5 In two critical works written within a few years’ interval—“The Space of theFeminine in
The Duchess of Malfi” and “The Duchess of Malfi: Tragedy and Gender”—Judith Haber
explores the play’s games of proliferation that, she underlines, go against our conventional expectations of a neatly defined tragic arc of action, that is to say one that would single out an exemplary hero or an exemplary pair of heroes and climax in their violent deaths. Haber considers such a type of tragedy “inescapably masculinist and aristocratic—and wholly fantasmatic” (Haber 2010, 237). That view of action is represented in Webster’s play by the champions of patriarchy, chief among whom Duke Ferdinand, exhibiting as early in the play as Act 1, scene 1 the phallic symbol of his “father’s poniard” (1.1.321) to threaten the Duchess if she attempts to escape the law of the father by remarrying.This fantasy of virile violent action accompanies Ferdinand throughout, yet always remains a fantasy, never fulfilled by him. For example, when first learning through Bosola that his sister is remarried, Ferdinand’s reaction is a fantasy of violent invasion of her land, a symbolic rape of sorts: “Would I could be one, / That I might toss her palace ’bout her ears, / Root up her goodly forests, blast her meads, / And lay her general territory as waste / As she hath done her honors!” (2.5. 17-21). Later his intrusion into her bedroom in the mirror scene carries further this fantasy of violent penetration of her innermost self. On that instance too, he exhibits the phallic poniard, exhorting her to “Die then, quickly!” (3.2.71), a line that plays on the early modern double-entendre involved in “dying”, that is to say falling dead and having an orgasm. But neither the Duchess’s sexuality, nor her death follow such phallic, assertive and immediate linearity. The closest Ferdinand will come to his virile ideal of drawing blood quickly and definitively is the fantasised battlefield where he sees himself on horseback— in a fashion recalling the precedent of Shakespeare’s Richard III—in his last moments in the play when he attacks his own brother (5.5.46ff).
Their works were based on the idea defended by a French Feminist, Françoise d’Eaubonne, who called it féminitude”, that is, to get each woman to explore her true life story; therefore, “womanliness” as distinct from femininity.
In reality, it is difficult to minimize the problems experienced by women to live out the revolutionary theories of the radical feminist movements. The first problem was the gap between women’s new identities and the restrictions imposed by a society that remained sexist; the second problem was the question of men’s oppression over women, a concept so intrinsic within American society that there was a kind of “mutual complicity” in it. Consciousness-raising has continued because of the perpetual nature of the issues involved. The first of these was the socioeconomic oppression of women, perceived at first as an injustice from an economic perspective, then as physiological alienation in the name of motherhood, and finally, as sexual discrimination against the entire socioeconomic class of women. The second issue that retained the attention of radical feminist thinkers was sexuality. Two theories toward sexuality developed: one focused on denouncing the repression of women’s sexual needs; the other orientation emphasized the way women had been alienated from themselves by thefeminine idealization. The third issue pointed out by feminist thinkers was the cultural oppression of women. While Betty Friedan and the earlier Women’s Rights movement had proposed that the solution was a mass movement by women into the working world to free themselves from the idealized image of femininity, the theorists of the later Women’s Liberation movement laid down a precondition that women must first liberate themselves, through the process of consciousness-raising, to develop an ideology and an action program appropriate to a political movement.
Item Relevance: Overall, 273 masculine and feminine items were evaluated by 4 experts in
consumer behavior’s scales development according to their levels of reflecting the masculine/feminine brand constructs and also according to their applicability to brands. By the end of this evaluation, only 58 items were considered. Since gender is culturally defined, we tested statistically the relevance of those 58 items from a consumer’s perspective. To do so, 157 French undergraduate students evaluated those items as to their level of representing separately a brand for man and a brand for woman, consistently with the approach of Bem. A paired sample t-test was conducted on the overall sample. Since we wanted to develop a scale generalizable across human sex, we also studied separately men and women. Only items with significant t test (sample and across the sexes) were kept and used to conduct a median split. The median split (Median Masculinity = 3.17; Median Femininity = 3.59) allowed us to distinguish masculine brand items (i.e. items scoring higher than the median on the masculine dimension and lower than the median on thefeminine dimension) and thefeminine brand items (i.e. scoring higher than the median on thefeminine dimension and lower than the median on the masculine dimension). At this level, 14 feminine items listed below were left – see table 1.
identifying thefeminine outside and distinct from the framework of hegemonic masculinity, I argue that in entering an imaginary place for women – for thefeminine – in the form of utopia/dystopia, the essential feminine reveals itself. Foucault’s (1986) little developed concept of heterotopia as places that may or may not exist, that express visions and ideals both good and bad, and that contest prevailing versions of reality in “that they suspend, neutralize, or reverse the set of relations that are designated, reflected or represented [refléchis] by them…”(178) has potential for writers who seek to suspend, neutralize or reverse the social network they are defined by while at the same time refute. Because the modern world is a dystopia for thefeminine, feminist writers have no need to imagine dystopia. Rather, they are drawn to imagining spaces that express feminine values and priorities so as to solve problems of feminine expression in society by laying claim to an imagined future. However, it is more normal for feminists to be critical of what is than to define in detail what could or should be as language itself is controlled by masculine hegemony. In Part Two I imagine and describe a fictional utopia as part of a personal exploration of how to identify that which expresses thefeminine outside and beyond the conventional binarised category of the not-masculine. Utopias contain ideas for an imagined spatial reality that express social and artistic ideals in a futuristic three-dimensional framework. The language used for a manifesto-like call for feminine utopia is critical in light of feminist concerns with language and I have written parallel narratives in different voices. The framing narrative uses a single-voiced subject to take the reader on a journey to Cwenaland. At each stage in the narrative other voices pierce and slice the prose. Some are in the form of an image or a portrait: stories or RÉCITS in other voices in a different pace and tone. Others are ESSENCE: an accent, a flash, a chime that pierces the narrative voice like a shout or a wail. These voices that are tangential and diagonal to the narrative ground my fictional utopia in the many levels of feminine experience and expression.
would explain why she is still wandering as a ghost in the castle, as she cannot get any form of redemption through Purgatory.
The threat of femininity may also be seen with the references to blood. The obvious one is the deadly wound on her breast, which keeps bleeding and stains her ghostly clothes. Yet, the bleeding may also imply the menstrual cycle which refers to women’s capacity to carry children. Moreover, the menstrual cycle is still a taboo in societies and even more in re- ligion. Thus, chastity is one of the nun’s vow however by carrying children or sexual activity in general, this expectation is unreached, which extents the Bleeding Nun’s monstrosity to the only coincidence of being a woman as, by bleeding, she may not conform to her vow. The fo- cus on her wound is interesting to consider because of its location. She has been wounded at the breast, an emblematic symbol of thefeminine body that has a double symbolic dimension of the nourishing breast of the mother but also an object of desire, as it is the case when Mat- ilda strips her chest to threaten to stab herself in front of Ambrosio, a scene in which she is seen in a situation of power. The Bleeding Nun is powerful through the fear she inspires to whoever crosses her path. Furthermore, the ghost refers to something ancient lingering over the castle, thus the Bleeding Nun may represent the potential threat of femininity that has al- ways been present among the living since the beginning of times. The position of the wound
microsimulation approach is that it includes in the calculation of the internal rate of return to education the whole tax and benefit system: for instance, a more complete calculation of the internal rate of return to education can be produced if pension schemes and more generally the last part of the lifetime are taken into account. The microsimulation approach enables an analysis of the distribution of the internal rates of return to education for a given diploma. From this point of view, the development of a dynamic microsimulation model is important to analyse education policy as an investment, to identify the winners and the losers, as well as the macro revenues of these investments that have to be considered over a lifetime. The evaluation of these policies has to take into account the socio- fiscal regime but also the specificities of the national education system. For instance, there is an analytical tradition in socio-economics 5 which links education system and the occupation and status on the workplace and/or the labour market. In the current appraisal of education in economic microsimulation, individual education is often represented by the schooling years’ number. The objective of the model presented in this paper is to go further and to present a more comprehensive approach of the link between education and the labour market. This comprehensive approach takes into account the different diplomas produced by the French education system and the careers they lead to.
First, several details of the Archpoet’s orthography can be inferred from his rhymes. That he represented the Classical diphthongs ae and oe as e is apparent from the first poem of the Watenphul-Krefeld edition, Lingua balbus hebes ingenio, in the rhyme tedio—medio I.iv.3-4, also in the rhymes verbera—genera—cetera I.xxi.1-3, premium— medium I.xxxix.3-4, parve septimane—nane—Lucane—Mantuane IV.v.1-4, presentis evi—in brevi—lupi sevi—levi V.xvii.1-4, leta—poeta VI.2, Archicancellarie—prudencie— ecclesie VII.i.1a-3a, menia—prelia VII.viii1a-2a, Colonie—pauperie—hodie VII.ix.1a-3a, Constantine—mine—ruine—spine IX.xxiii.1-4, ille—Achille—ville—mille IX.xxiv.1-4, ecus (i.e. equus)—Grecus—cecus—pecus IX.xxxi.1-4, precor—necor—decor—mechor X.vi.1-4, Papie—die—vie—Alethie X.ix.1-4.
With the advent of the third millennial, computer system users have became more demanding concerning functionality, richness, diversity of information and conformity to the demands of the various users. It is precisely for this reason that these systems must be evolutionary in order to welcome new users and offer to every one a wide access to data of all nature. Such a modeling cannot be achieved according only to one point of view because of the different needs of every user and his rights of access to relevant information. It is for this reason that several research works of research relative to the point of view’s concept in different fields of the data processing have been marked the previous decade. Indeed, the point of view’s notion has been studied in correlation with the object’s notion in many works interesting various domains of the data-processing research. It is the case of the systems LOOPS and TROPES  in the domain of the representation of knowledge , of roles models  and of the two approaches based on the UML of Clark and Catalysis , in the conception of application  . It is also the case of systems of data bases object with points of view as O2Views, COCOON and MultiView  , to only mention some of them. The point of view’s notion was also dealt with in the domain of the programming object notably in the programming by subjects , the programming by aspects , and finally the programming by views . Concerning our works within our team they have already led to the definition of the VBOOL language , to the method associated VBOOM and to its extension toward the UML, U_VBOOM . In the same way similar works concerning the generation of code multi-targets for methods VBOOM and U_VBOOM while taking as basis on the filtering mechanism as a basis was the object of some of our research   .
president is vested in the Electoral College. All the states choose their electors by direct
popular vote. When people cast their votes for a presidential candidate on election day,
they actually vote for a group of electors. All states except Maine and Nebraska use the “winner take all” principal, a system in which the candidate who receives the most votes is awarded all the state’s electors, even if the margin of victory in the state’s popular vote is small. Hence it is possible for a candidate to win the popular vote but lose the electoral
The Canadian case can be used to illustrate the importance of this statement. According to Van Bavel and Reher’s index of the volume of the baby boom, Canada occupies the top of the list of countries with the largest baby booms along with countries like the United States (US), Australia, and New Zealand (2013, p. 265). But when we look at specific Canadian provinces, a more contrasting picture emerges. Figure 1 reproduces the trend in the crude birth rate in Canada used by these two authors to determine the surplus of births during the baby boom, and thus the magnitude of the baby boom. It also provides comparable information for Quebec and Ontario, the two Canadian provinces with the largest populations in 1941: 3.3 and 3.8 million inhabitants, respectively, together accounting for 62 per cent of the Canadian population in that year (Statistics Canada 1999). It shows that although the timings of the baby booms were the same in both provinces, their magnitudes differed: it was higher in Ontario, which displayed much lower birth rates than Quebec at the onset of the boom. The Canadian trend thus appears to be an average of diverse provincial trends.
of this reduced intensity, the Saint as a form of protective care work is as much a reality in richer Roma Sur as it is in the rest of the city.
To understand how the saint protects, it is useful to dwell a little on how Mexico’s baroque modernity was constituted. As New Spain entered the Baroque era, almost every household had a domestic altar. When the Catholic church faced capitalist modernity, it reacted by reinventing itself and taking advantage of the baroque aesthetic that characterized everyday Mexican life in the 17th century. Promoting the image of the Virgin Mary as an intermediary between humans and God, the Church was able to “restore faith” and produce symbolic value by opening a direct relationship between God and the people through the saint (and not only through the priest).In addition, as a response to people’s unequal access to Church burial sites (strictly reserved to those who could pay for their redemption), communal organizations destined to pool resources for the caring of souls as a form of burial insurance were created. These cofradias constitute the roots of the contemporary system of protective care work based on patronage, corporatism, and daily interactions with the saint. Even the triumphant post-independence Liberal state did not succeed in proscribing popular religion and the very visible practice of entering in relation with statues of the Saint constructed on the street in the 19 th century.
Concerning the interrelation between religion and politics
The religious system is one of the pillars on which human consciousness is built. It is an important element in the social and political structure of the Islamic Nation. The separation between religion and politics is an oral one that cannot be practiced because religion is not abstract doctrines but it has a socio-political function (ةدﺎﻌﺳﻮﺑ, 2013). However, at the same time, religion is subject to politics, most often the political power creates and controls the religious authority and uses it to legitimize its programs and practices (ﻲﺿارﻮﺑ, 2017; ةدﺎﻌﺳﻮﺑ, 2013). This makes the clergy´s control of the people dangerous if the controllers were bearer of destructive agendas of the social consciousness. The main demands of the Arab popular movements in these years are democracy and freedom. However, talking about the relationship between politics and religion is still a difficult problem as it is considered taboo even for people asking for freedom (بﺎﯿﺸﻟا, 2011; نوﺮﺧآ و نﺎﻀﻣر, 2007). This means that those who demand freedom still subordinate themselves to the authority of religion controlled by politics and to the authority of politics controlled by religion (بﺎﯿﺸﻟا, 2011). The extremist movements such as ISIS and Al-Nusra are the result of the extremism in believing that the state and religion are one thing and that society should be governed by the rules of Islamic law whose interpretation is monopolized by a handful of extremists. The exploitation of religion in many Arab countries remains a source of degradation and backwardness (ﻲﺿارﻮﺑ, 2017). The inevitability of believing and the imperative obedience of clergy are the most dangerous weapons that harness religious mythology to control people's beliefs and actions. Moreover, the Imam/Sheikh is considered in many Islamic societies as the intellectual reference who imposes what is right and what is prohibited of the different phenomena or life activities or who interprets the identity of all the events that take place in reality on the basis of his religious background (ناﺪﻤﺣ, 2009; ﻲﺿارﻮﺑ, 2017; ةرﺎﺸﺑ, 1990; ةدﺎﻌﺳﻮﺑ, 2013).
Jacobus attributes to Cosmas Vestitor, but which in fact come from the Sermo de Assumptione beatae Mariae by Johannes Aretinus. 10
According to this variation of the story, the Virgin, informed of her imminent death by an angel, gathered all her friends and relations around her. The attendants were numerous; Jacobus da Voragine mentions the presence of no less than 120 virgins. Saint John arrived by chance, whereas the other Apostles were miraculously transported to the deathbed chamber. Saint John told them the news proclaimed by the angel. They dried their tears, paid their last respects and worshipped Mary, who took to her bed. The text specifies that Peter was placed at her head and John at her feet. Following a clap of thunder, the gathered attendants, with the exception of the Apostles and three light and shade – chiaroscuro – plays an essential role in
Once the book is translated, one should give it a preface. Or more
modestly a postscript: the author first! [...] To translate a work afflicts you with a strange myopia. To pretend to dominate Walser, or only to explain his book, seems to me presumptuous, illusory. [...] Great
Mapping the (human) brain in health and disease
Ultimately, the debate comes down to distinct perspectives as to what exactly we need to measure in order to understand what the brain is doing. One obvious target is spikes. But would efforts focused entirely on firing neurons deliver the promised breakthrough in understanding brain function in health and disease? Although most of the brain disorders that impose the greatest burden on American society (e.g. Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, bipolar illness, autism, migraine, stroke, and traumatic brain injury) involve disease processes that affect the generation of spikes, they cannot be described by the spike code alone. These include dysfunction of synaptic growth and communication, abnormal activity of glia, release of inflammatory mediators, altered molecular signaling (neuro- and gliotransmission, growth factors), disruption of the neuroglial metabolic partnership, pathological neurovascular coupling, and premature cell death. Some are part of the repertoire underlying recovery or restoration of function. For these reasons, measurement of multiple electrical, molecular/chemical, and connectivity parameters in the working brain might prove at least as valuable as extending the number of simultaneously captured spikes.
need to remember that the play is a revolutionary in the playwright life but also stable maturation toward under-standing blackness or rather African-Americans.
His interpretation of the African-American psyche, experience, and fate evolved over time, leaving a legacy of more realistic, sympathetic, and tragic black figures to American theatre. “The Emperor Jones” is a radical American play in its harsh judges of whiteness and of the abuse whites impose on non-whites for materialistic gain: empires, gold, land, and money. Jones is a tragic character not only because he has been personally mistreated by whites as a black man, or because he dies having failed at self-knowledge, but also because he has chosen to become a puppet in the hands of the white socio- economic structure, which has oppressed him and his own people in the past. Hoping to change his tragic destiny, he assimilates and imposes it on others like him, the West Indians. Because he has a double consciousness, he has been harmed by whiteness, he adopts a white mask and strives to “pass” among other blacks, but thus trapped in a nasty circle, he ends up promoting, rather than terminating, the very white heritage which has destroyed him.
Some opposing arguments developped by J. Yoyotte in a communcation 42 reveal to be quite weaks. For exemple, it is not certain that Seth received the nickname of « Median » since the word could also mean the « Medja 43 », and a famous representation of Seth on a magical stela from Hanovre 44 is not obviously directed against the great Persian king, this is only a free interpretation. The allusion might be more general as in the Demotic Chronicle, the allusion to the « great god », supposed to be Alexander the Great. Both allusions could refer to general ennemy as in the apocalyptic literature, also its origin lie in historical events, these are treated in a general way according to a conception of history, and the reprensentation of Seth could be emblematic or symbolic 45 . Even the famous execration of Seth shows its limits, since if well attested in the valley and above all in the theban area, it’s not at all the case in the Oasis which are atraditionnal places of worship for the god Seth, the positive representation of Seth in the Hibis temple is famous and this positive character of the god survived in magical texts of imperial period 46 . As a confirmation of this interpenetration, we may underline the discovery in the Wadi Hammammat of a magical formula against scorpions written in archaic demotic and in aramaic, which implies to masterise both writings 47 . This use of aramaic can be compared with the use of foreign languages in magical texts of the New Kingdom, and in the same way as there was a special consideration for Nubia, there may be in this period also a