The algorithms detect reasonable rates of disease compared to official rates available for 2016. Due to demographic (ageing) and/or epidemiologic trends, the number of people with chronic diseases will highly increase during the next ten years in the SouthofFrance region. For instance, between 2016 and 2028, there will be from 15% to 20% more people with diabetes. Associated costs will also be higher (+33% between
Grapevine growers are fearful of the potential effects of climate change on yield and wine quality: the continuing trend for earlier harvest date leads to a decrease in wine organoleptic quality, and increased temperatures lead to heat stress and reduced yield. Thanks to its mi- croclimatic effect, agroforestry could mitigate these risks. In 1995, trees (mainly Pinus pinea and Sorbus domestica) were planted with 4 or 5 rows of grapevine between each row of trees, on the Restinclières Agroforestry Platform, in the SouthofFrance. Twenty-four years later, the accumulated experience allows us to draw conclusions on the beneficial effects of the agroforestry microclimate, with up to 6 degrees lower in agroforestry compared to the pure grapevine control in the hottest summer days, but also on the negative effects of agroforestry, such as nitrogen competition between the trees and the vine, which is significant only on the grapevine row nearest to the tree line.
In the 3rd century BC, the number of wars and battles seems to increase in almost the whole of Western Europe. Indeed, hundreds of weapons have been found in Iron Age sanctuaries and sacred places since they weren't display there before. In many of these sites, human remains have been discovered with both metal artifacts and fauna re- mains associated with the sacriﬁce of animals ( Buchsenschutz, 2017 ; Brunaux, 2004 ; Barral et al., 2006 ). The Classical textual sources document the practice of the Celts cuttingboﬀ their enemies'head after the battle, to transport them to their settlements by hanging the de- capitated heads around their horse's necks. This very precise picture of this practice is known through two fragments of ancient texts, written in the 1st century BC respectively by Strabo and by Diodorus of Sicily, both recording the testimony of an ancient Greek, named Poseidonios, who travelled in the southof Gaul around 100 BC (Strabo, IV, 4, 5 in Lasserre, 1966 ). Other classical texts mention this practice, such as Polybius and Livy and much of the archaeological record corroborates with the descriptions of this practice ( Ciesielski et al., 2011 ; Armit, 2012 ; Boulestin and Henry Gambier, 2012 ). The Iron Age settlement of Entremont in Provence, which was one of the ﬁrst archaeological ex- cavations in southofFrance, revealed much sculpting of decapitated
± Corresponding author: email@example.com 1 Introduction
In Camargue, SouthofFrance, rice cultivation plays a crucial role in desalinating the soils by being cultivated in flooded conditions and provisioning fresh water to the natural wet areas. Rice cultivation also generates employments in the rice chain and plays a crucial role in tourism sector by maintaining traditional landscapes. However, rice fields are a major source of pesticide losses (Comoretto et al., 2008) and most probably of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Linquist et al., 2012). Alternative farming systems, such as organic or low input systems, are expected to improve the sustainability of agriculture in the region (Lopez Ridaura et al., 2014). However, to engage actions to facilitate the development of such alternatives, policy makers and stakeholders need information about their sustainability in various possible future contexts (e.g. changes in policy, price of energy or inputs, etc.). Participatory scenarios development and their integrated assessment aim at providing information to the stakeholders about future sustainable farming systems (Delmotte et al., 2013). In this paper, we present the application of such an approach in Camargue.
Article submitted on 22 December 2015 / accepted on 10 May 2016 / published on 26 May 2016
In August and September 2015, seven locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) were detected in Nîmes, southofFrance, where Aedes albopictus has been established since 2011. Epidemiological and entomological investigations allowed to steer vector control measures to contain transmission. An imported case from French Polynesia with onset fever on 4 July was identified as primary case. This outbreak occurred from 8 August to 11 September in a 300 m radius area. Six sprayings to control mosquitos were performed in the affected area. We describe the first considerable dengue outbreak in mainland France where only spo- radic cases of autochthonous dengue were recorded previously (2010, 2013 and 2014). The 69 day-period between the primary case and the last autochthonous case suggests multiple episodes of mosquito infec- tions. The absence of notification of autochthonous cases during the month following the primary case’s symptoms onset could be explained by the occurrence of inapparent illness. Recurrence of cases every year since 2013, the size of the 2015 outbreak and continu- ing expansion of areas with presence of Ae. albopictus highlight the threat of arboviral diseases in parts of Europe. Thus, European guidelines should be assessed and adjusted to the current context.
II. Agronomic conditions
CIRAD (French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development) and GEVES (French group for the study and monitoring of varieties and seeds) conduct annual trials on sorghum at Domaine de Lavalette (experimental station) in Montpellier, southofFrance [43°35’N 3°52’E]. Research conducted by CIRAD focuses on genetic diversity and breeding of sorghum in tropical and subtropical regions including enhancement of biodiversity, and production of grain for food, silage, and as a source of energy. GEVES’ mandate is to approve new sorghum varieties at the French national level by conducting trials for “agronomic and technological value” (VAT) and trials for “distinctiveness, homogeneity and stability” (DHS) Trial plots for sorghum cover 10.5% of the total surface area of the Lavalette research station, (4.16 ha out of a total of 39.4 ha). The soil is silty and argilo calcareous, deep and pH 8; it is fully irrigable.
called photolysis. The R´ egion Sud is an ideal context for the accumulation of this pollutant, regardless the urbanization/industrialization of the subareas, and because of the meteorological conditions: prolonged sun days and rare rain events all over the year, especially in summer, where this pollutant is already at the highest levels. Air pollution is a major concern not only in big cities but also in territories with medium-sized cities and mountainous zones. Mass of air moves from high pressure zones to low pressure and vice versa, thus particulate matter can be moved from one zone to another along with the mass of air, may exposing rural zones to pollution generated by adjacent industrial zones. Hence pollution trend in specific zones do not depend only by the local pollution production, but it is influenced by surrounding zones and meteorological factors. The understanding of air pollution and its spatio-temporal dynamic is of great interest for governments and local authorities in order to set up new city policies to lower down pollution or for public alerts when pollution raise above secure levels for the citizens. However, studies usually focus on isolated cities and do not take into account meteorological features, making their conclusions weak or not representative to generate prediction models. The main limitation is due to the absence of powerful statistical or mathematical models able to analyse the complex spatio-temporal dynamic of pollution in big zones. Here we chose as model the R´ egion Sud in the southofFrance, to present a novel statistical method to study the behavior of multi-variate variables in order to understand pollution dynamic in this region. This study shows the ability of our co-clustering approach to identify intrinsic structures in these complex data that well suits to describe and analyse pollution behavior. Our results will allow local authorities to set up pollution politics adapted to the heterogeneus territory of the region and will give an instrument to analyse environmental data that can be expanded to other regions/countries.
Extreme Rainfall Analysis at Ungauged Sites in the SouthofFrance : Comparison of Three Approaches
Julie Carreau ∗ Luc Neppel ∗ Patrick Arnaud + Philippe Cantet +
∗ HydroSciences Montpellier, UMR 5569, CNRS/IRD/UM1/UM2, Universit´ e de Montpellier 2 - Case MSE, Place Eug` ene Bataillon 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
This suggests the 223 Ra activities have not been modified by radioactive decay, implying
minimum flow rates of 40 to 60 m/h during the underground water transit.
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Institutional Program for Scholarships Abroad for University Officials of the Office of International Affairs and External Cooperation (OAICE) of the Univer- sity of Costa Rica (Grant Number OAICE-02-CAB-045-2014) and the Institut français d’Amérique centrale (IFAC) of the Ministère français des Affaires Etrangères et du Développement International (MAE-DI, grant number 789478C). We thank Sandra Van Exter for her help with major element analyses. We are grate- ful to the MEDYCYSS-OSU OREME team for making available their database. We thank T. Przylibski and an anonymous reviewer who made thoughtful comments and suggestions that helped to improve the manuscript.
In conclusion, our results point out the important role that could be played by hand-reared ducks released for hunting in AIV dynamics. As we did not detect similar AIV strains in shot and hand-reared ducks we could not prove that AIV exchanges exist between these two epidemiological compartments. Yet, due to rearing conditions in GBF, AIV exchange risks seem to be high enough to urge for sanitary control of hand-reared animals prior to their release into the wild, which appears to be highly insufficient so far. Such surveillance would also prevent HPAIV circulation that may arise from the evolution in GBF of H5 LPAIV that proved to be commonly infecting free-living ducks in the Camargue. The world organization for animal health (OIE) stresses that surveillance of AIV infection should be applied to all domesticated birds including those used ``for restocking supplies of game'' , but control measures generally appear to be poor in game bird rearing estates. This surveillance gap has recently been highlighted in the USA, where game bird holders reported very
Nocardiosis remains a severe infectious disease, occasionally fatal, with a risk of functional sequelae, especially after brain involvement. The management of nocardiosis often requires medical and surgical treatment and long-term therapy and follow-up. Although this study had several limitations, it revealed the wide range of clinical presentations of nocardiosis in the study area, and the impact of the main underlying conditions. Transplant recipients, patients with a malignancy, and those on long-term steroid therapy or with a chronic lung disease are the most affected. The epidemiology and treatment of nocardiosis are evolving, requiring further studies. A systematic radiological evaluation could improve the description of the clinical forms and the adapted treatment.
12 adolescents with ID, boys and girls, from Mid-Sweden participated in the study. The participants took part in a semi- structured interview that focused on experiences and aspects regarding activity and sports in their surroundings. Interviews identified three aspects: Activity, Surroundings, and Body- and health awareness. Adolescents with ID seems motivated to participate in activities and sports. The role of significant others, family and friends, support and the feeling of joy all seem crucial when reporting being outdoors, participating in ball games and in music activities. They are aware of limitations, sometimes feel bullied and are afraid of being excluded. Participation in activities and sports may be positively associated with health, but limitations such as awareness and support from society challenge the perception of ‘fitting in’ experienced by adolescents with ID. There is a need for deeper understanding to implement and follow up on the UN convention on rights for individuals with ID, as well as the 2030 sustainable development goals.
HYDRUS-3D model accuracy in soil moisture simulation during two crop seasons was evaluated in the field conditions under corn and durum wheat irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a Mediterranean climate. The soil moisture simulated with HYDRUS-3D was found to be in excellent agreement with the measured values. The results provide support for applying HYDRUS-3D as an irrigation management tool in the studied climate. The Beerkan method and the BEST algorithm as well as considering temporal variations of soil hydraulic parameters in the first soil layer (0-0.55 m) offer a relevant soil hydraulic data set that are necessary for the model predictions. In this study, evapotranspiration values were modeled using PILOTE model and its output was used as HYDRUS-3D model input. HYDRUS-3D could simulate the water intake as well by using evapotranspiration data gotten from PILOTE, and subsequently could simulate the water content as well. This study showed that HYDRUS-3D and PILOTE can be coupled satisfactorily. For further research, it has been recommended that the solution transfer module and the heat transfer module evaluations under field conditions would be investigated.
3. Attribution of Extreme Events
We pool together SON Rx1day from the 14 stations and 10 models from each ensemble separately for the historical (1970 –2000) and current (2001–2030) climates, which are both scaled with observations over the historical period (i.e., each model value at a given station is multiplied by a historical fraction of the mean over time of all 14 observed stations divided by the mean over time of that model at that station) in order to obtain a pooled distribution that is as homogeneous as possible. We then make the assumption, as in Vautard et al. (2015), that this scaled and pooled data set represents a single distribution of daily rainfall events in the area. Events are, however, not independent from one station to another, a fact that is taken into account for con- ﬁdence interval estimation (see below). Each 30-year model period is described by 14 × 10 × 30 years of simu- lations, and the 58-year period of observations (1957 –2014) is expressed by 14 × 58 years. The distribution of extreme precipitation of each period is modeled statistically by ﬁtting a stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution (Coles, 2001) to SON maxima daily precipitation (Rx1day) of pooled data for each ensem- ble. The 95% con ﬁdence interval is estimated by using bootstrapping with a moving block technique (Eden et al., 2016) in order to take into account the spatial dependence among 14 stations and the dependence among 10 models of each data set. For each bootstrap sample, we randomly pick values from the pooled
• Organic products are being drawn into the same world market
« The main retail chains are trying to drag organic products into the perverse system of conventional products, where there is no price ; this is unacceptable! »
• Consumers and their behaviour show limits for the organic market
Many fellings happened during the 17th and the 18th century, making this the best- documented period dendrochronologically. This long building phase, well-documented by several texts ( Gloton, 1979; Boyer, 1972 ), stopped during the revolutionary period, at the end of the 18th century. This dendrochronological data decrease could be explained by a bias in our data, or by a slow-down in demographic growth for the city of Aix from the French Revolution (1789) to the mid-20th century ( Van Leeuwen, 1995 ). At the end of the 18th century, the new French government seized and sold many religious and noble properties. According to Van Leeuwen (1995) , some of these buildings were totally destroyed by the new owners to recuperate different materials, while other buildings were restructured to create several smaller homes inside.
We hypothesize that large fires will remain frequent in the SouthofFrance for two main reasons. First, the improved fire suppression leads to a negative selection to the benefit of the largest ones. This process paradoxically favored by an efficient fire policy has been referred to as the ‘fire paradox’ (Sande Silva et al. 2010): if fire suppression is effective and reduces the area burned, then wildland fuels accumulate and fuel connectivity increases across the landscape, thus increasing in turn the likelihood of large fires when fire suppression forces cannot control them at the initial stage. Secondly, fire suppression forces will face new challenges: climate change will likely favor more intense and more frequent fires and the extension of the area at fire risk while fire suppression crew and equipment may remain constant due to stagnation of financial resources allocated. The firefighters will have to operate on larger territories, including abroad.
than in the past ( Audouit et al., 2019 ), meaning that some positive impact of public policy and management has been perceived by the general public.
The lack of full restoration of water quality and of other aspects for qualifying as good ecosystem state (e.g., benthic macrophytes) raised the question whether the reduction of the nutrient loading should not be combined with additional eco-engineering measures (cf. Figures 3, 4, active restoration). Therefore, the hypertrophic Méjean and the mesotrophic Ingril Sud lagoons were compared. While it was considered that Ingril Sud lagoon was already on a trajectory for spontaneous recovery after the nutrient reduction (passive restoration), additional measures for active restoration were considered for Méjean lagoon. These measures comprise a first phase based on collection of macroalgae and their exportation from the lagoon followed by a second phase based on planting marine angiosperms. Based on these suggestions, four scenarios were defined for Méjean lagoon, ranging from passive to a high level of active ecological restoration and questionnaires were designed for residents and tourists and face-to-face interviews were performed. More than 85% of both residents and tourists expressed that they have a positive perception of the ecological and societal importance of coastal lagoons and of their ecological restoration. A willingness to pay for active restoration (i.e., additional costs for the eco- engineering measures on top of the 150 Million¤ engaged for the improvement of the water quality, see above) was expressed by 70 and 60% of the resident and tourists’ respondents, respectively. The residents were willing to pay each about 25¤ a year for the highest level of ecological restoration and willing to allocate a much smaller amount of about 5¤ for the improvement of the infrastructure for visiting the site ( De Wit et al., 2017 ).