IA-QUEST - (Indoor Air Quality Emission Simulation Tool)

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IA-QUEST - (Indoor Air Quality Emission Simulation Tool)

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http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca I A - Q U E S T ( I n d o o r A i r Q u a l i t y E m i s s i o n S i m u l a t i o n T o o l ) I R C - O R A L - 8 5 0 W o n , D . F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 2 0 0 8

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IA-QUEST

(Indoor Air QUality Emission Simulation Tool)

D. Won

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Contents

Background for IA-QUEST

– Importance of VOCs & Low-Emitting Materials

– Material Emission Project (1996 – 2000, 2000-2004)

IA-QUEST

– Major features

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ƒ Volatile organic compounds (C & H)

ƒ Indoor >> Outdoor (US EPA) ƒ 200-300 VOCs indoors

ƒ Health Effects: irritants, carcinogens, asthma ƒ No standards for non-industrial settings

ƒ Factors:

ƒ Many sources indoors ƒ Tight houses

Air tightness survey results (BSI ’90)

Why do we care

about IAQ & VOCs?

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Control Options?

ƒ Ventilation

ƒ Open window

ƒ Mechanical ventilation ($$)

ƒ Air cleaning devices

ƒ Energy cost ($$) ƒ Not efficient

ƒ Source control

ƒ Avoidance

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Low-emitting materials (Canada)

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) – Low-emitting materials

• Adhesives and sealants (1 point)

• Paints and coating (1 point)

• Carpet (1 point)

• Composite wood & laminated adhesives (1 point)

Labeling Scheme

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6 Low-emitting materials (USA)LEEDCalifornia – Section 01350 specification

– Recognized by US EPA & others

BIFMA Emission Standards

(Business & Institutional Furniture Manufacturer’s Ass.)

Industry Labeling Schemes

– Green Label Plus (Carpet & Rug Institute)

– Indoor Advantage Gold (Scientific Certification Systems) – Floorscore (Scientific Certification Systems)

– GREENGUARD Children & Schools Certification Program (GREENGUARD Environmental Institute)

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Problem Statement

Product labeling is Voluntary

– Very limited products are labeled.

Lack of Consistency in Product Labeling

– Focused on a sector or a national market – Specific tests

• Testing procedures (4 vs 3 & 28 days)

• Chemicals (TVOC, formaldehyde, ~80 VOCs, ~170 VOCs) • Reporting Units

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Objectives of Material

Emissions Projects

(1996- )

ƒ Baseline data on material emissions with a

standardized method

ƒ Estimation of impacts on indoor air quality by

building materials

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Consortium

Members

Government partners

‰ Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation ‰ Natural Resources Canada

‰ Public Works and Government Services Canada ‰ Health Canada

‰ Panel of Energy Research & Development

Industry partners

‰ Canadian Wood Council

‰ Chemical Manufacturers Association (USA) ‰ Gypsum Association (USA)

‰ USG Corporation (USA)

International partners

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10 Bu ildin g m a t e r ia l Spe cim e n s ( 6 9 ) Em ission s Te st s ME project 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 Time--> Abundance TIC: [BSB1]03111313.D Ch e m ica l An a lysis ( 9 0 VOCs) D a t a An a lysis M ode llin g Decision-making

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Chamber testing Test Methods: 50-L chamber test Clean air Sampling Exhaust Chemical Analysis

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TVOC

90

CMEIAQ-II Advisory Committee: HC, CMHC, NRCan, PWGSC, Unv. Health-Relevant Target VOCs Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï

VOC Emission Profile – Building Material

Target VOCs

Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï IAQ Analysis

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9 0

9 0

VOCs

VOCs

Health Canada - Domestic Substances List (1111/40) US EPA - HAP List (2222/188) ATSDR– CERCLA (1818/275) California OEHHA -Proposition 65 (1111/701) European Commission – TVOC List (5757/63) European Commission – TVOC List (5757/63)

Health Canada - Priority Substances Lists (1818/69)

WHO - Air Pollutant Guidelines (1818/55) NI OSH - Method 2549 (2929/42) US EPA - VCCEP List (1919/23) California OEHHA – CREL List (2222/78)

I RC – I ndoor Air / Material Emission Experience

Target VOCs:

References

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Software: IA-QUEST

Database

• Em ission Dat a for • 90+ VOCs • 69 Mat erials • Test recor d • Specim ens • Condit ions

Simulation Tool

• single zone m odel

• predict ion of VOC concent rat ions • t ool for evaluat ing im pact of:

• m at erial select ion choices

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Information (1): Emission Factor

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Information (1): Emission Factor (modeled)

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Application #1:

Product Comparison

(within floor category)

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 Emission factor at 24h (mg/m2/h) TVOC

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Application #1:

Product & application

(within floor assemblies)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Carpet assembly (carpet_adhesive_concrete) Linoleum assembly (Lin_adhesive_plywood)

Laminated floor assembly (Lam_foam_OSB)

Emission factor at 24h (mg/m2/h)

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23 Application #1: Product Comparison (IAQ - modeled) 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 Concentration (mg/m3) TVOC Carpet assembly (carpet_adhesive_concrete) Linoleum assembly (Lin_adhesive_plywood) Laminated floor assembly (Lam_foam_OSB)

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Application #2:

Product Selection

(Labeling Requirement)

ƒ Scenario:

– Find a carpet product – CRI’s Green Label

– Max Emission Factor: 0.5 mg/m2/h for TVOC, etc.

ƒ IA-QUEST function – Use “Query”

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Application #2: Labeling Requirement (Query)

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Application #3: IAQ Meet the Guideline Value?

ƒ Scenario:

– Carpet in a room (27 m3, 10 m2, 0.5 ACH)

– Can we meet the guideline for the first 10 days?

• TVOC: ~0.4 mg/m3 (Japan)

• Formaldehyde: ~0.015 mg/m3 (California)

ƒ IAQUEST function

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Application #3: IAQ Guideline Values

(carpet & glue)

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 Concentration (mg/m 3 )

Carpet & glue (0.5 ACH)

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36 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 Time (h) Concentration (mg/m 3 )

Carpet & glue (0.5 ACH) Carpet (0.5 ACH) Application #3: IAQ Guideline Values (No glue) Material Selection TVOC Guideline = 0.4

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37 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 Concentration (mg/m 3 )

Carpet & glue (0.5 ACH) Carpet (0.5 ACH)

Carpet & glue (1 ACH)

Application #3: IAQ Guideline Values

(0.5

Æ

1 ACH)

Ventilation Rate

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38 Application #3: IAQ Guideline Values (Formaldehyde) 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 Time (h) Concentration (mg/m 3 )

Carpet & glue (0.5 ACH)

Carpet (0.5 ACH)

Carpet & glue (1 ACH)

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Limitations:

ƒ Comprehensive, but Limited Database

- 69 materials? (genetic description)

- 90 VOCs? (semi-VOCs: plasticizers & flame retardants?) - Formaldehyde data (not measured for all)

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Summary

1st tool to manage VOCs indoors

69 bldg materials

90 target compounds, developed by federal partners

Database for emission factors

Simulation of indoor air quality (concentrations) – Building materials

– Ventilation rates – Chemicals

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects : simulation tool