activation and mobility

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Phosphorylation of activation function-1 regulates proteasome-dependent nuclear mobility and E6-associated protein ubiquitin ligase recruitment to the estrogen receptor beta.

Phosphorylation of activation function-1 regulates proteasome-dependent nuclear mobility and E6-associated protein ubiquitin ligase recruitment to the estrogen receptor beta.

transcriptionally active domains within the nucleus or immobilized to inactive clusters referred to as the nuclear matrix (10,15,32). Inhibition of proteasome activity was also shown to immobilize ERc to components of the nuclear matrix in treated cells (20,33). We therefore evaluated how inhibiting proteasome activity may affect the mobility of ERd and on the possible role of disrupting AF-1 activity under these conditions. FRAP analysis was performed on cells transfected with a YFP fusion of ERd, which was initially validated for correct size by Western blot and for activity by luciferase assay (data not shown). In absence of ligand, ERd was found highly mobile, reaching equilibrium in the bleached region within seconds, with a half-maximal recovery time (t½) of 1.7 ± 0.2 sec (n = 12 nuclei) (Fig.5C and D). Although slightly longer, this half-recovery time for ERd was comparable to unliganded ERc (t½ ~ 1 sec, data not shown, and see ref. 15), indicating that both receptors reside in a highly dynamic state, presumably awaiting for activation signals. As also reported for ERc, inhibiting proteasome activity with MG132 resulted in a profound immobilization of unliganded ERd, such that the half-recovery time could not be estimated (t½ > 300 sec, Fig.5D). Such proteasome-dependent immobilization has been suggested to result from the clustering and association to non-chromatin templates, which is consistent with the transcriptional activity we measured for ERd in the presence of MG132. Remarkably, removal of Ser-94 and -106 in ERd resulted in a more mobile receptor in the presence of MG132 (t½ = 39 ± 5 sec; n = 15 nuclei), suggesting that these sites were important to facilitate ERd to immobilize in response to proteasome inhibition (Fig.5D). This behavior was also observed with the S94,106,124A mutant (t½ ~ 60 sec; data not shown). These results indicate that disruption of ERd AF-1 activity may allow the receptor to escape from associating with inactive clusters during proteasome inactivation, and therefore become available for
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Controlled mobility in stochastic and dynamic wireless networks

Controlled mobility in stochastic and dynamic wireless networks

This work is a first attempt towards utilizing a combination of controlled mobility and wireless transmission for data collection in stochastic and dynamic wireless networks. Therefore, there are many related open problems. In this paper we have utilized a simple wireless communication model based on a communication range. In the future we intend to study more advanced wireless communi- cation models such as modeling the transmission rate as a function of the transmission distance. For the case of multiple-collectors whose transmissions are subject to interference constraints, we intend to study interference models that do not restrict the collectors’ motion to a grid. Note that such a joint server routing and scheduling problem is significantly more involved. For instance, the stability region of such a system depends on the interference constraints, and it is unknown since there are uncountably many possible activation vectors.
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Mobility reduction and apparent activation energies produced by hopping transport in the presence of Coulombic defects

Mobility reduction and apparent activation energies produced by hopping transport in the presence of Coulombic defects

E-mail: franck.mady@unice.fr, raphael.renoud@univ-nantes.fr, iacconi@unice.fr Abstract. A Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to study the mobility reduction due to coulombic defects for hopping transport in a one-dimensional regular lattice. Hops between energetically equivalent sites and within an exponential distribution of energy levels are considered. In absence of coulombic wells, the calculations reproduce the well- known features of gaussian and highly dispersive transport respectively. When the field due to coulombic potential wells is superimposed to the applied one, the macroscopic conduction features change dramatically. The computed apparent mobilities or transit- times exhibit a Poole-Frenkel character and a modified Arrhenius temperature dependence. Their activation energy differs from the mean energy characterizing hops at the microscopic scale and it is found to depend on parameters such as the defect charge. This has important practical consequences on data interpretation.
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Students mobility, gender and polycentrism in Europe

Students mobility, gender and polycentrism in Europe

The issues of territorial organisation in Europe is not something new, neither are cities interacting in networks. Study conducted over the last few years made it possible to develop several functional urban models that have interesting features. However, because they are always positioned within a logic of competition in interpreting territorial dynamics, the models are restricted to a hierarchy of “poles” in which only processes of wealth generation are taken into account. Indeed, the great majority of existing researches seeks to produce knowledge on the cities themselves, to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, and to estimate their growth rates. Consequently, this means that a large majority of studies constantly produce and reproduce urban typologies, reducing the patterns of territorial integration in Europe via city networks to two classic representation models, which are the centre-periphery model and the hierarchic network model for national urban systems. In these acceptations, the European space is seen in a dichotomous manner. In the first case there is a predominant centre to which dependent or isolated peripheral areas are more or less well connected; in the second, there are major poles which have secondary, less prominent or visible centres as satellites.
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Cooperative Charge Pumping and Enhanced Skyrmion Mobility

Cooperative Charge Pumping and Enhanced Skyrmion Mobility

It is well known that moving magnetic textures may pump spin and charge currents along the direction of motion, a phenomenon called electronic pumping. Here, the electronic pumping arising from the steady motion of ferromagnetic skyrmions is investigated by solving the time evolution of the Schrödinger equation implemented on a tight-binding model with the statistical physics of the many-body problem. In contrast with rigid one-dimensional magnetic textures, we show that steadily moving magnetic skyrmions are able to pump large dc currents. This ability arises from their nontrivial magnetic topology, i.e., the coexistence of the spin-motive force and the topological Hall effect. Based on an adiabatic scattering theory, we compute the pumped current and demonstrate that it scales with the reflection coefficient of the conduction electrons against the skyrmion. In other words, in the semiclassical limit, reducing the size of the skyrmion and the width of the nanowire enhances this effect, making it scalable. We propose that such a phenomenon can be exploited in the context of racetrack devices, where the electronic pumping enhances the collective motion of the train of skyrmions.
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Activation of PAR-2 increases colonic permeability by MLCK activation and INF-c-dependent

Activation of PAR-2 increases colonic permeability by MLCK activation and INF-c-dependent

Nicolas Cenac, Rafael Garcia Villar, Laurent Ferrier, Jean Fioramonti, Lionel Bueno. Activation of PAR-2 increases colonic permeability by MLCK activation and INF-c-dependent[r]

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Dual role of CD38 in microglial activation and activation-induced cell death.

Dual role of CD38 in microglial activation and activation-induced cell death.

HAL Id: inserm-00375651 https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-00375651 Submitted on 5 May 2009 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci- entific research documents, whether they are pub- lished or not. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.

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Atomistics of defect nucleation and mobility : dislocations and twinning

Atomistics of defect nucleation and mobility : dislocations and twinning

for the very fundamental problem of core structure and Peierls stress. On the core structure of screw dislocations, it has long since been recognized that it exhibits “3- way splitting” (to be called the “polarized core”) and it has been considered the source of high lattice resistance to screw dislocations. However, recently a “symmet- ric core” (“unpolarized core”) has been obtained by density functional theory (DFT) calculations by Arias [144]. In this thesis we have computed the screw core struc- ture using yet another model – the tight-binding model. Since this potential model is less computationally intensive than the DFT calculations, we now can afford a larger simulation cell to make the dislocation packing less dense which results in a better approximation to the real core structure. Adopting a quadrupole configuration that minimizes the image stress, we have obtained a relaxed screw core that shows unpolarized core structure, the differential displacement map of which is shown in Figure 3-11, together with that for polarized core obtained from Finnis-Sinclair and MGPT semi-empirical potentials. Since both DFT and tight-binding model predict an unpolarized core, we believe the ground state of the screw dislocation core to be unpolarized. It is natural to expect that an unpolarized core will be more com- pact and therefore will exhibit higher mobility. How big a difference this makes and whether this will bring the Peierls stress down to values comparable to experimental critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of 400 − 700MPa, will not be known until the Peierls stress is accurately determined.
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Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

The modes covered and identified are bus, coach, train (national rail), ferry and metro (including Underground, tram, light rail and non-national rail trains). All routes are referenced to stops coded using the NaPTAN scheme (National Public Transport Access Nodes) data [55]. In the NaPTAN scheme, every UK rail or metro station, coach terminus, airport, ferry terminal, bus stop or taxi rank is associated to at least one Stop Point. Not all Stop Points are actually used, so only those that were present in the timetables are considered active and have been taken into account. Stop point are then organized in Stop Areas representing facilities (Airports, Bus/Metro/Coach/Railway Stations) or possible interchange points. The definition of these Stop areas has been taken as a basis for defining a multilayer network from the timetable data. A further process of data cleaning and aggregation has been performed to have a consistent definition of inter-modal exchange points (see Supplementary Information). To complete the spectrum of transportation modes, we use detailed schedules of all non-stop UK domestic flights, provided by Innovata LLC [56] for the week of 18-24 October 2010. Each of these flights has been associated to the Stop Points of the arrival and departure airport (and eventually to a specific terminal). The multilayer temporal network dataset derived from these data is publicly available at http://www.quanturb.com/data.html
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Overview and Measurement of Mobility in DASH7

Overview and Measurement of Mobility in DASH7

A. Range Test Before starting with mobility, we installed one GW at the top of our department building at the university (height = 21.5 m), then we moved the ED around, in a line of sight (LOS) trajectory, going up to 1.6 km. During the movement, we made sure that both ED and GW were communicating in LOS. The ED was configured to transmit the temperature value in uplink. The value consists of a 4 bytes payload and was sent every 30 seconds. All other configurations have been left to default. The uplink data were monitored using the Dash7 cloud server (NS). During testing, we have noticed that, at the distance of 1600 m, the GW was still able to receive uplink data from the ED, but the ED was not able to receive an acknowledgment (ACK). Fig. 4-a shows the measured SNR in dB, when the ED moves from a range within 15 an 1500 m. Note that, as expected, the SNR decreases when the distance increases and the communication undergoes high degradation when SNR is below 8 dB, which corresponds to a distance greater than 1000 m. As the ED is not receiving an ACK at this distance, it repeats non-ACK uplink until the number of repetitions runs out or drops data when queue is full.
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Sector-Specific Training and Mobility in Germany

Sector-Specific Training and Mobility in Germany

4.3 Financing and timing of training Given this perceived generality of training, the extent to which employ- ers nancially contribute to continuous training appears surprising. Two thirds of all respondents report obtaining nancing for the most impor- tant training spell, and the bulk of this nancing comes from employers (Table 5 on page 28). Interestingly enough, as Table 6 on page 28 reports, individuals who received nancing from their employer do not seem to evaluate their training as less transferable than those that received no nancing at all. Most of the variation comes from workers being - nanced through other sources, but workers who do not get any nancing at all seem less sanguine about transferability than workers nanced by their employer. This apparent mystery prompts a look at nancial assis- tance by category of organizing entity in Table 6 on page 29. With the exception of adult education centers (Volkshochschulen) and unclassi- ed other institutions, it is among employer-organized training that the proportion of non-nancing is highest, putting doubt on what workers perceive as nancing. Among those entities most closely related with the present job, 26.60 percent of respondents state not being nanced, but if nanced, nearly 97 percent get nancing from their employer. One possi- bility is that workers might state that they do not receive any nancing if no direct costs were incurred by the worker, although the company may be paying directly for the cost of the course. It thus seems safe to say that the vast majority of continuous training is paid for by the employer.
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Sector-Specific Training and Mobility in Germany

Sector-Specific Training and Mobility in Germany

Table 3: Sample means of training variables All Certicate received Hours per week minmax Number of courses: in last 3 yrs minmax in Period 1: 1 2 3 Respondents with more than three spell[r]

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Modelling IP Mobility

Modelling IP Mobility

101 - 54602 Villers lès Nancy Cedex France Unité de recherche INRIA Rennes : IRISA, Campus universitaire de Beaulieu - 35042 Rennes Cedex France Unité de recherche INRIA Rhône-Alpes : 65[r]

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Autonomous Personal Mobility Scooter for Multi-Class Mobility-On-Demand Service

Autonomous Personal Mobility Scooter for Multi-Class Mobility-On-Demand Service

Fig. 7. An illustration of the dynamic virtual bumper [Source [8]] wt = w0 + αv t 2 ht = ho + βv 2 t where w0 and h0 are the static distance buffers and α and β are the coefficients that determine the growth rate of the dynamic virtual bumper as the velocity increases. LIDARs are used to detect obstacles in the vicinity. When an obstacle Oi is detected within the DVB, the vehicle will generate an advisory speed of a new desired DVB, whose boundary is marked by the position of the nearest obstacle. Since the desired DVB is smaller than the current DVB upon encoun- tering a nearby obstacle, the newly calculated target velocity will be smaller than the current velocity, thus the vehicle will be advised to slow down. The DVB accounts for the presence of both static and moving obstacles, where the considered obstacle set O is defined by the union of static obstacle and moving obstacles sets, O = Ostatic ∪ Omoving . While Ostatic can be directly obtained from sensor measurement, Omoving has to be obtained from prediction of moving object trajectories around the vehicle, and therefore the DVB may frequently adjust in size when dynamic obstacles are present. Finally, the actuation competency, often referred to as motion control of an autonomous vehicle, refers to the ability of the system to execute the commands that have been generated by the higher level processes.
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Looking at Language, Identity, and Mobility in Suriname

Looking at Language, Identity, and Mobility in Suriname

Previous scholarship on some of the individual languages of Suriname and on language in Suriname, has, in the main, focused on historical issues such as language genesis (see, for example, Arends 1995; Migge 2003; articles in Carlin & Arends 2002; Migge and Smith 2007 and in Essegbey, Migge & Winford 2013 for works on the creole languages of Suriname), the historical development of, in particular, Sranantongo (Arends 1989; Bruyn 1995; van den Berg 2007) and language description (Carlin 2004; Huttar & Huttar 1994; articles in Carlin & Arends 2002; Goury & Migge 2003; McWhorter & Good 2012). Earlier work presented in Charry et al. (1983) provides some useful information about how Dutch, Sranantongo and Sarnámi were practiced, including multilingual practices and contact patterns, language ideologies and their recent development. There are also a few articles that examine the linguistic context of Suriname based on statistical (census) and socio-historical data by St-Hilaire (1999, 2001) who has argued that Dutch is gaining ground in Suriname due to a policy of linguistic assimilation. Assimilation, however, for as far as it is taking place, has not proceeded at the same speed and in the same way for all Surinamese. Crucially, urbanized populations tend to have a greater knowledge of Dutch and consequently contact between Dutch and the languages spoken by urbanized populations, as well as mutual contact between the latter is much more intense in the main urban hubs, and Paramaribo in particular, than in rural locations. However, linguistic diversity and contact, as we show in this book, are not solely characteristics of urban spaces, and outside of Paramaribo, the use of languages other than Dutch tends to be more the norm. While these previous works are clearly valuable, there is a need to update them with current data and to expand the focus of attention beyond the urban centres and mainstream cultural and linguistic contact situations to those languages and populations that are often considered to be peripheral in the Surinamese imagination, namely the languages spoken by rural populations and more recent immigrants.
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Activation of SO2 by N/Si+ and N/B Frustrated Lewis Pairs: Experimental and Theoretical Comparison with CO2 Activation

Activation of SO2 by N/Si+ and N/B Frustrated Lewis Pairs: Experimental and Theoretical Comparison with CO2 Activation

2 ][Cl] [19] , [TBD –BBN] 2 [18] and HBCy 2 [26] were synthesized according to literature procedures. Computational details The M06 functional was employed to optimize the equilibrium molecular structure of the model compounds. This functional was specifically developed to describe organic systems with nonbonding interactions. The 6–311+G* sets were used for all atoms. All the geometries were fully optimized without any symmetry or geometry constrains. Harmonic vibrational analyses were performed to confirm and characterize the structures as minima. Free energies were calculated within the harmonic approximation for vibrational frequencies. The effect of the THF solvent on the energy demand was evaluated with the polarizable-continuum model
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pi-calculus, internal mobility, and agent-passing calculi

pi-calculus, internal mobility, and agent-passing calculi

Unite´ de recherche INRIA Lorraine, Technopoˆle de Nancy-Brabois, Campus scientifique, 615 rue du Jardin Botanique, BP 101, 54600 VILLERS LE`S NANCY Unite´ de recherche INRIA Rennes, Iri[r]

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System Health Monitoring and Proactive Response Activation

System Health Monitoring and Proactive Response Activation

IDS are divided into two categories : anomaly-based and signature-based. In anomaly- based techniques, a two step process is employed. In the first step, called the training phase, a classifier is extracted using a popular algorithm, such as a Decision Tree, a Bayesian Net- work, a Neural Network, etc. [16, 17, 18]. The second step, the testing phase, concentrates on classifier accuracy. If the accuracy meets our threshold, it can be used to detect anoma- lies. Anomaly-based detection is able to detect unknown attack patterns and does not need predefined signatures. However, it is difficult to define normal behavior, and the malicious activity may look like a normal usage pattern. In signature-based techniques (also known as misuse detection) [19], we compare captured data with well-defined attack patterns. Pattern matching makes this technique deterministic, which means that it can be customized for every system we want to protect, although it is difficult to find the right balance between precision, which could lead to false negatives, and genericity, which could lead to false posi- tives [20, 21]. Moreover, signature-based techniques are stateless. Once an attack matches a signature, an alert is issued and the detection component does not record it as a state change. One solution to the limitation of detection based only on stateless signatures is to use a Finite State Machine (FSM) to track the evolution of an attack [1]. That way, while an attack is in progress, the state changes and we can trigger appropriate responses based on a confidence level threshold, which would result in a lower false positive rate. The detection component has all the detailed information about the malicious activity, such as severity, confidence level, and the type of resource targeted. The output of the detection component is based on the Intrusion Detection Message Exchange Format (IDMEF) [22]. This is a standard that can be used to report alerts about attacks or malicious behaviors. Briefly, each alert embodies the following :
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Mobility of lattice defects: discrete and continuum approaches

Mobility of lattice defects: discrete and continuum approaches

As we show in this paper both Boussinesq and Rosenau quasicontinuum approximations produce simple analytic kinetic relations which are in good quantitative agreement with the discrete th[r]

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Immune activation and chronic inflammation

Immune activation and chronic inflammation

However, PCA did not discriminate between the absence or the presence of comorbidity within HIV group. 4. Discussion In our study, no specific inflammatory or immune profile has been identi fied in HIV-infected geriatric patients compared to HIV noninfected geriatric population. Similarly, within HIV group, no signature was found to be associated with speci fic comorbidity signature. This can be explained by the fact that HIV-infected patients included in our study were highly selected: indeed, <4% of HIV-infected subjects are aged 75 years and older in the French HIV population. Moreover, we focused on patients who exhibit only 1 comorbidity despite their advanced age. Therefore, our HIV group could be considered as “survivors” with a very favorable phenotype. One indirect proof of this “healthy” status is based on the observation that this geriatric population achieve similar high rate of HIV virologic suppression than younger HIV- infected population (50–74years). [11] Recently, it has been
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