As a proof-of-concept, we implemented, through a program profiling software (a pin tool running on x86), a functionality for measuring the lifetimes of all data written to memory. Here, the lifetime is defined as the time between a write and the last read to the same location before another write occurs. Figure 8 illustrates the distribution of lifetimes in a run of three Rodinia benchmarks: backprop, kmeans and myocyte. It clearly appears that the different lifetimes are not evenly distributed, but grouped rather into clusters. We claim that this property can be leveraged to reduce energy consumption by allocating memory accesses to appropriate banks.
This section illustrates our approach for dynamically building a model of the program execution. We propose an automatic process made of a sequence of four steps. Figure 1 gives an overview of this process. On the left-hand side of Figure 1, the input is the source code of the considered system (e.g. a program under test and its tests). First, a static model is generated thanks to a reverse engineering step (Section 2.1). Second, on the right-hand side of Figure 1, the static model is refactored into an analysis model by a model transformation (Section 2.2). Third, on the left-hand side of Figure 1, a source code instrumentation step (Section 2.3) prepares the code before execution. Finally, the instrumented code is executed and its instrumentation allows us to complete the analysis model into the dynamic model of the source code (Section 2.4). This model is the output of the process.
As we are aiming at supporting a large subset of the C language, we implemented our inlining approach as a plug-in of the Frama-C frame- work [ CKK + 12 , KKP + 15 ]. In addition to pointers and aliasing, our plug-in validates the scalability of our inlining approach for more complex construc- tions of the C language, such as arrays, function calls, as well as recursive structures. However, since our inlining approach relies on the knowledge of the underlying type of a variable, our implementation does not yet support type casts. For instance, a target program can cast and use a variable x of type void ∗ either as a pointer to an integer (type ptr(κ)) or as a pointer to pointer to an integer (type ptr(ptr(κ))). In both cases, the number of shadow variables the program transformation must map to variable x is actually different. Additionally, the program transformation must also handle the aliasing invariant proved in Lemma 2 differently in both cases. Future work will tackle this challenge by relying on static analysis to try to uncover the underlying type of a variable in order to guide the inlining approach.
Fig. 1. Spoon architecture.
Spoon does not implement the Java parsing and bytecode generation phases. Instead, it dele- gates these tasks to SUN’s Java compiler (javac). Therefore, to build the meta-model, it uses the javac’s AST coming from the parsing and attribution phases, which implies that we reuse SUN’s type-inference implementation. For the compilation phase, Spoon uses a pretty-printer visitor that generates an intermediate source-level representation of the program, which can then be compiled by javac. This technical choice has the advantage of avoiding re- implementing typical compiler jobs, and focuses on user-oriented processing. It is also easier for the end-user to have access to the processed program this way, since it is available in source code format. Spoon can also process binaries by using a decompiler (Jode ).
The post-program effects are more often measured through employment probabilities, employment spells and individual earnings 6 . Even though there is an extensive and growing
empirical literature about ALMPs, post-program effects at the individual level constitute one of the main controversial issues. The content of programs, the selection process, the business cycle and the estimating models as well differ across the studies (Raaum & al., 2002). Nevertheless, some evidence can be underscored from international cross-country surveys (Heckman & al., 1999; Martin & Grubb, 2001; Kluve & Schmidt, 2002; Kluve, 2006). Main results show that private employment subsidies are associated with a higher probability of yielding positive post-program effects. Training programs are the most expensive and widely used active measures in Europe and appear to be positive on single mothers but have rather poor effects on other vulnerable groups such as youth and older workers with low initial education. Job creations in the public sector provide no real benefits in the long- term. Besides, they convey low marginal product and are often seen as hiding the real level of unemployment. Regarding services and sanctions, which are the least costly measures their effects are rather non-conclusive. The positive impact of job-search assistance depends on the quality of employment services and monitoring control. Only a few studies have been conducted about sanctions programs even though a well-balanced system including job search assistance, claimants’ obligations (with sanctions in case of default leading in some cases to partial suspensions of unemployment benefits) and training has proved to be more efficient. Concerning youth measures, they usually show a negative picture despite a few national successful programs when they come with wage subsidies.
Under a service contract for the Transport of Dangerous Goods Directorate at Transport Canada e titled Lithiu Batte y T a spo t Resea h P og a , the Natio al Resea h Cou il of Ca ada NRC
a ied out Task . Conduct Lithiu Batte ies Ma ket Data Colle tio a d A alysis i o de to suppo t Tra spo t Ca ada’s efforts to better understand the supply chain and commodity flows of lithium batteries and equipment containing lithium batteries in Canada and to help inform their risk analysis efforts. This research will enable Transport Canada to better understand and respond to the public on the hazards involved with the transportation of lithium battery shipments, especially products travelling by air. This final report is comprised of a global trade data analysis of lithium batteries and products containing batteries, an investigation of developments and trends in the global lithium battery market, a Canadian trade data analysis of lithium batteries and products containing batteries, and a survey on lithium battery transportation of new and used lithium batteries within various organizations in the Canadian lithium battery supply chain.
quirement 2.) is essential to ensuring that the oracle does not “silently stop relating programs” by performing non-productive reductions.
Remark. As one may notice, the definition of oracle languages resembles that of programming languages: both have static and dynamic evaluation environments, as well as a step function. Therefore, one may wonder why oracle languages are not programming languages. The reasons for this are mainly practical: indeed, as it is reasonable for oracle to be able to verify equality between two program states, we require in our Coq development that two languages have decidable equality for their states. Unless we are interested in having oracles relating other oracles,—which we cannot find a use-case for—such a requirement is unneeded and would significantly clutter formal oracle language definitions for no clear benefit. Furthermore, a result extraction function on oracle configurations would be of limited use, and syntactic representations of oracles will be covered in the next chapter.
6.1.5 Objectives 6 and 7– Arquluk-RISK Creation and Validation
Using the outcomes of the above objectives, Arquluk-RISK 5 was created to automatically calculate the risks and hazards of permafrost embankment infrastructure for dangers simultaneously (Objective 6). Two versions of the program were created: one, (SS), focuses on the analysis of hazard for a single site; and the other, (LI), allows for risk and hazard calculation of multiple sections along a continuous infrastructure. The SS program has greater error checking tools including output histograms for each of the dangers’ limit state functions, thaw depth and thaw settlement, and text files of the intermediate calculations. For a long section of infrastructure, the LI program is used. The dangers selected for analysis are analyzed for independent sections, defined by landforms with consistent geology and subsurface conditions, to determine the section’s hazard and risk. The program reports the hazards and risks along the infrastructure’s length. Arquluk-RISK was used to determine the hazard and/or risk of the Salluit Airport Access Road and the Iqaluit International Airport (Objective 7).
population. Ahmed and Bouis (2002) show that an important proportion of rich Egyptians hold green cards while certain poor have none. On average, 72% of the population holds a green card while 10% hold a red card. This distribution remains relatively unchanged regardless of income level. In a recent study by the United Nations World Food Program, experts estimate that 7 million of the poor in Egypt do not have access to the subsidized food program (WTP/MOSIT, 2005). The Egyptian government is currently attempting to make the distribution of cards more equitable.
1.2.2 Analysis of torsional stiffness of BEAM elements
This analysis is usually performed when analyzing structures with 3-D BEAM elements, either because non-uniform torsion and beam cross-section were subject to warping (warping function is not equal to zero) or because the torsional stiffness is not available from tables or formulas. The 2-D SOLID elements are used to calculate the warping function and the torsional stiffness of the cross section. The torsional properties obtained from this calculation are added to the results obtained from the temperature analysis of the same cross section for subsequent structural analysis. In cases where the warping function is not necessary, such as in the case of uniform torsion or a cross section with a warping function equal to zero, and if the torsional stiffness can be found in standard tables or by analytical formula, then this analysis need not be performed. In such situations, the torsional stiffness is simply introduced as a property of the cross-section for the structural analysis.
support for the program from the conception of the road to its operation. The private sector can propose toll roads rather than waiting for a government proposal, which increases the rate of network expansion and resulting economic development. It is unclear how detailed the proposals need to be or if the government merely approves or rejects the proposal or if it may modify the proposal with the private sector company before approving or rejecting. The EPU is given flexibility in negotiating the terms of the contract so that the project can be feasibly carried out. If conditions drastically change to the disadvantage of the concessionaire, the government is usually willing to renegotiate the terms of the contract. Institutional roles are clearly delineated; the EPU handles all proposals, coordinating as needed with other departments, and the MHA monitors the post-negotiation phases.
V. Valid C/C++ may sometimes be flagged and prevent compilation due to the optimization techniques the compiler is required to employ in order to use limited resources.
With those characteristics CUDA has a lot of applications in various fields ranging, from video games to academic research. The well-known science project SETI 14 is using a CUDA client program to analyze data. In HEP, CUDA is used to