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Spectral characteristics of waves and particles in the

model of cyclotron wave-particle interactions near

plasmapause

D. L. Pasmanik, V. Y. Trakhtengerts

To cite this version:

D. L. Pasmanik, V. Y. Trakhtengerts. Spectral characteristics of waves and particles in the model of cyclotron wave-particle interactions near plasmapause. Annales Geophysicae, European Geosciences Union, 1999, 17 (3), pp.351-357. �hal-00316551�

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Spectral characteristics of waves and particles in the model

of cyclotron wave-particle interactions near plasmapause

D. L. Pasmanik and V. Y. Trakhtengerts

Institute of Applied Physics, Ulyanov Street 46, Nizhny Novgorod 603600, Russia Received: 30 April 1998 = Accepted: 17 July 1998

Abstract. Further analysis of energetic electron preci-pitation at the evening sector of magnetosphere is performed. In the framework of the quantitative model of cyclotron wave-particle interactions developed in the previous Pasmanik et al. paper, the case of ®nite spread over energies of initial energetic electron distribution is studied. The solution for distribution function of ener-getic electron is found. The enerener-getic spectrum of trapped and precipitating electrons and whistler wave spectrum are analysed.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating; energetic particles, trapped); á Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions).

1 Introduction

This work is devoted to the problem of the cyclotron wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. In particular, the quantitative model for whistler mode wave and energetic particle interactions in the Earth's radiation belts with real particle and wave sources taken into account is studied. The development of such a model is really important, because many experimental data on energetic particles and waves in the magneto-sphere have now been accumulated.

In a previous paper (Pasmanik et al., 1998) the formation of a zone of energetic electron precipitation during magnetic storm was analysed in the framework of the quasi-linear theory of cyclotron instability. As a source of energetic particles Pasmanik et al. (1998) considered the magnetic drift, following injection at the nightside of the magnetosphere. However, it was

thought that the injected electrons had a small spread over energies and the wave spectrum was not analysed. In this work we have performed further development of that model. In particular, we have generalised previously obtained results for the case of arbitrary initial distribution of energetic particles over energy and found the spectrum of generated waves.

The work is organised as follows: the basic equations of the developed model are presented in Sect. 2, their analytical solution is given in Sect. 3 and results of nu-merical analysis of this solution are discussed in Sect. 4. A conclusion is formulated in Sect. 5.

2 Basic equations

Let us consider the development of cyclotron instability due to the interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons, which enter the region with en-hanced background plasma density by their longitudinal drift. Such a region may be found at the plasmapause or when detached cold plasma clouds formed on the recovery phase of magnetic storm.

As basic equations we use the set of self-consistent equations of the quasi-linear theory of cyclotron insta-bility, including the equation for distribution function of energetic electrons F and spectral density exof whistler

mode waves. In the case of dense background plasma when the parameter b?ˆ x2pLv20=x2BLc2 1, most wave

energy occurs at low frequencies x  xBL=b? xBLand

pitch angle di€usion prevails. Here xBL and xpLare the

electron gyro- and plasma frequency at the equatorial plane, v0is characteristic velocity of energetic electrons,

c is the velocity of light. In this case the basic equations can be written in the following form (Pasmanik et al., 1998): XD@F@uˆT1 b @ @llD @F @lÿ d  F ; …1† vg?@r@ex ?ˆ …c ÿ m†ex ; …2†

Correspondence to: D. L. Pasmanik e-mail: pdl@aurora.appl.ssi-nnov.ru

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The ®rst equation is averaged over electron bounce oscillations between magnetic mirror points. The term on the left side in Eq. (1) describes the longitudinal magnetic drift of energetic electrons, where u is the azimuthal angle, XD is angular magnetic drift velocity,

TbˆH dz=vk is electron bounce period, vk and z are

velocity components and coordinates along magnetic ®eld line. Magnetic moment l ˆ sin2H

L, where HL is

pitch angle at the equatorial plane. The last term in Eq. (1) corresponds to the particle losses through the loss cone, the coecient d is de®ned as

d ˆ 0 l  lc

d0ˆ v=l 0  l  lc



; …3†

where lcˆ Lÿ3…4 ÿ 3Lÿ1†ÿ1=2is the loss cone boundary

for the dipolar magnetic ®eld, v is the electron velocity, and l is the length of the magnetic ¯ux tube. The di€usion coecient D is determined by the wave intensity ex and can be written as (Pasmanik et al.,

1998): D ˆ V …v2† ~D ˆ V  Z xBL xm0 G1exdx ; …4† where, V ˆ 4pe mcv  2 ; G1ˆlkeff : …5†

Here k is the wave vector of whistler wave and leffis the

e€ective length of the whistler-electron interaction region near the equator; generally it depends on wave frequency and electron velocity (see Bespalov and Trakhtengerts, 1986), but under the conditions men-tioned here we may consider leff const.

In the energy transfer Eq. (2) the term cex describes

the energy source for whistler waves, and c is the growth rate of the cyclotron instability. Two other terms corresponds to losses due to the imperfect re¯ection from the ionosphere (the term mex; m is the e€ective

damping rate) and wave propagation away from the generation region across the magnetic ®eld due to refraction (the term vg?@r@e?x). In Eq. (2) vg? and r? are

the components of whistler mode group velocity and the spatial coordinate perpendicular to the magnetic ®eld respectively. It should be remembered that the main propagation term along the magnetic ®eld vgk@e@zx has

been removed by averaging over the oscillations of wave-packets between conjugate ionospheres.

Further, we consider a one-dimensional problem and make dr?ˆ R0L du, where R0 is the Earth's radius.

The growth rate c is found from the linear theory of cyclotron instability and can be written as (Bespalov and Trakhtengerts, 1986), c  1 Tg …2p†3e cBL Z1 xBL=k Zlm 0 lefflv3 @F@lÿxx BLF   dl dv ; …6† where lmˆ 1 ÿ …xBL=kv†2; Tg ˆH dz=vgk is period of

wave-packet oscillations between conjugate ionospheres,

and the electron distribution function is normalised by the relation: N ˆ plÿ1 c Z1 0 Z1 0 TbFv3dl dv : …7†

Here N is the number of electrons in the magnetic ¯ux tube with unit cross-section in the ionosphere.

The self-consistent system of Eq. (1) and (2) must be completed by the boundary conditions, which take the form:

u ˆ 0 : exˆ ex0; F ˆ F0…l†

l ˆ 0; 1 : l@F@lˆ 0 : …8†

3 Solution in the cases of strong and weak di€usion Following Pasmanik et al. (1998) we shall consider two cases corresponding to strong and weak pitch angle di€usion. The criterion of di€usion regime is ratio of the loss cone ®lling time in the process of pitch angle di€usion to the time required to empty the loss cone. This ratio is equal to

K l D

cTbd0

D

1:5lc ; …9†

K  1 for strong di€usion and K  1 in the weak di€usion case.

According to Pasmanik et al. (1998) in both cases solution of Eq. (1) is found from the equation without loss term dF @ ~F @uˆ V ~D XDTb @ @ll @ ~F @l : …10†

where V and ~D are determined by Eq. (5). The losses are taken into account by the multiplier exp (ÿD  u) in the storng di€usion case, where D ˆ d0lc=XD, and by

changing boundary condition for Eq. (10) at the edge of loss cone l ˆ lc, which is written as F …l ˆ lc; u† ˆ 0

in the case of weak di€usion.

In contrast to Pasmanik et al. (1998), we suggest a ®nite spread of initial distribution function over velo-city. Then we have to consider the dependencies of parameters in Eq. (10) on velocity. Taking into account that XD/ v2, and Tb/ vÿ1 (see Lyons and Williams,

1984) we obtain: @F @n ˆ W …v† @ @ll @F @l : …11† where W …v† ˆ v3

0=v3; the new variable n is de®ned by the

relation

dn ˆ H…u†du ; …12†

the coecient H…u† ˆ …D=XDTb†vˆv0, v0 is the velocity

characteristic value.

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The solution of Eq. (11) can be written as F ˆX

k

Ak…v†Zk…l† exp…ÿkkW …v†n†; …13†

where Zk and kk are eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of

di€usion operator. The sets of Zk and kkdepend on the

di€usion regime (Pasmanik et al., 1998). The coecient Ak is given by: Ak…v† ˆ  Z1 0 F0…l; v†Zk…l† dl  Z1 0 Z2 k…l† dl ÿ1 …14†

and depends here on v.

Substituting the solution for distribution function (13) into Eq. (6) we obtain the following expression for the growth rate c…n; x†:

c ˆ c0  x xBL r B1…n† ÿxx BLB2…n†   ; …15† where c0ˆ pnleff cLl xp c ; …16† B1…n† ˆ X k Z1 0 l@Z@lk…l†dl Z1 0 Ak…v†v3eÿkkW …v†ndv ; …17† B2…n† ˆ X k Z1 0 lZk…l†ldl Z1 Ak…v†v3eÿkkW …v†ndv : …18†

Here we took into account that for x  xBL the wave

vector for whistler waves is written as k2 xx2p

xBc2 ; …19†

and ncLis the plasma density at the equatorial plane.

The expression for spectral wave density ex can be

found by integrating Eq. (2) and is written in the form ln ex ex0ˆ C1…n† x xBL  1 2 ÿC2…n† xx BL  3 2 ÿmu…n† ; …20† where C1;2…n† ˆ c0XDTb Zn 0 B1;2…n† D dn : …21†

This solution can be used to ®nd the di€usion coecient D…u†. But the equation for D…u† which appears after substitution of Eqs. (20)±(21) into Eq. (4) is too complicated. To simplify this equation we use some properties of the spectral density ex and growth

rate c, which follow from their dependencies on frequency.

According to Eqs. (15) and (20) the functions ex…x†

and growth rate c…x† have one maximum. From numerical analysis we found that the growth rate

depends on the frequency more smoothly then the wave spectral density while the locations of maxima are close to each other. Hence, integrating both parts of Eq. (2) over x with the weighting function G1and using Eq. (4)

it is possible to obtain a simpli®ed equation for the di€usion coecient D. Taking into account the proper-ties of exand c discussed we may carry c away from the

integral, and consider its value at the maximum: x ˆ xm…n† ˆ xHLB1=3B2. The resulting equation has

the form vg? R0L @D @uˆ …cmÿ m0†D ; …22† where cmˆ2c30 B 3 1 3B2  1 2

and m0 are values under x ˆ xm.

Using the expression (12) this equation is reduced to @H

@n ˆ a…cmÿ m0†; …23†

with a ˆ R0L=vg?, and its solution

H…n† ˆ H0‡

Zn

0

cm…n† dn ÿ am0n; …24†

where H0ˆ …D0=XDTb†vˆv0 de®ned from the initial

conditions. This expression may be used to acquire dependence u…n†.

4 Numerical analysis

This section devoted to the numerical analysis of solution of Eq. (13), (15), (20) and (24).

In the numerical simulations we examined evolution of the energetic electron distribution over velocities (Fv),

the wave spectral density (ex) and ¯uxes of trapped (Str)

and precipitating (Spr) particles along the longitudinal

coordinate u. The particle ¯uxes are de®ned as following (Pasmanik et al. 1998): the ¯ux density of precipitating particles is equal to SS pr ˆ 2p Z1 0 FS…l c; v†v3dv …25†

in the case of strong di€usion and

SW pr ˆ p Z1 0 D@FW @l   lc v3dv …26†

in the case of weak di€usion; the ¯ux density of trapped particles is SS;W tr ˆ 2pb Z1 0 v3dvZ 1=b lc FS;W…l; v† dl …27† in both cases.

The initial distribution function of energetic electrons was chosen in the form

F0…l; v† ˆ b…l ÿ lc†  exp …v ÿ vDv

 2

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where b  S0Lpÿ12…v30Dv†ÿ1 is the normalising constant,

and S0L is the initial ¯ux of energetic electrons at the

equatorial plane.

The evolution of the distribution function of trapped particles over velocity at the equatorial plane is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 for the cases of strong and weak di€usion respectively. It is seen, that in both cases of strong and weak di€usion the amplitude of the distribution func-tion is decreasing, with some shift of maximum locafunc-tion. The location of maximum is shifting to bigger values of

velocity because di€usion coecient depends on v as D / vÿ2, thus at ®rst electrons with small energy values

reach the loss cone. The shift in the weak di€usion regime is bigger because in this case the loss cone empties immediately, while in the case of strong di€u-sion loss time depends on the electron velocity according to Eq. (3).

Examples of ¯uxes of trapped and precipitating electrons are presented in Figs. 3±4 as functions of u for di€erent Dv values in cases of strong (Fig. 3) and

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 v/v0 F (v) 4 3 2 1 0

Fig. 1. The transformation of energetic electrons distribution over energy F …v† with increase in u in the strong di€usion case at equatorial plane. Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; mv20=2 ˆ 50 keV; lÿ1c ˆ 160; Dmaxlÿ1c  8; vg?ˆ 102km=s; ln…Dm=D0†  10; m0=cm…0† ˆ 0:01; u0ˆ 0, u1 0:18, u2 0:2, u3 0:32, u4 0:5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 v/v0 F (v) 4 3 2 1 0

Fig. 2. The transformation of energetic electron distribution over energy F …v† with increase in u in the weak di€usion case at equatorial plane. Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; mv20=2 ˆ 50 keV; lÿ1c ˆ 160; Dmaxlÿ1c  0:5; vg?ˆ 102km=s; ln…Dm=D0†  10; m0=cm…0† ˆ 0:01; u0ˆ 0, u1 7:8; u2 8:9; u3 14:5; u4 20:5 0 0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0 ϕ(degrees) ϕ(degrees) S/S 0L S/S 0L a b Str 1 Str 1 Spr Spr Str 2 Str 2

Fig. 3a, b. The dependence of ¯uxes of trapped and precipitated electron on u for strong di€usion for di€erent initial spread over energies: a Dv=v0ˆ 0:3; b Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; other parameters are as in Fig. 1

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weak (Fig. 4) di€usion. Qualitatively these dependencies are similar with changing of the initial velocity spread (Dv=v0 value) (compare also with results for d-function

by Pasmanik et al., 1998). The dependencies of particle ¯uxes at low attitudes (curves Str2 and Spr) become

smoother, with increase of Dv=v0, and their maximum

values decrease and maximum locations shift to a bigger u value. The energetic spectra of electron ¯uxes at low altitudes are given in Fig. 5 for strong di€usion and in Fig. 6 for weak di€usion.

The results of numerical analysis of the wave spectrum are presented in Figs. 7±8 for strong and weak di€usion regimes respectively. The sharp changes of the growth rate and wave spectral density as functions of frequency with strong di€usion are due to

the process of fast isotropisation of the distribution function. It is clear that since the distribution of energetic particles are close to isotropic, the wave generation stops and the growth rate c has a negative value in almost all frequency ranges. Another situation is with weak di€usion when the energetic electron distribution is always suciently anisotropic and the growth rate c is always positive at low frequencies.

However, there are some diculties in describing the transition between the cases of strong and weak di€u-sion. It is obvious that for weak di€usion the condition K  1 is satis®ed for all particles at any point on u axis. With strong di€usion the situation is di€erent. Since K / H…u†vÿ2 the strong di€usion condition K  1 is

not satis®ed for particles with an energy greater than

ϕ(degrees) ϕ(degrees) S/S 0L S/S 0L a b Str 1 Str 1 Spr Spr Str 2 Str 2 1 1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 10-3 10-3 10-4 10-4 10-5 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27

Fig. 4a, b. The dependence of ¯uxes of trapped and precipitated electrons on u for weak di€usion for di€erent initial spread over energies: a Dv=v0ˆ 0:3; b Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; other parameters are as in Fig. 2

S/ S0L tr S/ S0L pr a b 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0 0 v/v0 v/v0 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1

Fig. 5a, b. Energetic spectrum of a trapped and b precipitating energetic electron ¯ux at low altitude for strong di€usion for di€erent u values. Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; u1 0:18; u2 0:2; u3 0:32; u4 0:5; other parameters are as in Fig. 1

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some critical value. Moreover due to the decrease of H…u† value as u increases the value of critical energy is also decreasing. Thus, a gradual transition from strong to weak di€usion regime occurs which may cause sucient changes in the wave spectrum and precipita-tion process.

One way to take into account this transition is the following: for most particles the condition K  1 is satis®ed, and the solution for di€usion coecient is obtained from the strong di€usion regime. Then it is possible to use this di€usion coecient to ®nd the solution for distribution function in cases of both strong

and weak di€usion and the boundary is determined from the relation K…u† ˆ 1. But in an arbitrary case this method can be used only at the beginning of transition to a weak di€usion regime.

5 Conclusions

We have performed a further analysis of theoretical model of cyclotron wave-particle interactions allowing us to explain some quantitative characteristics of trapped and precipitating energetic particle ¯uxes

ob-S/ S0L tr S/ S0L pr a b 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0 0 v/v0 v/v0 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0 0.001 0.002 0.003

Fig. 6a, b. Energetic spectrum of a trapped and b precipitating energetic electron ¯ux at low altitude for weak di€usion for di€erent u values. Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; u1 7:8; u2 8:9; u3 14:5; u4 20:5; other parameters are as in Fig. 2

Fig. 7. The dependencies of growth rate (lines with dots) and intensity on frequency for strong di€usion for di€erent u values Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; u1 0:18; u2 0:2; u3 0:32; other parameters are as in Fig. 1

Fig. 8. The dependencies of growth rate (lines with dots) and wave intensity on frequency for weak di€usion for di€erent u values Dv=v0ˆ 0:6; u1 7:8; u2 8:9; u3 14:5; u4 20:5; other parameters as in Fig. 2

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tained from experimental data (see for example Yahnina et al., 1996; Titova et al., 1997). Consideration of ®nite spread of energetic particles over energies and studying the wave spectrum provides a wider area of application of this model to the analysis of experimental data.

The investigation performed revealed new features which distinguish regimes of strong and weak di€usion. Namely, we found that with growth of the longitudinal coordinate the maximum of growth rate shifts rapidly to low frequencies for strong di€usion, and stays near the same location in weak di€usion regime. This causes a suciently di€erent evolution of wave spectrum. On the other hand, energetic spectrum of particle ¯uxes at low altitudes moves to higher energies for weak di€usion, and remains actually at the same energies for strong di€usion.

As a further development of the model considered it would be useful to study more carefully the transition from strong to weak di€usion. Also it is necessary to improve the wave energy transfer equation by consid-ereing the strict model for whistler wave propagation near the plasmapause, which serves as a wave-guide. This is an important problem, which includes the analysis of the eigenmodes' spatial structure as well as the refraction of group rays across the plasmapause wave-guide, and demands special consideration.

Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant 96-02-16473a.

References

Bespalov, P. A., and Trakhtengerts, V. Y., The cyclotron instability in the Earth radiation belts, in Ed. M. A. Leontovich, Reviews of Plasma Physics, vol 10, pp. 155±192, Plenum, New York, 1986.

Lyons, L. R., and Williams, D. J., Quantitative aspects of magnetospheric physics, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1984. Pasmanik, D. L., Trakhtengerts, V. Y., Demekhov, A. G.,

Lyubchich, A. A., Titova, E. E., Yahnina, T., Rycroft, M. J., Manninen, J., and Turunen, T, A quantitative model for cyclotron wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause, Ann. Geophysicae, 16 (3), 322±330., (1998).

Titova, E. E., Yahnina, T. A., Yahnin, A. G., Gvozdevsky, B. B., Lyubchich, A. A., Trakhtengerts, V. Y., Demekhov, A. G., Horwitz, J. L., Lefeuvre, F., Lagoutte, D., Manninen, J., and Turunen, T., Strong localized variations of the low-altitude energetic electron ¯uxes in the evening sector near plasmapause, Ann. Geophysicae, 16(1) 25±33, 1997.

Yahnina, T. A., Titova, E. E., Yahnin, A. G., Gvozdevsky, B. B., Lyubchich, A. A., Trakhtengerts, V. Y., Demekhov, A. G., Horwitz, J. L., Manninen, J., and Turunen, T. Some features in the energetic electron precipitation pattern near the plasma-pause in the evening sector, in Proc. XIX Seminar on Auroral Phenomena, pp. 70±72, Apatity, Russia. PGI, 1996.

Figure

Fig. 2. The transformation of energetic electron distribution over energy F …v† with increase in u in the weak di€usion case at equatorial plane
Fig. 7. The dependencies of growth rate (lines with dots) and intensity on frequency for strong di€usion for di€erent u values Dv=v 0 ˆ 0:6;

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