others: of the desire of child to the child at all costs]

[Maternity for others: of the desire of child to the child at all costs]

Summary : Surrogacy is prohibited by French law. On December 17 th 2008 the French Court of Cassation, has refused the transcription on the French register of civil status of U.S. birth certificates of children born to a surrogate mother in California. Some have been requesting that legislators amend current laws so as to legalize the practice. Such a claim is far from unanimous. Two successive reports of the French Parliament have underlined their opposition to such modifications: the first report has been delivered by a working group of the Senate and the second by the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Choices. We propose to analyze the elements that are opposed to the legalization of the practice. We do not underestimate the suffering of couples without children or the love they want to give but if surrogacy is forbidden it is because of the numerous difficulties it entails and that can not be bypassed by sentimental considerations.
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Improving knowledge on child abandonment and care in Africa : a demographic contribution to the achievement of child protection

Improving knowledge on child abandonment and care in Africa : a demographic contribution to the achievement of child protection

Mots clés : Abandon d'enfants; orphelins; infanticide; rupture de prise en charge; Afrique. Introduction Until recent years, child protection in Africa was not a social issue. “There were no formal mechanisms to protect children, but then none would have been necessary. Abundant land, a sub- sistence economy, and the highly devel- oped sense of generosity due to all family members, underwrote the sup- port obligation” (Bennett 1993: 33). Over the last decades, children’s rights issues are increasingly seen to be of international concern. Child protection policy in Africa is today mostly guided by an international agenda referring to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). This legal setting “asserts a number of rights for children worldwide, sets out basic prin- ciples to be applied, and creates a legal obligation to put these rights and princi- ples into practices” (Panter-Brick 2000: 10).
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Child temperamental anger, mother–child interactions, and socio-emotional functioning at school entry

Child temperamental anger, mother–child interactions, and socio-emotional functioning at school entry

Despite convincing evidence for the link between child anger proneness and socio- emotional functioning, very few longitudinal studies have focused on temperamental anger as manifested in toddlerhood to predict different aspects of child socio-emotional functioning at school entry. Yet, it is essential to measure child temperament early on, when behavior may be easier to change in an intervention context (Bruder, 2010). Moreover, anger proneness may be a particularly salient dimension of temperament in toddlerhood when the child’s struggle for autonomy, combined with increased parental expectations for behavior, elicits high levels of child anger and frustration (Brownell & Kopp, 2007). In addition, using multiple data sources (e.g., mother and father reports) to increase studies’ methodological quality has been largely advocated (e.g., Kazdin, 2016), but research often uses only one source of information to measure child temperament, socio-emotional adjustment, or both (Janson & Mathiesen, 2008). Accordingly, the current study focused on the role of mother- and father-reported toddler temperamental anger in the prediction of children's socio-emotional functioning at school entry, as also reported by both parents.
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Plenary Legal Adoption and its Implications for the Adopted Child

Plenary Legal Adoption and its Implications for the Adopted Child

Some children adopted abroad have lived with their birth family and are old enough to have a clear recollection of it. Their birth parents are poor, but have not necessarily been neglectful or abusive, though this does sometimes occur. Furthermore, while the birth parents have chosen to entrust their children to strangers, they may nevertheless wish to remain in contact with them and their adoptive family. Their attitude is often inspired by traditional forms of child circulation that do not erase the child's past, and that create an alliance or sustainable social bond between the original family and the adopting family (Lallemand, 1993). They sometimes expect that the orphanage through which their child has passed will give them news about the child or put them in direct contact with the adoptive family; some adopters accept this, while others avoid it at all costs. In this sense, international adoption is often based on a misunderstanding between birthparents and adoptive parents, a point emphasized by anthropological studies carried out in the countries of origin (Fonseca, 2000). Lastly, some international adoptions are in- family adoptions allowing brothers, cousins or nephews to enter the country.
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CHILD UP - Report on Legislation

CHILD UP - Report on Legislation

difficult learning conditions for migrant children. Also, second language learning can be hindered by a lack of contact with local natives. Additionally, access to education and language acquisition is more difficult with increasing age and there are considerable differences between the federal states (Karpenstein and Klaus 2019). In Italy, many of the child refugees who arrive by sea have been out of school for two or more years and so they are at a severe disadvantage when entering Italian schools. Due to this, when compared with Italian children, they are more often held back in school (at more than double the rate of Italian students). In the 2016/2017 school year the percentage of foreign students late in their studies exceeded 10% in primary school, reached 30% in lower secondary school and was beyond 50% in upper secondary school (The MIUR study 2018). Furthermore, "foreigners" are often second-generation: their studies, which are much less linear than those of Italian students, can therefore be interpreted as a signal of poor integration that continues in the second generation. Additionally, migrant children have a higher dropout rate than Italian children. In Italy, as in all the partner countries, all children should be entitled to education. The Italian legal system guarantees all foreign minors, alone or accompanied, access to schools of any order and level (nursery schools and kindergartens included), regardless of their legal status. The right of undocumented minors to enrol in school is also specifically legislated. They should have the same rights and access as Italian minors. Although minors are normally enrolled in classes corresponding to their age, the teaching body may decide to place a child in a different class if there are other factors that need to be considered. According to an ISTAT survey (2016), however, in 2015 only 58% of foreign students in lower secondary schools were placed in a class corresponding to their age, and this drops to less than a quarter (23%) in upper secondary schools (La sfida dell’integrazione – ISPI CESVI 2018, p. 38-39). This is perhaps unsurprising when we consider that time spent out of school has significant negative impacts on children’s school performance, and many of the children who arrive in Italy by sea have spent a great deal of time out of school. Being enrolled in school has proven to have positive outcomes in terms of integration for both children and parents (SPRAR projects 2017). School attendance facilitated the inclusion of children and their families (45%), improvement of children’s cognitive abilities and psycho-physical well-being (35.5%), involvement of families in relational dynamics and construction of social and friendly reference networks (31.7%), openness to intercultural relations and cultural diversity both for the school and for the family (22%) (SPRAR 2017).
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Child care center environment study.

Child care center environment study.

My concern for the child's development in child care center environments has been restricted to the effects of the physical environment on a child's activities, pay[r]

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Parent–child relationships and child executive functioning at school entry: the importance of fathers

Parent–child relationships and child executive functioning at school entry: the importance of fathers

that the local population is predominantly Caucasian (83.2%; Statistics Canada, 2006) and French-speaking (80%; Statistics Canada, 2011). Procedure Data were collected during two visits. The first visit (T1) took place in our laboratory, when children were 18 months of age (Μ = 18.19; SD = 0.92). First, mothers (N = 82) were invited to share a snack with their child (see Moss, Cyr, & Dubois-Comtois, 2004 for a similar procedure). This lasted approximately 10 minutes. Second, research tasks were administered to the child, which are not used in this report (approximately 20 minutes). Next, fathers (N = 82) were invited to play with their child for 10 minutes with a set of age-appropriate toys provided by the research team. These different contexts were chosen because they were deemed well suited to each dyad. Indeed, mothers, especially with young children, spend more time in caregiving contexts including feeding, whereas fathers are proportionally more involved in play contexts than mothers (John, Halliburton, & Humphrey, 2013; Lamb & Lewis, 2010; Schoppe-Sullivan, Kotila, Jia, Lang, & Bower, 2013). Each parent was alone with his or her child during the parent- child interaction, while the other parent was in a separate room with the research assistants. These interactive sequences were videotaped, and later rated independently by trained assistants with the Mutually Responsive Orientation scale (MRO, described below), to ensure methodological independence of mother-child and father-child data.
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An automatic child-directed speech detector for the study of child language development

An automatic child-directed speech detector for the study of child language development

There are approximately 2.5 million utterances in our dataset (an utterance is on average 3 seconds long). Of the 2.5 million utterances in the corpus we analyze an evenly-sampled 5000 utterances that have been hand-transcribed using new, semi-automatic methods and for which the speaker has been automatically identified with high confidence using our auto- matic speaker-identification system [13]. The 5000 utterances were distributed between 4 annotators who then used an anno- tation tool to identify the utterances as child-directed or adult- directed. This annotation tool allowed the annotators to listen to an utterance while reading the corresponding transcription and then making a decision on whether the speech was directed at the child or at an adult. In order to measure the accuracy of the human annotations, a total of 300 utterances were randomly chosen from the 5000 utterances and were given to all the 4 annotators.
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Family income and child health in the UK

Family income and child health in the UK

2.2 Our approach In this article, we use the Families and Children Study (FACS) to explore the effect of income on health in the UK. These data have a number of interesting characteristics compared to the ALSPAC, MCS, and HSE used in the previous literature. Table 1 presents a brief comparison of the FACS data with these datasets. First, the sample size of the FACS is much larger, for each age. Second, the FACS contains children of all ages, from 0 to 17. Third, parents always report their children’s health, whatever their age is, so the child general health measure is consistent across ages, unlike in the HSE. Fourth, household members report their exact income level and not income in brackets, which reduces measurement error in the income variable. Fifth, the FACS data are longitudinal and we could thus compute the average income for each household. Average income is less likely to be measured with error than current income. Taken together, these characteristics of the data enable us to get more precise estimates of the child health/income gradient than the previous literature.
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Siblings and child development

Siblings and child development

Having many siblings, or none, may impair, or improve, a child’s development compared to being part of a two-child family. Any effect may vary for different aspects of development. This note describes, cross-sectionally, the observed association between child development at ages 3 to 7 years and the number of co-resident siblings, at three sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Indicators of cognitive development (verbal and non-verbal), are taken from surveys at ages 3, 5 and 7 years. Behavioural problems are reported at the three surveys on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We analyze its five sub- scales separately, and also the Total Difficulties score. For each of 26 outcomes, we estimate the risk of falling into the most problematic 10% of the child population, depending on the number of siblings at each survey, controlling for the child’s gender and the level of the mother’s education. In this descriptive exercise, maternal education stands in for a host of possible social covariates; and allows for the least educated mothers having larger families. Children with
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Should we boycott child labour ?

Should we boycott child labour ?

3. Adult wages rise. If employers shift from child to adult labor as a result of the boycott, there will be a rise in labor demand for adults. If wages are locally determined, the resulting increase in adult wages (with financial market imperfections in place) can lower the marginal utility of income and thereby lead to a decline in child labor. This optimistic scenario is probably the one most advocates of consumer boycotts hope for. It has a formal articulation within economics in Basu and Van (1998). Notice, this scenario is based on several strong assumptions. First, it presumes that an increase in wages for adult labor will not draw in more labor through migration or changes in the labor supply of residents. If adult labor is own-price elastic, increases in adult wages from a consumer boycott will be attenuated with an increase in labor supply. Second, this scenario assumes that there are activities such as schooling that the household would prefer the child to participate in. Thus, it does nothing to solve the problem that the household's return to no child labor may be relatively low because of schooling, agency, or information problems. The theorized decline in child labor comes through solving the liquidity constraints problem. Third, this scenario assumes that the affected employer is large enough to have a substantial impact on local labor markets. Thus, in even the best of scenarios, the effect of consumer boycotts on child labor supply depends on local conditions.
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