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Detection of Electrical Faults by the Time- Frequency Approach


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Detection of Electrical Faults by the Time- Frequency Approach

Abdelghani Chahmi, Mouhoub Birane

To cite this version:

Abdelghani Chahmi, Mouhoub Birane. Detection of Electrical Faults by the Time- Frequency Ap-

proach. The First International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Process-

ing (CCSSP 2020), May 2020, El-oued, Algeria. �hal-02613329�


978-1-7281-5835-8/20/$31.00 ©2020 IEEE

Detection of Electrical Faults by the Time- Frequency Approach

Abdelghani Chahmi1, Mouhoub Birane2

1 University of Science and Technology, Electrical Drives Laboratory, USTO/MB, Oran, Algeria

2 Université Amar Telidji de Laghouat, Laboratoire des Semi-conducteurs et Matériaux Fonctionnels, , Algeria
 chahmi.abdelghani@gmail.com, m.birane@lagh-univ.dz

Abstract— This paper argues that detection of electrical drives faults, especially the process of failure will be characterized, containing induction machines. First, the context of the study is keeping the faults which might occur in a rotating electrical body in mind, and the research in detection of fault. Second, the development of diagnostic of the machine will be shown. The signal processing in known operating phases (fixed speed), considering and locating malfunctions. In this context, we proposed a new approach for diagnosis electrical defects based on the value of rotor resistance as fixed for condition monitoring.

MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation is used in this work.

Keywords— asynchronous machine, modeling, signal processing, stator fault, inverter fault, stator current pattern.


Fault diagnosis of induction machine has become a central problem in power industry over the past decade. In fact, it is to be found in all the industrial fields and, particularly, in the growth industries like chemistry, nuclear power, aeronautic, or railway transports. The possibility of faults is inherent in converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. Therefore, there has been a substantial amount of research into the creation of new monitoring techniques for induction motor drives [1]. One of the main maintenance efforts is to detect faults occurring in electrical machinery [2,3]. The failures of asynchronous machine are divided into various types of faults; broken rotor bars, shorted stator turns, shaft misalignments, loads vibrations, torque oscillations, gearbox, and bearing faults.

Approximately (45%) of the failures are due to the bearing faults [4-6], followed by stator (37%) and rotor faults (10%).

These different techniques are appropriate responses to various challenges and constraints encountered during diagnosis, such as load level and the disruption of the power supply. The approach system, on the contrary, allows complete automation of the fault diagnosis process from the acquisition and data processing to decision making [7,8].

This paper proposes then a fault detection technique that takes into account some of the above discussed aspects. The proposed technique is based on stator current frequency spectral subtraction [9]. This paper is organized as follows:

part II describes the induction machine model under simplifying assumptions. Part III, presents digital simulation results, the obtained results prove the effectiveness of the proposed monitoring method based on .


The block diagram consists of an induction machine, pulse width inverter, rotor - directed flow control, a current measurement loop and a speed control loop. Fig. 1 shows the simplified diagram of the servo.

Fig. 1. Schematic of the control system studied.

The faults we are considering in such a drive:

In the machine a bar or the ring breaks down in the rotor.

III. RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONS The test parameters are following [1]:

• From t=0 to t=0.3s, flux application

• From 0.3 to 1.8s, liner increase of the speed reference

• From 1.6s constant speed

• At t=3s, fault in the machine

The observers are enabled from beginning.

A. Frequency characterization of the faults

The purpose of the frequency characterization of faults consists, as a function of the fault considered, in determining the frequency (or frequencies) related to the fault and in discriminating the most relevant variable (measured or calculated) in which this frequency can be isolated.

B. Good performance




Fig. 2. Stator current spectrum of phase a in BF and HF.

Fig. 2(a,b) illustrates the spectrum of the stator current (Isa) of the phase an asynchronous machine without short circuit. In low frequency, note the presence of the fundamental frequency (fe). In high frequency, we note the presence of the frequency fMLI- fe and fMLI- 2fe.

C. Motor operation with stator fault on one phase


(b) Fig. 3. Spectrum of the stator current (Isa).

Fig. 3(a,b) illustrates the spectrum of the stator current (Isa) of the asynchronous machine without short circuit. In low frequency, note the appearance of the frequency of the defect (3fe). In high frequency, we note the presence of the frequency fMLI- fe and fMLI- 3fe.



Fig. 4. Stator current spectrum of the faulty machine on a stator phase in the reference frame (d, q).

Fig. 4(a,b) illustrates in low frequency the frequency of the fault (2fe) and in high frequency we note the presence of the frequency fMLI-2fe.The table below summarizes the results of simulation of the machine with defect on a phase to the stator.


D. Fault in the inverter

We chose to consider the effects of an open component.

For this, we have included a block to block the control orders arriving at the switch considered to be defective.


Current 3fe fMLI-3fe

Referentiel (d,q) 2fe FMLI-2fe


1.74 1.745 1.75 1.755 1.76 1.765 1.77 1.775 1.78 1.785 1.79 -300

-200 -100 0 100 200

X: 1.771 Y: -252.9

X: 1.781 Y: -253.6 X: 1.744

Y: -255.9

X: 1.754 Y: -255.2

Temps (s)


Isa Isb Isc


2.95 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.99 3 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05

-400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400


Courant (A)

Isa Isb Isc


Fig. 5. Speed of the stator currents and the spectrum of the machine with inverter fault.

Fig. 6 illustrates the current spectrum (Isa) of the healthy machine with inverter fault (open component) and the sound machine, noting the appearance of the lines around the electric frequency fe and the frequency fMLI-fe.


(b) E. Sensor faults

The sensor fault considered consists of an offset on the measured size (50A or about 15% of the size).

1) Current sensor fault

For this fault (a measurement offset on phase a), the analysis of the spectral content of the current can be effective. Indeed, the vector control will require that the measured currents follow the reference. It will then appear, by composition of the signals, multiple frequencies of the fundamental frequency, in particular the double frequency.

Fig. 7 shows the spectrum of the current measured when the sensor fails.

Noting that this line can also be detected in the controls variables (reference voltages in the Park reference system).

These data being continuous the line will then be at the fundamental frequency of currents.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

-400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400





2.95 3 3.05 3.1 -200

-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200



Isa Isb Isc


2) Speed sensor fault

We present this type of defect to emphasize the importance of detecting it, but as the variables concerned are continuous, there is, to our knowledge, no characteristic frequency for this defect. As in the previous case, the measured speed follows the imposed reference. It is therefore necessary to study the evolution of another quantity or to reconstruct the speed to compare it with the speed measured.

Fig. 8 shows the different variables to be taken into account.

We all propose first to follow the evolution of the stator pulsation imposed by the vector control. Indeed, this magnitude is an image (with a slip close) of the actual speed of the machine. If there is a significant difference between the stator pulsation and the electrical speed (pΩ), this may result from an error in the measured speed. Indeed, during the application of the defect (the default type offset), the speed control will react by changing the torque reference. By means of the equations of the vector control, this means that the stator pulsation imposed by the command will evolve.

Fig. 9 shows the measured speed of a sensor error of 5 Rad / s (2.5% of the reference value). Note that speed control responds to compensate for the offsets that appear on the measured speed.

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

0 50 100 150 200 250



This compensation of the speed therefore produces an increase in the stator pulsation as shown in Fig. 10.

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

0 200 400 600 800


Pulsation (Rad/s)

It should be noted, however, that the position and speed information measured is supplied to the control in order to place the rotating marker. However the orientation of the magnetic quantities in the machine differs from those of the control, there is a risk of stalling the machine if the error is too strong between the two marks.

From Isa phase current:


From vector control outputs:


This work is part of the research activities within the Laboratory of Electrical Engineering, university of Grenoble, France. G2Elab Special thanks to Bertrand Raison, Professor Stator Rotor Inverter Current sensor

fMLI-3fe x x

fMLI-2fe x x

3fe x x

2fe x x

fe x x

2fe x x

fe x


at the University at the Grenoble Alpes France for his valuable advice and continual support.


The study presented in this paper contributes, in the diagnostic faults in electric machines, with specially, in the detection of asynchronous machines. The impact of fault electrical was studied. The majority of recent research was oriented towards the monitoring of the state of an asynchronous machine by using the stator current (its spectrum) as a variable allowing the detection and the diagnosis of some defects. This work focused on the simulation of an electrical drive based on asynchronous machine. After having shown, in the context of the study, the inadequacy of the traditional methods of maintenance and diagnosis, we endeavored to make the most of the information available on the application. This information, first of all in the form of knowledge, allowed the establishment of simulation models. We underlined the influence of the control on the choice of the variable to be considered to detect the characteristic frequency signature of the defect we presented the frequency characteristics of the defects concerning our application. They are summarized in the following table.


[1] A.Chahmi, M.Bendjebbar, B.Raison, Fault Detection In Electrical Drives - Approach Signal, Electrical Sciences and Technologi Maghreb CISTEM 2014 International Conference On, November 3-6, 2014, Tunis, Tunis.

[2] A.Chahmi, “ Spectral analysis of rotor defects on an electrical drive by the park vectors ", JCGE'2015-SEEDS Young Researcher Days in Electrical Engineering June 10-11, 2015 - Cherbourg - – France.

[3] A.Ibrahim, M. El Badaoui., F. Guillet, F. Bonnardot, A New Bearing Fault Detection Method in Induction Machines on Instantaneous Power Factor, IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, vol. 55 n.

12, December 2008.

[4] A.Chahmi, M. Bendjebbar, B.Raison, M.Benbouzid, An Extender Kalman Filter-Based Induction Machines Faults Detection”

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), V6 (2) April 2016.

[5] A.Chahmi, A.Djoudi « Diagnosis of the machine by the Kalman Filter », 5 th International Conference on Electrical Engineering- ICEE’2017, October 29 th to 31st, Boumerdes, Algeria, Publication Year: 2017, Page(s): 1 – 6. IEEE Conference Publication.

[6] A.Chahmi, M.Bendjebbar, K.Nounou « Detection of faults in an asynchronous machine by frequency analysis of the stator currents», 9ère Conférence in Electrical Engineering, CGE’09, 14-15 April 2015- Ecole Military Polyethnique Bordj-El-Bahri-Alger – Algéria.

[7] A.Chahmi, M.Bendjebbar, B. Raison « Detection of faults on an electrical drive by frequency analysis of the stator currents », 1st International Conference on Applied Automation and Industrial Diagnostics ICAAID 29-30 mars 2015- Djelfa –Algéria.

[8] A.Chahmi « Prametric identification of asynchronous machine dedicated to diagnosis». Doctoral thesis, University of sciences and technologies d`Oran ,2017.

[9] A.Chahmi « Diagnosis of the Induction Machine Using Advanced Signal Processing Methods», Algerian Journal of Signals and Systems (AJSS), ISSN: 2543-3792, V3 (3) September 2018.


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