Baourakis G. (ed.).
The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union: New market trends Chania : CIHEAM
Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes; n. 29 1998
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--- Bazoti G. Th e Common organ ization of th e market for olive oil. In : Baourakis G. (ed.). The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union: New market trends. Chania : CIHEAM, 1998. p. 79- 83 (Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes; n. 29)
OF - OF
Directorate of Gieek of Agriculture
Ladies and Gentlemen,
of is a
-the of of
we at the main would like to
about the you an idea of the climate
is one of of
1950, the ECSC of
1957, the EEC and the
1986 with the Act of
1992, with on which was signed at
The of the Community developed as follows:
-1994 3 Total: 15
of activity of the EU in
of in within
l EU, out an of
1. the and is also tke highest in the
2. 13-14 % of the (against 3.5 % in the EU, i.e. 4 times as
of in not exceed 4 % of
3. The of in the total of is about 80 %, 83 % in
the EU as a of in the total of is 17 % (against 14
% in the EU).
of those engaged in 21-22 % of the
(against 6 % in the EU). in % of
of the EU, at 3 % of the EU.
5. is that of development of the will be,
in it a of people.
6. The of is > 55 1993,57 % of the heads of
> 55 of age, while 30 % > 65 of age.
7. and o d y 27 % of total
land 55-60 % in the EU).Tkis is due to: the mountainous of the that 40 % (5.1 million
of of which 3.1
22 % of spite of this, the than meets the needs of counby
with the exception of and milk).
The of the of in the land cultivated is as follows:
* 40 % against 55 % of the EU
* m u a 1 23 %
*and 29 % 76 %) against 10-15 % in the EU.
8. of 900,000 (i.e. 11 % of in the EU).
of in is 4.5 ha, as opposed to EU: 13-14 65 ha, 32-35 F: 28-30 ha.
% of 5 ha
15 % of < 5-10 ha 10 % of
of 6-7 (a this the
and of individuals to
9. is due mainly to soil but also to the
policy followed by the Community in the of
-70 % plant and 30 % livestock (this is
-40-45.5 % plant and 55-60 % livestock.
The conditions on the (plafonds etc) have
led to changes in
1980-1990 the value of the volume of 5.1 %.
This is due ín plant (by 7.8
%).Our of 0.4
in that of the Community. This
by some examples:
*of milk kg/cow -EU 4,500-5,000 kg/cow
*of 350 -EU 500-550 (Comm.12)
*only 35 % of
*of = 4.4 % of the value of in the Community (1992)
*of plant = 6.3 % in Community plant
*of animal = 2.5 %I Community animal
of is needed to meet competition. The full
and that of is of
must not be must
as commodities of and
plays an and
things, the advantages and disadvantages.
Today, (ie 1992) a change of
“A transition is being attempted from the policy of price support to a system of support productive endeavour, and of direct aid for the income of tlie producer.”
event alone would not had so conjunction with the new
the it as
ceilings of in supply (cotton, tobacco etc) do not
so much by way of consolation.
3. STATE OF General An
The in of wine is not an almost 4,000
The was in the
-the (3000 -1550 at about
the same time. The self-sown vine
of in 450 The wine
The oldest evidence of the of wine by sea is given in of
71-2). in in wine was
The of in the 17th
of up to the in wine.
with the in in scions of
the beginning of the 19th phyZZoxera
almost wiped out its cultivation.
The use the situation. Today, is a whole
with t h i s of the EU
domain of the about
2) Condition of in and of into the EEC:
a) 1860 64,556
1911 153,318 1925 201,188 1935 255,622 1971 208,361
1992 138,322 1993 135,497
1995 140,600 1996 139,500
Of the of 135,497 ha 56 % =
31 % =
13 % =
1996) (3.875.000 in 1995/6) EEC (15) 3,988,000 167,480,000
Community an of about 4 m a o n and 49 % of
but 63 % 3.4 %
of Community and 1.7 % of global 2 % of
and 1.3 % of d) Size of
size of the EEC 15.7 ha. size
4.3 ha, i.e. it only 27 % of that in the Community.
0 69 % of the total of C0.5 ha and 25 % of the
0 94 % of the total of ha and 69 %
0 99.5 % of the total of <5 ha and 95.1 % of
of in the
( i n% of of
in 1988 amount was 8.42 %. the same of wine and ~
in plant 2.29 % (1992) against 2.62 % (1988). The of wine- in the total of 4.10 % (in 1992) against 5.84 %
(1988). The of in the total of 1.62 %
(1992) against 1.82 % (1988).
1971182 198112 1982183 1983184 19841 85 1985186 1986187 1987188 1988189 1989190 1990191 1991192 1992193 199314 1994195 1995196
432,000 170,000 207,000 221,000 811,000 786,000 620,000 457,000 843,000 821,000 565,000 549,000 636,000 570,000 577,000 600,000
325,000 98,000 61,000 78,000 430,000 295,000 146,000 151,000 383,000 171,000 70,000 83,000 54,000 80,000 64,000 50,000
268,000 268,000 299,000 1,241,000 1,881;OOO 766,000 608,000 1,226,000 992,000 635,000 632,000 690,000 650,000 641,000 650,000
3,000 4,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 35,000 52,000 90,000 65,000 60,000 60,000 50,000 50,000
55,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
1,000 4,000 13,000 8,000 2,000 6,000 10,000
59,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 8,000 39,000 65,000 98,000 67,000 66,000 70,000 50,000 50,000 g) Abandonment of
to 199314 a total abandoned in
Eligible = 65,661 ECU 175,895,000
11,989 ha 2,814 h)
in of which 55
60 local wines 2
Existing the wine
of the income of of
the production, control, and development of wine-growing potential:
-They classify the h e - g r o w i n g
-The planting of any until 31.12.96 (with exceptions)
-of the CQEUIIIUI~~~
classification of the types of
-The use of
3.2.1 Oenological practices
A lot of detail can This will not shall to
a) The mixing of wine
b) The mixing of Community wine with wine a c) The mixing of wines located in the Community but
d) of that
in alcohol content is also listed:
content in alcohol content A
8 9 5"
3.5" (-4.5) 2.5" (-3.5)
in In zones A, :
3.2.2 of prices
a of we
obliged to submit i 0 % of the alcohol contained in the distillation of
26 % of
-of of double use.
35 % of the
- -this is 65 % of
a quantity % of 50 % of
a quantity > % of Community % of
alt was 26 % of 0.82 that is, 33
with the beginning of
-Table wines with an established alcohol content 9.5 % VOL
3.2.3 Trade with third countries
t h i s of to
instances of at low
the beginning of white and
alcoholised wines Vins de
on the basis of (of
of Community wines on the same that
a notwithstanding this
c) Equalising levy: This is applied h a at of
d) addition to the and the equalising kvy, a levy based on added applied
e) to facilitate Community
f ) The levy of any the Also
is any quantitative limit g)
within the Community, on condition of
We should add that all of within of the GATT, in
will be by 36 % in 5
The imbalance in has led the Commission to suggest (in 1994) of the
now, this has not fads have changed.
wish to emphasize the beginning that the legislation on wines is one of
Some of of
The mixing of Community wines and wines is The mixing of
We can classe Community wines into two A. Table wines (vins de table)
-local wines (table 11)
The table wines have to in on
-within the C o m m ~ t y .
-of as in
-they must have 9 <established alcohol content 15.
Today, within of table wines in we have:
is in 822/87, app. note 13)
with the addition of a maximum of of pinus halepensis,
Epanomitikos 4. Côtes of
Côtes of 7.
8. Lasithiofikos 9.
13. Thessalikos 14.
16. Côtes of Ambeli 17. Viìzas
19. Attica 20.
22. Anavysiotikos 23.
26. Côtes of 27.
28. Thebaikos 29. Côtes of 30. Côtes of 31.
33. Attikos 34. Satistinos 35. Etsonas Avlida 36.
38. Aigiopelagitikos N. Côtes of 4O.Spatanikos
42. Lelantian plateau chalkidiki
45. Chalikounas 46.
52. Valley of Atalanta 53.
5 4 .
59. Sithonia 60.
B. Wines of Appellation d'Origine
wines which within a of
ageing/vintage etc. and
These the wines which and away win of We h v e 29 such
into the EEC.
of names of (ann. 2)
of names of (ann. 3)
The wines of in that
we have: 29 wines of appellation of which 8 wines of appellation
21 wines of de 3)
-analysis of wines of appellation d’origine
Vin de This is a which contains 15 established alcohol content 22
total alcohol content > 17.5
-Alcohol and must
.2 T (vins
vin doux) vin
The classification of thus:
Appellation d’Origine Controlée (8 types) A.
Q€ > 50 %
The above wines
Appellations d’Origine de Qualité Supérieure (20 appellations)
: which is only
B. Other wines:
1. Sitia 2.
3. Naousa Nemea 5.
15. Goumenissa 17. Limnos
and of wines musts
239q89 of wines and
320v90 details of the application of, the
of wines and
on the label. An which
that the legislation of demands it.
of the so that
of the way in which wines labelled.
A. of table wines: 1.
2. in official documents and books
than table wines and
-of the application - of and of wines and
is made to the designations of
note 5, is made of the
to in in 1993
between the EEC and communication “wines of 70,71,72,73). (ann. 79)
communication A of the EEC and in note
44,45,46,47) mention is made in of the
App. _ _ is
designation. note 6 is made of
in the EEC and 1993.
App. is made to the of the names of of c m
be of table wines and t h e Community.
note (page 53) is made to the synonyms the
is made to the synonyms of the of used
note 6 (pages is made to
This down and of
what is an alcoholic - a liquid which is human consumption
of alcohol > 15% Vol.
- with without
-the blending of an alcoholic with
*ethyl alcohol of
of distillation of de vie) is obtained
Sweetening: Use of alcoholic of the following
the that of the
which two in
Addition of alcohol of to alcoholic
two alcoholic of do
of the following elements:
- the method of
- the type of distillation used - the length of
-The alcoholic obtained belongs to that
of in with
h) Ethyl alcohol of of
i) of alcoholic
of in App. of the
and do not of ethyl alcohol as defined in
of an must
is mentioned it must
j) Alcoholic content by volume: the volume of alcohol contained in up to 20%.
alcohol, which due
l) that phase of of the final
gave the alcoholic essence of
of of the alcoholic to the same
Obtained exclusively by of molasses syrups
the of of
cane, and distilled at < 96 % Vol. The must have a content of volatile substances >225g/hl of alcohol % Vol.
of juice sugar cane may be placed on with the rum”, in conjunction with one of names of the
Obtained the distillation of musts:
-of the malt they contain
-which of yeast
-which at < 94.8 % Vol. and of
Whisky is aged in of capaciiy < 700 at (3)
c) Alcoholic drink from grain:
Obtained the distillation of
of the is it
-the exclusive distillation of must of wheat,
polygons with all
A can be called a distillate” inasmuch as it
d) of wine (eau de vin):
This at < 86 % Vol, of
contains volatile substances > 125 g/hl of alcohol % Vol.
This distillates of not with of the
distillation of wine, which has been distilled at e 94.8 %, on the condition that this of distillation does not exceed 50 % of the alcoholic content of
-has in o& at least months if the oak
of alcohol 100 % Vol.
< 200 alcohol 100 % Vol.
f) of marc:
This is of
of to which wine lees may be added (in takes place at < 86 % Vol.
-the same alcoholic content is
-has a capacity in volatile substances > 140 of alcohol % Vol.
-has a capacity in methyl alcohol e 1000 of alcohol
designation “distillate of by the designation in
in we have: Tsikoudiá
g) of marc : 15)
and distillation of
h) of or
of of the of type and distilled at less
than 94.5 % Vol. in such a way that of distillation has and
i) of and
-obtained exclusively of a fleshy the must
such a with of
-distilled at 86
-volatile substances > 200 of alcohol % Vol.
-methyl alcohol 1000 alcohol
-(h the distillation of of alcohol.
j) The distillate of cider apple or pear:
i) distillate of gentian
ii) drink from fruit: of the
into ethyl alcohol of
is called: alcoholic (names of h i t ) . When it is in Spain it is called
iii) alcoholic drink with juniper
iv) alcoholic drink with cumin (fennel) v) alcoholic drink with aniseed
i5 of ethyl
alcohol of of of common aniseed
(pimpineh anissum), of femel (poeninrlzm vulgare) any
by one of the following methods:
of of of
addition of n a k a l of these plants combined use of
is called when it contains of glycyhiga gZabré.
-and of alcohols which
The alcohol which through distillation must 20 % at least of the alcohol content of the ouzo.
The of distillation in question must:
-be obtained by distillation in stills of function, of capacity up to 1,000
-have 55 % up to % Vol.
Ouzo and its content must not exceed 50 is called AN15 when
it contains alcohol which was distilled with of these seeds, in of at least 20 % of the alcoholic content.
vii) Vodka: This is of
by means of
the intention of selective attenuation of connected with the
X) with eggs
Alcoholic content of alcoholic &inks
% Vol 37.5 Vol:
distillate of distillate of distillate of distillate of distillate of distillate of
distillate of gentim gin, distilled gin Aquavit
Vodka ouzo 36 % Vol
Anis 32 % Vol
30 % Vol Alcoholic with cumin 25 % Vol Alcoholic
15 % Vol Alcoholic ouzo, pastis, anis). The
and not mentioned ‘above.
iddition of alcohol
notes 12-18, of App.
must of which
the addition of alcohol.
= of these
wines in the be >
Yes Yes Yes
Probably 14.5 CEACe22
with wine as its basis
notes 1-3 and 15-18 of App.
with the 2ddition of alcohol, To added:
= of these
wines h the find
-w i n e
Final > 50 % N o
Probably Probably EA"
N.B.: EAC = established alcoholic content, TAC = total alcoholic content
;mployed in the ibove table can be supplemented by :he
can be by
wines wines with egg
b) Clarka c)
f ) Gliihwein
a) Wine-based cocktail
of of for of the wine
of indications of designations OP of
foods. This and alcoholic
As being of or as being of
= the name of a of a a specific XGP = as aside
in of a
in the of
a foodstuff : from this
as aside of
due mainly exclusively to
Which contains this and of
and h u m q
and of which take place
an foodstuff has to fulfill
of as follows:
-The application is sent to the in which
-The checks it to the Commission.
- Within 6 is complete,
.- it is it is published in of the
the Commission in the of AOP or 4GB.
Up of which 63 have been
-of animal etc)
-Olive oil 16 8