Sustainability and the Environment

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Cities and the environment: The role of formal and informal controls in steering cities towards sustainability

Cities and the environment: The role of formal and informal controls in steering cities towards sustainability

Eight Belgian cities (Flemish and Walloon cities) Brussels, Brugge, Charleroi, Hasselt, Liege, Namur, Mons, Ghent •  Data Collection Ø  Semi-structured interviews with the person in charge of mobility in these eight cities between the beginning of November 2012 and the end of May 2013. Each interview lasted between 1 hour 30 minutes and 2 hours. All these interviews were recorded.

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Sustainability: healthful buildings, healthy environment

Sustainability: healthful buildings, healthy environment

In parallel to understanding environmental stressors and their health consequences, researchers have sought to understand conditions that assist in restoration (e.g., Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Natural settings are particularly associated with restoration: Ulrich (1984) found that hospital patients in rooms with windows that looked onto a nature view recovered more quickly from surgery than those with windows overlooking a brick wall. Further investigation has found that images of nature are more restorative than images of urban settings (Ulrich, Simons, Losito, Fiorito et al., 1991), that time spent in nature is more restorative than time spent in built settings (Hartig Mang & spent in nature is more restorative than time spent in built settings (Hartig, Mang, & Evans, 1991), and that natural settings are more likely than built settings to be named by students as favourite places (Korpela, Hartig, Kaiser, & Fuhrer, 2001). Homes with views of nature from their windows, as opposed to views of other buildings or urban scenes, have been associated with greater resident well-being (Kaplan, 2001), and children’s’ cognitive function and ability to cope with stressful life experiences are improved by having access to green space near their homes (Wells, 2000; Wells & Evans, 2003). Stephen Kaplan’s Attention Restoration Theory (1995, 2001) is a , ) p p y ( , ) framework for understanding the beneficial effects of restorative environments that takes into account both cognitive and physiological outcomes.
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Looking for the (missing) indicators of social sustainability: evidence from sustainability standards in the coffee sector

Looking for the (missing) indicators of social sustainability: evidence from sustainability standards in the coffee sector

6 as GG hereafter) was created in 1997 by European retailers. This standard promotes good agricultural practices and improved farm management tech- niques. Rainforest Alliance is an international NGO created in 1987 to fight tropical deforestation. Its standard aims to cover all aspects of sustainable ag- riculture (environment, rights and welfare of workers and the interests of lo- cal communities). It does not prohibit use of agrochemicals but requires inte- grated pest management, the maintenance of shade cover and/or the restoration of native forest reserves). Utz certified is an independent multi- stakeholder initiative created in 1997 by Guatemalan coffee producers and a Dutch coffee roaster. Its standard covers good agricultural practices in coffee production and worker welfare, including access to healthcare and education. It emphasizes responsible production and sourcing. These three last standards are not socially oriented but have developed a social section in their codes of conducts. All the standards, analyzed here, claim to have all representative committee to negotiate and decide the certification design (including pro- ducer’s organizations). The documents used for the comparison are listed in the references.
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Editorial: Soil Evolution and Sustainability

Editorial: Soil Evolution and Sustainability

Soils contribute to major ecosystem services (as defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005 ) by playing a crucial role in provisioning food and fibers, regulating water and geochemical cycles and delivering cultural services. Soils are rich in biodiversity and provide the habitat for a large number of species, many yet to be fully described. Due to this central role of soils in the delivery of ecosystem goods and services, the Soil Security concept was introduced to help Soil Science to be translated into policy guidelines for sustainable development and to be included in the Global Agenda ( Koch et al., 2013; Bouma et al., 2019 ). Soils are indeed keys for reaching many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. Especially SDG 2, related to fighting hunger and achieving food security, as well as SDG 15, on protecting the terrestrial environment for future generations, imply the application of sustainable soil management at the global scale. The IPCC report on Climate Change and Land names land and soil degradation through erosion, organic matter decline, contamination, soil sealing, compaction, loss of biodiversity or salinization as key challenges related to land use change ( IPCC, 2019 ). Achieving food security and the elimination of hunger while simultaneously protecting our terrestrial environment is a great challenge that requires extensive, multidisciplinary research, including also human and social sciences: economists, geographers, sociologists, and urban planners.
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Environmental Sustainability and the Nexus of Economic Principles and Jewish Thought

Environmental Sustainability and the Nexus of Economic Principles and Jewish Thought

b) Pollution control costs Complete costs also take into account the costs to society of controlling or curbing pollution. While we may typically think of these control costs as costs to the producer, we have to consider these societal costs for several reasons: first, it may be that the producer is able to pass on these costs to the consumer, such that the consumer ultimately bears the burden of the costs of controlling pollution. Secondly, even if the producer does not pass on those costs, the producer may have to cut back on production, which hurts would-be customers. In addition, if the producer cuts back on production, that could lead to job losses, with rippling effects through the economy. Relatedly, there are opportunity costs associated with controlling pollution in terms of money invested in cleaner technologies or inputs that could have been spent elsewhere in the production process. Thus economists weigh the (marginal) costs of polluting (in terms of the damages wrought) with the (marginal) costs to control that pollution. This rule tends to imply that the "optimal" level of pollution is rarely zero; rather, in order to continue to have economic activity, some level of pollution must be tolerated. 3 This concept is reflected in the suggestion by Wolff (2012) that "The Torah negotiates the dynamic balance between providing people with the freedom they need to act in this world in order to meet their physical needs and wants, and protecting neighbors (society and the environment) from the damage these actions may cause." (p.3) The second chapter of Bava Batra supports this idea that there must be a balance between the costs of polluting with the cost of controlling pollution. In this chapter, there is an acknowledgment that we need to conduct activities for our physical well-being, while protecting our environment.
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Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Goals: The Need for Innovative and Institutional Solutions

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Goals: The Need for Innovative and Institutional Solutions

20 ones, and encouraging formal entrepreneurship to adopt more innovative solutions and more environment-friendly technologies in to produce more sustainable products and services. To deal with these challenges, governments should concentrate their efforts on informal entrepreneurship to help reduce its negative effect on the natural environment. Governments can encourage people to register their businesses, educate people to be oriented toward legal and regulated entrepreneurship, increase spending to stimulate markets, facilitate services to new firms to act in a formal way in the market. Governments also need to improve their systems through solid laws, well-defined property rights, transparency, and good policies for new entrepreneurs to enter the market. At the same time, there is a need to create incentives for young entrepreneurs to join the formal economy, especially by focusing on the burdens of the formal economy (e.g., fiscal policies). Building skills and making access to financial markets easier can set the “Gazelles free” and increase substantially the productivity of the informal economy (Arouri et al., 2014). In this context, De Soto (2003) argues that entrepreneurs must resort to operating in the informal sector because of unclear rules for creating a formal enterprise or because of bureaucratic barriers to legal property ownership and a lack of legal structures that recognize and encourage ownership of assets. Similarly, Autio and Fu (2015) declare that a one standard deviation increase in the quality of economic and political institutions could double the rates of formal entrepreneurship and halve the rates of informal entrepreneurship. In addition, the emergence of innovative businesses is vital for the move toward sustainability. For this reason, it is necessary to reinforce the innovation capacity of firms by investing in education and training programs, credit and patent protection, reinforcing cooperation between research centers and industries, and stimulating applied research for innovative products and services. Lozano et al. (2013) suggest that society requests more initiatives and investments from enterprises, educational institutions, and governments to adopt innovative solutions to resolve our present and future sustainability challenges.
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Alternative and Resistance Movements : The Two Faces of Sustainability Transformations

Alternative and Resistance Movements : The Two Faces of Sustainability Transformations

Engagement in activism helps shape individual and collective identities ( Curnow et al., 2018 ). For people participating in alternative movements we have witnessed the appearance of terms derived from the names of the movements to qualify the participants as “transi- tioners”, “commoners”, “degrowthers”, etc. One could suggest that participation in this kind of movement helps shape the participant's identity through their belonging to these communities. For the en- vironmental justice side, according to Anguelovski and Martinez-Alier, 2014 activists identify with the following claims: Equitable access to environmental goods and services; Right to livelihoods, to local cultural values, to place, and to territory; Contestation of capitalist production; and Valuation of place and protest against land appropriation and speculation ( Anguelovski and Martinez-Alier (2014) ; for a more de- tailed analysis see Martinez-Alier et al., 2016 ). At the local level, Sebastien (2017) highlights the fact that engaging in local environ- mental resistance contributes to the development of what she calls patrimonial capital (place-attachment). This capital corresponds to the set of ties that activists establish with the local environment to be de- fended, which greatly promotes the emergence of shared collective identities. At the European level, as mentioned above, activists fighting against infrastructure projects recognize themselves or their local movement under the banner of resistance against “unnecessary and imposed ” mega projects. In France, the illegal occupation (ZAD: Zone to defend) of the threatened land of Notre-Dames-Des-Landes has given birth to a particular identity of political activist: the “ZADiste.”
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Alternative and Resistance Movements: The Two Faces of Sustainability Transformations?

Alternative and Resistance Movements: The Two Faces of Sustainability Transformations?

“transitioners”, “commoners”, degrowthers”. One could suggest that the participation in this kind of movement contributes shaping the participant’s identity through its belonging to these communities. For the environmental justice side, according to Anguelovski and Martinez- Alier (2014) activists identify themselves with the following claims: Equitable access to environmental goods and services; Right to livelihoods, to local cultural values, to place, and to territory; Contestation capitalist production; and Valuation of place and protest against land appropriation and speculation (Anguelovski and Martinez-Alier (2014); for a more detailed analysis see Martinez-Alier et al., 2016). At the local scale, Léa Sébastien (2016) highlights the fact that engaging in local environmental resistance contributes to the development of what she calls patrimonial capital (place-attachment). This capital corresponds to the set of ties that activists establish with the local environment to be defended, which greatly promotes the emergence of shared collective identities. At the European scale, as mentioned above, activists fighting against infrastructure projects recognize themselves or their local movement under the banner of resistance against “unnecessary and imposed” mega projects. In France, the illegal occupation (ZAD: Zone to defend) of the threatened land of Notre-Dames-Des- Landes has given birth to a particular identity of political activist: the “ZADiste.”
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Looking for the (missing) indicators of social sustainability: evidence from sustainability standards in the coffee sector

Looking for the (missing) indicators of social sustainability: evidence from sustainability standards in the coffee sector

4 promotes good agricultural practices and improved farm management tech- niques. Rainforest Alliance is an international NGO created in 1987 to fight tropical deforestation. Its standard aims to cover all aspects of sustainable ag- riculture (environment, rights and welfare of workers and the interests of lo- cal communities). It does not prohibit use of agrochemicals but requires inte- grated pest management, the maintenance of shade cover and/or the restoration of native forest reserves). Utz certified is an independent multi- stakeholder initiative created in 1997 by Guatemalan coffee producers and a Dutch coffee roaster. Its standard covers good agricultural practices in coffee production and worker welfare, including access to healthcare and education. It emphasizes responsible production and sourcing. These three last standards are not socially oriented but have developed a social section in their codes of conducts. All the standards, analyzed here, claim to have all representative committee to negotiate and decide the certification design (including produc- er’s organizations). The documents used for the comparison are listed in the references.
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Challenges in the Tea Industry in Burundi: Upgrading and Sustainability Policies

Challenges in the Tea Industry in Burundi: Upgrading and Sustainability Policies

rainfall, and would meet up to 60 % of the demand for garden irrigation. Jones and Hunt (2010) demonstrate a return of investment in the rainfall water use for an office building in the UK, after 6-11 years. Authors Ibrahim (2009) and Jones and Hunt (2010) use the RWH (rainwater harvesting) system as an alternative source of water in public buildings in large cities. A study by Rahman et al. (2010) examines the sustainability of the RWH system in multi-storey residential buildings in Sydney. According to Stránský et al. (2008), several conceptual applications of rainfall management can be found in the Czech Republic, and are mostly part of international projects. Unfortunately, individual urban localities do not have a comprehensive modernization system of water drainage (Vítek et al., 2010). Although there are many analyses of the potential of rainwater management, its use is rather an individual matter for households or individual companies (Kopp, 2016). This fact is a reflection of social, economic and legislative developments in the Czech Republic. According to Stránský et al. (2008), there are no technical rules in Czech legislation that transpose European legislation. The "polluter pays" principle is also missing. As part of rainwater collection, the EU provides subsidies for owners or builders of family and apartment houses for flushing toilets and watering the garden. Since 2017, 4 000 households have been supported under the “Dešťovka” program in the Czech Republic, with a total amount of CZK 185 million (EUR 6.8 million). The Ministry of the Environment also supports municipalities and cities in the fight against drought in the “Velká Dešťovka” program (MoE, 2019). Based on analyses of the current water situation, the EU Commission is involved in the modernization of water supply infrastructure. Reuse of treated wastewater is included in 50 % of projects and rainwater harvesting is part of 30 % of river basin management plans for the 2014-2020 period (EK, 2012). Farmers also have large land areas, especially those raising cattle. In these cases, it is possible to drain water from the roofs of stables, milking parlours, barns, and the living areas. Machálek (2015) states that the amount of rainwater that could be collected from roofs of livestock breeding stables could, after filtration, replace drinking water by 15 %. This represents savings of 2 000 000 m 3 of drinking water in the Czech Republic.
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W. E. DEMING, Pragmatism and sustainability

W. E. DEMING, Pragmatism and sustainability

Finally, there are several limitations to our research that may provide some avenues for future research. First, Deming‘s system of profound knowledge requires an understanding of systems. Deming recommends that we act on a system-wide basis which is a view generally accepted to address sustainability (McKeon, Ranney, 2009). He also shows that at least 94% of organization s‘ problems come from management, less than 6% come from problematic behaviour. The system, not vicious individuals, is alleged to be the primary source of unethical conduct (Petrick and Manning, 1993). Although it is clear that the system can prevent managers from managing ethically or detrimentally towards the environment, it is also clear that some issues arise from the individuals themselves through deviant behaviours. It should also consider situations where individuals do not wish, by choice, to contribute to the company or society. To the extent that Deming locates all viciousness in the process or system and ignores the crucial role played by individual choice, it misses the ethical mark (idea adapt ed from Nayebpour, Koehn, 2003). Secondly, it is difficult , for different reasons , for organizations to change their management practices in accordance with Deming‘s advice , (Hillmer, Karney, 2001) but we do need an approach to evaluate whether or not applying Deming‘s principles of management is a reasonable course of action. Most of the frameworks for quality and performance excellence (international quality awards and standards) 22 today are designed as systems with aspects related to sustainable development. From this point of view, it is worthwhile to first explore the contributions and limitations of these frameworks in relation to sustainable development, especially at an individual level. On the other hand, it would be appropriate to consider the views of Deming on quality awards and standards in general. Finally, Deming was influenced by the American pragmatists. He also spent many years in Japan and we have indicated that he was widely recognized as the most influential in the economic recovery of post-war Japan. We also know that Shewhart and Deming PDSA model of continuous improvement is not universal and can be interpreted in different cultures (Pesqueux, op.cit.). For example, as indicated by the author, the notions of action and experience have a very different meaning in the East and West. Thus, there may be an Oriental view of Deming's philosophy in relation to issues of sustainability?
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Environmental standards and labor productivity: Understanding the mechanisms that sustain sustainability

Environmental standards and labor productivity: Understanding the mechanisms that sustain sustainability

The main hypothesis of the paper, namely that greener firms are associated with higher labor productivity, is confirmed by our results. These findings are consistent with studies that have argued that a firm’s involvement in social causes (such as improvement of environmental reputation) generally enhances a firm’s reputation, which leads to a positive impact on employee work attitudes (e.g. Brekke & Nyborg, 2008; Peterson, 2004; Hess, Rogovsky & Dunfee, 2002). Furthermore, our study demonstrates that the adoption of environmental standards is associated with increased employee training and interpersonal contacts, which in turn contribute to improved labor productivity. We argue that increased communication among workers with diverse capabilities can lead to knowledge transfer and innovation. This is consistent with the innovation literature, which shows that the integration of divergent thoughts and perspectives enables teams to solve problems, leverage opportunities and is a critical antecedent of innovation and productivity (Barczak, Lassk & Milki, 2010; Hamilton et al., 2003). We also argued that enhanced interpersonal contacts can lead to an improved work environment and increased productivity. This is also in line with the literature showing how group characteristics, and social interactions and relationships impact organizational outcomes (Liden, Wayne & Sparrowe, 2000; Parker & Wall, 1998).
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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: THE SUSTAINABILITY EQUATION?

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: THE SUSTAINABILITY EQUATION?

From the finance perspective, CSR issues get attention from investors, asset managers and share- holders. Investors, especially the socially responsible ones, use extra-financial information in order to determine the value of firms, to make their investments and to monitor them over the investment period (Crifo and Mottis, 2013). The socially responsible investment (SRI) market has thus grown up for the last decade (Crifo and Forget, 2013). The development of extra-financial rating agencies is the second signal revealing an increasing interest towards extra-financial information. In the financial sphere, the extra-financial information analyzes CSR according to the ESG (Environment, Social and Governance) factors. The environment pillar covers the integration of environmental concerns in the firm business, from design to use through manufacturing of goods or services. The main issues are the pollution prevention and risk management, the protection of natural resources and biodiversity, the recycling and waste management or the eco-conception. The social pillar includes all issues related to human resources, such as working conditions, training and employment or the policy against discrimi- nation, but also encompasses broader concerns associated with human rights, such as the policy against child labor. The governance pillar analyzes both the relationships with the external stakeholders and corporate governance. As defined by Shleifer and Vishny (1997), “corporate governance deals with the ways in which suppliers of finance to corporations assure themselves of getting a return on their invest- ment”. More precisely, corporate governance defines the relationships between shareholders, directors and managers. It mainly concerns firm disclosure, shareholders’s rights, executive compensation and board composition. The relationships with external stakeholders deal with the practices towards cus- tomers and suppliers, such as long-term contract, CSR integration and information within the supply chain or the anti-corruption practices. It also takes into account the role of firms in the community such as the partnerships with local and national non-governmental organizations and universities or philanthropy. In this dissertation, I argue that the relationships with external stakeholders define the societal pillar in order to clearly differentiate the internal issues (corporate governance) from the external issues (societal issues). This choice is also justified by the very specific position of corporate governance in this framework as demonstrated later in the introduction.
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Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

* Correspondence: nashford@mit.edu Received: 28 April 2020; Accepted: 26 June 2020; Published: 3 July 2020    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted billions of lives across the world and has revealed and worsened the social and economic inequalities that have emerged over the past several decades. As governments consider public health and economic strategies to respond to the crisis, it is critical they also address the weaknesses of their economic and social systems that inhibited their ability to respond comprehensively to the pandemic. These same weaknesses have also undermined efforts to advance equality and sustainability. This paper explores over 30 interventions across the following nine categories of change that hold the potential to address inequality, provide all citizens with access to essential goods and services, and advance progress towards sustainability: (1) Income and wealth transfers to facilitate an equitable increase in purchasing power/disposable income; (2) broadening worker and citizen ownership of the means of production and supply of services, allowing corporate profit-taking to be more equitably distributed; (3) changes in the supply of essential goods and services for more citizens; (4) changes in the demand for more sustainable goods and services desired by people; (5) stabilizing and securing employment and the workforce; (6) reducing the disproportionate power of corporations and the very wealthy on the market and political system through the expansion and enforcement of antitrust law such that the dominance of a few firms in critical sectors no longer prevails; (7) government provision of essential goods and services such as education, healthcare, housing, food, and mobility; (8) a reallocation of government spending between military operations and domestic social needs; and (9) suspending or restructuring debt from emerging and developing countries. Any interventions that focus on growing the economy must also be accompanied by those that offset the resulting compromises to health, safety, and the environment from increasing unsustainable consumption. This paper compares and identifies the interventions that should be considered as an important foundational first step in moving beyond the COVID-19 pandemic and towards sustainability. In this regard, it provides a comprehensive set of strategies that could advance progress towards a component of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 10 to reduce inequality within countries. However, the candidate interventions are also contrasted with all 17 SDGs to reveal potential problem areas/tradeoffs that may need careful attention.
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Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

Received: 28 April 2020; Accepted: 26 June 2020; Published: 3 July 2020    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted billions of lives across the world and has revealed and worsened the social and economic inequalities that have emerged over the past several decades. As governments consider public health and economic strategies to respond to the crisis, it is critical they also address the weaknesses of their economic and social systems that inhibited their ability to respond comprehensively to the pandemic. These same weaknesses have also undermined efforts to advance equality and sustainability. This paper explores over 30 interventions across the following nine categories of change that hold the potential to address inequality, provide all citizens with access to essential goods and services, and advance progress towards sustainability: (1) Income and wealth transfers to facilitate an equitable increase in purchasing power/disposable income; (2) broadening worker and citizen ownership of the means of production and supply of services, allowing corporate profit-taking to be more equitably distributed; (3) changes in the supply of essential goods and services for more citizens; (4) changes in the demand for more sustainable goods and services desired by people; (5) stabilizing and securing employment and the workforce; (6) reducing the disproportionate power of corporations and the very wealthy on the market and political system through the expansion and enforcement of antitrust law such that the dominance of a few firms in critical sectors no longer prevails; (7) government provision of essential goods and services such as education, healthcare, housing, food, and mobility; (8) a reallocation of government spending between military operations and domestic social needs; and (9) suspending or restructuring debt from emerging and developing countries. Any interventions that focus on growing the economy must also be accompanied by those that offset the resulting compromises to health, safety, and the environment from increasing unsustainable consumption. This paper compares and identifies the interventions that should be considered as an important foundational first step in moving beyond the COVID-19 pandemic and towards sustainability. In this regard, it provides a comprehensive set of strategies that could advance progress towards a component of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 10 to reduce inequality within countries. However, the candidate interventions are also contrasted with all 17 SDGs to reveal potential problem areas/tradeoffs that may need careful attention.
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Rusunawa sustainability assessment and the impact to residents' capabilities

Rusunawa sustainability assessment and the impact to residents' capabilities

Approach, elaborated by Sen and Nussbaum, which revolves around the concept of freedom, specifically the choice, ability, and opportunity, that the residents have to decide on the function of their homes. This study reveals that the rusunawa project’s long term sustainability is a challenge for both the government and the residents. Major reduction in the residents’ freedom is in their capability to afford the living cost. Their freedom to maintain their social and economic connection has also been reduced and they did not have the freedom to participate in decision making. Moreover, the inflexible and rigid Indonesian bureaucracy makes sustainability goals difficult to achieve. On the other hand, from environmental perspective, the rusunawa has been bringing positive impacts in the improvement of health standard of the residents. Similar results also show that people’s freedom to live in a healthy environment are considered to be improved significantly. Rusunawa also brings opportunity to the residents’ capability to achieve tenure security and acknowledgement. This research suggests that provision of a low-income housing project should start from the people through enabling strategies, a policy shift, enabling other actors to take over the role in the development of the affordable housing provision, as well as a better investment in the provision of the affordable housing and land management in macro level.
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Survey on the design of gamified systems for energy and water sustainability

Survey on the design of gamified systems for energy and water sustainability

a specific purpose such as education of a subject or training on a skill [ 66 ]) that motivates players to learn about energy issues, improve their intuition about energy consumption, and understand how to use energy more efficiently in their normal life [ 58 ]. The engine integrates with Watt Depot, an open source web service which collects and stores consumption power data and provides near real-time consumption tracking. The application leverages Google visualisations to present electricity consumption data in a dynamic and understandable way: the visualisation can be personalised by the user adding profile information and tracking their actions, events and commitments. As the software is intended for university dorms visualisation, it allows for comparison with other floors or other buildings. To promote energy consumption awareness, the platform supports the creation of actions, commitments and daily energy goals. Actions go from replacing a light bulb in a desk lamp, to attending meetings organised by pro-environment organisations. Commitments are requests made by the dorm administration, e.g., committing to turning off the lights in the lounge when they are not in use. Finally, goals are actions that the entire dorm floors participate in [ 58 ]. Daily energy goals require floor’s members to vote on how much they plan to reduce their floor’s energy consumption and then, attempting to accomplish such goal. The players get points for any of these actions.
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4th Doctoral Seminar on Sustainability Research in the Built Environment Book of Abstracts

4th Doctoral Seminar on Sustainability Research in the Built Environment Book of Abstracts

Blocks (CEBs) Most African cities like Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso (BF), records critical demand for affordable sustainable housings. Earth, being indigenous, naturally available with low energy input and able to create more jobs, is regarded an alternative building material (ABM) to cater for this need. Historically, Burkinabe have been living in earthen houses “Banco” given the harsh weather conditions and higher cost of “imported” building materials. Nevertheless, skepticism still arises about long term performance of these “local” materials. While the mechanical strength and toughness of natural fibers reinforced CEBs stabilized with cement are well understood; their hydrothermal and durability properties and onsite performance are still not fully investigated. This study questions whether clay materials from BF can be stabilized/ filled or reinforced with agro/industrial by-products to yield into CEBs with required performances. These CEBs should be able to perform well in both dry and wet conditions and keep that performance after extended time of exposure to mechanical and environmental constraints. The main aim is to add value to local clay and by-products materials and achieve CEBs able to carry a two storey building, i.e having at least 4 MPa of dry compressive strength. Firstly, different clay deposits available in the vicinity of Ouagadougou and by-products (hydrated lime, pozzolan, and fibers) for stabilization are characterized. The study of their interactions is then carried out on chemical, physical and mechanical basis. Owing to their characteristics, the potential materials are used to fabricate stabilized CEBs. The resulting CEBs are tested for improved physico-mechanical, microstructural and hydrothermal properties. Additionally, their performance in wall construction is investigated. The stabilization effect is evaluated on the basis of pozzolanic activity and fiber reinforcement. The durability study of CEBs vis-a- vis water, drying-wetting, fracture, erosion,etc. is carried out in the Sahelian context.
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Circularity for sustainability in built environment: Renovate or recycle

Circularity for sustainability in built environment: Renovate or recycle

Ph.D. candidate; science and technology of engineering; ULiège & Institut 2iE Secondary materials generated from construction and demolition wastes are potentially (re)usable for achieving circularity and sustainability in construction sector. The recycling is essential in order to limit the consumption of natural resources, energy and emission of wastes and polluting gases in the environment. This is a huge milestone towards responsible and sustainable development with regards to the well-being of future generations.
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Lighting that benefits people and the environment

Lighting that benefits people and the environment

Jennifer A. Veitch, Ph.D., and Guy R. Newsham, Ph.D.† * This article is reprinted from the International Association for Energy-Efficient Lighting (IAEEL) Newsletter, 1/99 (Vo. 8, No. 22), pp. 4-6. The IAEEL can be found on the WWW at http://www.iaeel.org. † The authors are both with the National Research Council of Canada's Institute for Research in Construction in Ottawa. They may be contacted at jennifer.veitch@nrc.ca, or guy.newsham@nrc.ca, or by telephone at 613-993-9580. For further information, including reprints of publications arising from this project, visit the Lighting Quality Web page at http://www.cisti.nrc.ca/irc/light/lq_project/lqp.html.
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