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Épreuve d'Anglais, BAC série AL, LV1, année 2016, Mali


Academic year: 2021

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Pays : Mali Année : 2016 Épreuve : Anglais (LV1) Examen : Bac, Série AL Durée : 3 h Coefficient : 3


Brain drain, which is the action of having highly skilled and educated people leaving their country to work abroad, has become one of the developing countries concern. Brain Drain is also referred to as human capital flight. More and more Third World science and technology educated people are heading for more prosperous countries seeking higher wages and better working conditions. This has of course serious consequences on the sending countries.

While many people believe that immigration is a personal choice that must be understood and respected, others look at the phenomenon from a different perspective. What makes those educated people leave their countries should be seriously considered and a distinction between push and pull factors must be made. The push factors include low wages and lack of satisfactory working and living conditions. Social unrest, political conflicts and wars may also be determining causes. The pull factors, however, include intellectual freedom and substantial funds for research.

Brain drain has negative impact on the sending countries economic prospects and competitiveness. It reduces the number of dynamic and creative people who can contribute to the development of their country. Likewise, with more entrepreneurs taking their investments abroad, developing countries are missing an opportunity of wealth creation. This has also negative consequences on tax revenue and employment.

Most of the measures taken so far have not had any success in alleviating the effects of brain drain. A more global view must take into consideration the provision of adequate working and living conditions in the sending countries. Another option should involve encouraging the expatriates to contribute their skill to the development of their countries without necessarily physically relocating.

QUESTIONS (20 points)

I- READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (5 points) A. Multiple choice questions (1 point)

Copy the complete sentence containing the correct answer. 1. Another name for Brain drain is ...


b. Human capital flight c. Educated people d. Third World people.

2. Immigration is a personal choice for ... people. a. some

b. few c. many d. any.

B. True / False questions (2 points)

Copy the true sentences and correct the false ones. 1. There is a difference between push and pull factors. 2. Intellectual freedom is a push factor.

3. Brain drain is good for the sending countries.

4. Investing abroad has negative impact on employment. C. Answer the following questions (2 points)

1. Why are Third World science and technology educated people heading for more prosperous countries?

2. What are called “the sending countries” in the text?

II- LANGUAGE (10 points)

A. Copy down each word from the list on the left with the correct definition from the right. (2 points) A B Flight Seek Wage Alleviate to make light

the act or power of flying

payment paid for labor or work done to look for

B. Complete the following by using by and a gerund. Use the words in the list. (2


Eat wash watch cook send

1. We clean our clothes ……….. them in soap and water. 2. I save money on food ………. my own vegetables. 3. We satisfy our hunger ………. something.

4. After work, I relax ………. TV.


D. Translate into English (2 points)

Beaucoup de jeunes Africains vont à l’étranger pour avoir un emploi. Ils rencontrent souvent des problèmes et ne peuvent plus retourner au pays.

E. Translate in French (2 points)

From “Brain drain has negative impact...” to “... development of their country.” III. COMPOSITION (5 points)

Choose only one topic.

1. Would you like to leave your country after your studies and go to work in a developed country?

Why or why not? Give reasons for your choice.

2. Josephine Coulibaly, TLL LDDK, Koulikoro, Mali, has passed the Baccalaureate exam. She wants to carry on her studies in Great Britain. She writes to her former English teacher Abdoulaye Yattara LYMG, Gao, Mali, to ask for advice. She explains the field of studies she is interested in and her career preferences, and gives reasons.


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