En premier lieu, je remercie Madame Valérie Jeanne-Perrier, professeure de Sociologie des médias à l’École de journalisme du CELSA et directrice de ce mémoire. Je remercie également Monsieur Tristan Mendès-France, professeur au CELSA qui m’a aidée tout au long de la rédaction de ce mémoire.
of the Funds were entrusted to the ministry for Finances and to the Central Bank, which managed the accounts in foreign currencies. The Ministry for Finances invests the funds in foreign assets in three accounts, one in dollars (45%), another in euros (45%) and a third in pounds sterling (10%). The Russian Central Bank proceeded with the acquisition of the claims of 14 developed foreign states. It prefers to compose its portfolio of low risk public obligations. For the moment, the Russian authorities do not have enough boldness to invest these large public money sums of the Stabilization Funds inside Russia, and to convert them to Russian financial instruments. The shared opinion exists that the fund placed in inside assets, can not serve as a reserve regardless of the state of the national economy. In the event of economic crisis, national currency and domestic obligations are usually devalued, thus the fund would be devalued too. The Russian financial system faces a common problem: How to establish what the obstacles are to countries buying each other’s bonds to diversify national risk in government reserve funds? One probable limit to a bond immunisation strategy for savings is whether sufficient indexed government bonds exist to match the potential demand. Currently the demand outstrips the supply, indicates D. Lindeman in an OCDE (2003) note.
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Fig. 4 Habitat where P. irroratus Reitter was recorded near Villard-Saint-Pancrace (France, 05).
Distribution. Pissodes irroratus was originally described from Russiaand is distributed from the Irkutsk area to the
Kamchatka Peninsula. Based on morphological comparisons to the holotype and high genetic similarity to specimens from east Russia, P. irroratus appears to also occur in Europe, albeit only at high elevations. The easternmost popu- lation in Europe is over 6000 km from the nearest known collection locality in Russia. Large Palearctic distributions are known in Pissodes species [Alonso-Zarazaga 2013] but such discontinuous range is not known to date in other species. This apparently disjunct distribution pattern may reflect an evolutionary history wherein populations from Europe andRussia were maintained during the last ice age within distinct glacial refugia. Alternatively, it is possible that European populations came from a human-mediated introduction of individuals from Russian populations. Final- ly, very little material of P. harcyniae, with which P. irroratus has been frequently confused, has been examined from eastern Europe, Russia, and former Soviet Bloc countries to the south of Russia, so it might be that there is in fact not a real disjunct distribution but rather simply a gap in our knowledge. The species is presently known in its Euro- pean range from four localities from the southeastern French Alps to the northwestern Italian Alps [Fig. 5]. This distri- bution coincides well the distribution range of European larch (Larix decidua) and the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cem-
Section 1. Introduction
Russia has undergone a dramatic economic and political transformation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1990-1991. Gross domestic product fell abruptly in 1992-1995, while inflation skyrocketed. GDP started to recover in 1998-1999 and a decade of robust growth followed. The world financial crisis and the fall in oil prices interrupted this process in 2008-2009. Growth has been sluggish since then, and the level of economic activity fell again in 2014-2015, partly due to international sanctions following Russian military intervention in Ukraine. However, and despite the inherent difficulties in comparing GDP between Soviet and post-Soviet periods, there is little doubt that average incomes are significantly higher today than in 1989-1990. According to the estimates reported on Figure 1a, per adult national income has increased by about 40% between 1989 and 2016, from slightly more than 16 000€ at the end of the Soviet period to almost 24 000€ in recent years (both expressed in 2016 euros using purchasing power parity exchange rates). If we compare Russia’s per adult national income to the Western European average—here defined as the simple arithmetic average of Germany, Franceand Britain—we find that the gap between Russiaand Western Europe has narrowed a bit. Russian living standards were about 60-65% of the Western European average in 1989-1990, and reached about 70-75% by the mid-2010s.
In the USSR the stages occur much more closely together and the order may change. Where the end of education and leaving the parental home are close events 12 , they are quickly followed by a first union and a first
child. In Russia, for example, all the stages occur in less than five years, whereas in France they extend over more than ten. It is not unusual for the first union in Russia to be formed before the end of education and the first child to be born while the parents are still students. The gap is slightly larger in Lithuania and Georgia, because people leave the parental home sooner. The situation in Russia is evidence of more difficult housing condi- tions there than in the outlying republics of the Soviet Union. But in all the Soviet republics the state system of access to employment, education and relations between families and State broke down the dependence between the formation of a family and educational and professional careers. The distinction observed in France between the various stages in life history is erased. These forms of expression of adulthood occur over a shorter period, in an order that is not always the same, since a given stage may occur before or after another 13 .
history, several language and ethnic minorities cannot find a place for themselves
in this new system.
Poland when the Grand Duchy of Muscovy claimed leadership in Russian affairs, after the destruction of Kiev by the Mongols in 1240. The kings and dukes of the Polish- Lithuanian commonwealth refused to acknowledge the Russians who were subject to Moscow as Russians, maintaining that the only Russians were those that they ruled. (Толковый словарь русского языка: В 4 т. Под ред. Д.Н. Ушакова, Москва, Гос. ин-т "Сов. энцикл.", ОГИЗ, Гос. изд-во иностр. и нац. слов, 1935-1940.) It is used in several Slavic languages: Belarusian, Polish and Ukrainian, today it is considered largely an archaism and an ethnic slur.
Key words small reservoirs; siltation; agricultural land; soil erosion; sediment delivery; 137 Cs depth distribution;
microstratigraphy; deposition rates; climate changes; European Russia
Small reservoirs located in dry valleys or on small streams and rivers are typical and important components of human-altered landscapes of the European Russia agricultural belt (Golosov & Ivanova, 1993; Golosov & Panin, 2006; Belyaev et al., 2012). Initially, their widespread introduction in the 19th century was mainly aimed at interception of peak runoff for local water supply and (on perennial streams) providing continuous hydropower supply for water mills. At present such small reservoirs are used in diverse ways from local water supply for crops and livestock to local fishery and recreation. In many cases, especially in small dry valleys dominated by cycles of bottom gullies incision and infill, they also serve as buffers which intercept sediment delivery from headwaters and prevent regressive migration of active bottom gullies (Baxter, 1977; Golosov & Ivanova, 1993; Smith et al., 2001; Belyaev et al., 2004, 2005; Radoane & Radoane, 2005; Golosov et al., 2008, 2012). On the other hand, the majority of such small reservoirs in Russia are equipped with simple earthen dams without any protection against erosion, and equipped with very simple emergency floodwater bypasses (Fig. 1(A)). Such unprotected earthen dams are potentially vulnerable to breaches caused by erosion in cases of dam overflow or extreme discharges flowing through the bypasses. Such situation can in fact trigger new cycles of bottom gully erosion activity starting from the dam breach (Fig. 1(B); Belyaev et al., 2004).
The detection, identification and extraction of alas from their morphological characteristics lends itself well to the OBIA object-oriented machine learning classification algorithms. The OBIA alas recognition consists of four phases: (a) The dimensionality reduc- tion by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) al- gorithm, and linear combination of original bands that contains 91-95% of spectral information in first three components (Fig 6a). (b) Smoothing filtering that is applied for the suppression of noise and homogenize statistically the alas regions. This filtering method as- sociates with each pixel of the image the closest local mode in the density distribution of the combined re- gion (Comaniciu and Meer, 1999, 2002). (c) The im- age segmentation by Large Scale MeanShift non-par- ametric and iterative clustering method (Michel et al, 2015). The segmentation produces a labeled image with tile-wise processing where neighbor pixels whose range distance is below range radius and op- tionally spatial distance below spatial radius are merged into the same raster value (Fig. 6c). The aver- age spatial neighborhood radius is 25 meters.
Not only soil carbon stocks make the boreal zone of Russia an important player in the global carbon balance. NOAA-AVHRR NDVI (normalized difference vegetation in- dex) trend studies have indicated greening trends in the area (Myneni et al., 1997; Zhou et al., 2001). Increasing temper- ature and the lengthening of the growing season (Serreze et al., 2000; Chapin et al., 2005) would cause enhanced bio- spheric activity (Lucht et al., 2002; Beer et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2006). A recent study of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI trends indicates a decrease in photosynthetic activity (browning) during 1997–2006, following the greening signal observed during 1982–1997 (Piao et al., 2011 and Serreze and Barry, 2011). Piao et al. (2008) and Parmentier et al. (2011) indi- cate that at the end of the growing season enhanced respira- tion may reduce the gains in uptake from the spring. Atmo- spheric inverse models (Bousquet et al., 1999; Gurney et al., 2002; R¨odenbeck et al., 2003) and forest inventory studies (Nilsson et al., 2000; Shvidenko and Nilsson, 2003) confirm that there is a carbon dioxide sink in the RF, but the pre- cise magnitude of the sink is still a matter of considerable debate. More recently, Quegan et al. (2011) presented a mul- tiple constrained analysis of the carbon budget of a large re- gion (∼ 300 Mha) in Central Siberia using forest inventory, remotely sensed data and modeling. They concluded that, in particular, heterotrophic respiration and disturbance were not well represented in the dynamic global vegetation mod- els (DGVMs) used. Ciais et al. (2010), in an analysis of the Northern Hemispheric C budget, suggest the existence of a net biosphere to land flux of CO 2 of the order of −0.6 to
The social movement of chronic patients in Russia generates and maintains space for multiple entangled moves and movements by and with many: Rolling on a wheelchair through the inac- cessible urban jungles, moving forward legislation, doing rehabilitative exercises, pressing a button on a voice recorder, pointing to a disturbing voice recorder, eating, driving, dressing for a presenta- tion at the All-Russian Patient Congress – just a few examples to instantiate the scope we are referring to. The social movement which we encountered within the RuMSS is beyond identity politics, but rather refers to the literal and heterogeneous work to compose ‘evidence-based activism’ (Rabeharisoa et al., 2014). It comprises the expe- rience of illness, documenting and sharing these experiences (through sociological research and patient schools), transforming these experiences into solutions (legislation clauses, guidelines for socio-medical expertise), and advocating for these solutions (writing petitions, lobbying, creating public councils to the ministries and medical insti- tution) (Endaltseva, 2020). Still differently, it also comprises putting together the maintenance of a body with MS, the maintenance of communal interests, the weaving of solidarity ties through online communities, ‘how do you do’ calls, yoga classes, and collective celebrations of the Interna- tional MS day.
However, at the time of the described study, the SRTM digital elevation data were not yet released for the Mongolian and Southern Siberian areas. The GTOPO30 DEM was colour-coded to serve as topographic background information. It was also used to calculate slope angles and aspects, and elevation contour lines at 100 m intervals by triangulation. It turned out that the raster-layer of slope values calculated from the GTOPO30 dataset could not resolve the rugged mountain ranges and steeply incised valleys around Lake Baikal. Owing to the low spatial resolution, the DEM only showed elevated plateaus. Instead, Swiercz (2004) used the polygon layer 'slope' from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) dataset showing slope intervals to extract different susceptibilities to erosion. The catchment area outlines of Lake Baikal and its three main tributaries were digitized onto the combined layers of elevation contour lines and the high resolution drainage pattern accordingly hydrological considerations (Swiercz et al. 2003). Several new GIS layers were produced to estimate the proportions of parameters in the respective river catchments by clipping the
Susan Jacoby’s November 2003 article in the Washington Post described the state of post-Cold War Russian-American relations. Entitled “Now That We're Comrades, We Don't Care Anymore,” the article quoted Boris Jordan, ex-head of Russia’s NTV channel: “[in] America, I see that too many people have an impression of Russia as a new third- world country. Russia in the public eye, on the nightly TV news, is about criminality— the 'Russian mafia'—about AIDS, about general backwardness.” 11 It is easy to paint Russia as opposed to Western values when people are told only of the crime and corruption in Russiaand of the deficiencies in Russia’s “democracy.” An article with a clear knowledge of the difference between the reality of Russiaand the perception of Russia in the West is as surprising as it is scarce. Many authors prefer to criticise Russia instead of understanding it, like Peter Baker’s May 2004 article for the Washington Post. The previous day’s Annual Address to the Federal Assembly of Russia by Vladimir Putin highlighted Russia’s fledgling economic and social sectors and the important advances made in them during his first term as Russian President. The article mentions Putin’s points briefly before noting that Putin “offered no concrete plans to build democratic institutions, as he promised after winning re-election two months ago.” Baker quoted Putin directly when he said that “Without a mature civil society, it is impossible to effectively resolve pressing problems of the people.” 12 Even then the author refused to
Investigating such activities, which are both specialized and sometimes shrouded in secrecy, raised several hurdles. These were addressed by adopting a mixed methods approach, and the collection of three main types of material over the period 2017–2019. First of all, we conducted 15 interviews with ISPs, IT experts, Internet lawyers, vendors of filtering equipment, as well as anti-censorship and anti-surveillance activists. These respondents were recruited in several steps. First, we contacted publicly known experts in the field of telecommunication, Internet censorship and surveillance and digital rights, previously met at a variety of professional gatherings we regularly attended and observed (e.g. RightsCon, Internet Freedom Festival, Privacy Day, Chaos Communication Congress and so on). After this first round of interviews, we requested help from these experts in recommending us to ISPs possibly interested in taking part in the study. This recommendation process was important in itself, as the ISP community is relatively closed. The ISPs we talked to are mainly small and medium-size (between 5000 to 100 000 clients) and are active participants of professional forums and Telegram-chats (such as Nag.ru and other communities that we have identified during web-ethnography). We also talked to representatives of vendors of DPI and filtering solutions, and to engineers working at the Saint-Petersburg Internet Exchange Point. The respondents requested to stay anonymous. The study was completed with a web-ethnography and analysis of dedicated ISP forums and chats, which were selected and monitored over the whole period (see Appendix for details). Finally, we carried out a content analysis of the communication material produced by vendors of surveillance and censorship solutions: websites, commercial presentations, and material drawn from specialized professional conferences.
The front and the streamer are subject to baroclinic instability: two waves (or vortices) develop, with their centers (at 02:30 UTC) near Mineral Waters and Samara. In the surface pressure field, small, weak troughs correspond to the waves. Typical vertical circulation develops in the unstable waves: descending branches in their rear (cold) sectors can be considered as embryonic “dry air stream”, while in the warm sectors, 20
Diagnosis: The new family is defined as grouping earliest Cretaceous small- to large-
sized, dimorphic, moderately evolute, planulate ammonites with a compressed, subrectangular, suboval or suboctagonal whorl section marked by a flattened to slightly rounded venter. A narrow ventral furrow occurs in the juvenile whorls, but it weakens and/or disappears in the adult. Microconchs bear lappeted peristomes, whereas it is simple on macroconchs. Ornamentation generally consists of simple, bi- or trifurcate, rarely fasciculate sharp ribs and a variable number of intercalatories. Enlarged, crest- or node-like bulges can develop on the peri-umbilical, lateral and peri-ventral margins. When known, suture lines develop long and more or less symmetrical ventral and first lateral lobes while other ones are small.
Bouchehida kheireddine; Tafiroult billel; Ould hammou mustapha
FIFA soccer world cup it is likely the most popular sporting event in the world, drawing billions of television viewers every tournament (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2018). sixty-four nation compete for the title every four years, in the recent years teams has been a remarkable development in physical, technical, tactical and psychological aspects as a result of conducting various researches and studies and building training operations on the basis of science and the use of proper planning in the preparation of teams, and this is demonstrated by the teams participating in the World Cup by a huge volume of motor activity and speed in performance and high accuracy in the implementation of offensive strategies. In soccer the main goal of each team participating in the championship is only to win, and that can only be achieved by the attack and Soccer match analysis is one of the most important means that drive tactic training process forward and develop it, because it is an effective means to increase the level of performance by identifying the negatives and positive aspects of the team's performance through insightful vision. As coaches are prone to making subjective judgments and may be unable to recall events reliably, they are increasingly turning to match analysis as a way of optimizing the training process of their players and teams (Hughes, 2004)
Received: 23 October 2013 – Published in Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.: 8 November 2013 Revised: 20 January 2014 – Accepted: 23 January 2014 – Published: 25 February 2014
Abstract. Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world provoke the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami run-ups measured onshore. System- atic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of the Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, the Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami haz- ard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.
3 Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Mapping of permafrost mountain landscape of Verkhoyansk in the Arctic zone is based on the recognition by remote sensing and GIS modeling of the landscape permafrost-objects resulting from the combination of the Milkov’s taxonomic classifications. The methodology developed integrates three types of modeling: the first one is mapping the vegetation repartition using Sentinel 2A with SVM classifier during the summer vegetative period; second is the landform classification using Jenness’s algorithm from ASTER data; and the third one is land surface temperature calculus from Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS images identifying the permafrost characteristics categories. Results are merged using a native index equation of permafrost landscape objects in GIS. This original mapping approach improves significantly the understanding of complexity of the permafrost mountain structures and processes with the annual monitoring by remote sensing.