SALIENT FEATURES IN 2005 11 Inserm • 2005 Activityreport
Sudden Death in Adults
Sudden (cardiac) death in adults is a major problem in France where it is responsible for 40,000 deaths each year. It is therefore important to identify predisposed subjects early. Inserm Unit 258 (Cardiovascular and Metabolic Epidemiology) recently found that the heart rate profile upon exertion is an important risk factor. The Parisian prospective survey recruited 6,100 middle-aged men having undergone an exertion test in the 70’s and monitored for over 20 years to determine mortality. The characteristics of the exertion test for the subjects deceased by sudden death dur- ing follow-up were retrospectively exam- ined. The results showed that these subjects had a higher heart rate at rest than other subjects, a lower maximum heart rate upon exertion, and presented a lower and slower decrease in heart rate during recuperation. These results are important as they help understand sudden death, which is most often due to a sudden accel- eration of the heart (ventricular fibrilla- tion) caused by an occlusion of the coronary arteries that irrigate the cardiac muscle. There appears to be an underlying susceptibility to ventricular rhythm disor- ders even before atheroma (responsible for coronary artery occlusion) develops. This work suggests that primary prevention
Analytical development is at the heart of much of the research activity of the LabEx RESSOURCES21. The objective of the “Axis 4” (Analytical Frontiers) of the LabEx is to support and structure analytical development, essential for maintaining the leadership of our laboratories in the domain of strategic metals. One critical aspect of our reseach concerns the development of high precision isotopic tools, which require the separation of the elements of interest, prior to their analysis by mass spectrometry. Such separations must be performed in specifically designed clean labs with controlled air flows in order to minimize all potential sources of pollution. The domains of research addressed by such isotopic analyses are extremely wide-ranging, and include dating of mineral deposits (e.g. thesis of Elodie Le Mignot on the gold deposits of West Africa), source tracing (e.g. thesis of Rémi Belissont on Ge and related metals in ore deposits); biogeochemistry of Rare Earth elements; or phytomining (e.g. postdoc Nicolas Estrade on isotopic fractionation of Ni in hyperaccumulating plants; postdoc Isabella Zelano on speciation of Ni in soils and plants).
• The book Deep into Pharo has been released publicly http://www.deepintopharo.com . • RMOD entered in a sponsoring agreement with LAM Research, Inc.
6.2. Tools for understanding applications
Remodularization Analysis Using Semantic Clustering. We report an experience on using and adapting Semantic Clustering to evaluate software remodularizations. Semantic Clustering is an approach that relies on information retrieval and clustering techniques to extract sets of similar classes in a system, according to their vocabularies. We adapted Semantic Clustering to support remodularization analysis. We evaluate our adaptation using six real-world remodularizations of four software systems. We report that Semantic Clustering and conceptual metrics can be used to express and explain the intention of the architects when performing common modularization operators, such as module decomposition. [ 37 ]
In a major laboratory such as LIG, we strongly wish that certain fluidity of people and teams may be established. It ought to be noticed that, during the period 2006-2009, this fluidity has been relatively reduced which shows good stability of the teams as well as a difficulty in shifting people around painlessly. This type of difficulty could be noticed by the staff members themselves in the investigation whose results are presented below. The team losing a staff member has a tendency to view this departure as disapproval, whereas swarming is source of potential wealth and thematic mobility is source of creativity. Between 2007 and June 2009, 4 people changed teams (HADAS-SIGMA, IIHM-SIGMA, POP ART-SARDES). As regards the teams properly speaking, LIG had two very small teams at the beginning of this four-year contract (EXMO and I3D). EXMO started to grow and I3D has lost staff. As regards I3D, during the next four-year contract, the future of the virtual reality activity in Grenoble should give rise to in-depth reflection with INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes. LIG thinks that the prominence of such activity is justified. The I3D team will however cease as such and a rapprochement of the current activities of I3D and PRIMA is under study. Besides, the DIAM team specialised in mathematics didactics has seen its staff dwindle since the recruitment in this domain has been concentrated in the Pure Mathematics laboratory. The remaining members of the DIAM team will join the METAH team whose scientific problematic is quite close. Finally, the thematic of automatic learning, dispersed in several teams of LIG and also in several laboratories gives birth to the proposition of a new team within LIG. The thematic of learning is of growing significance with objectives such as autonomy and adaptation of the intelligent ambient systems. If several teams of LIG address this theme for their needs, we deem it quite relevant “also” and coherent to focus a team on this important subject, the more so since it meets a demand from researchers. We propose hence, at the end of the four-year period, to select two teams and to suggest the creation of a team, AMA.
Authors and acknowledgement
The writing of this report has been directed by Olivier Roustant and Rodolphe Le Riche (EMSE), the current project leaders of the OQUAIDO Chair. Inputs were provided by the scientific experts, Josselin Garnier (École Polytechnique), David Ginsbourger (Idiap and Univ. of Bern), Yves Deville (AlpeStat), as well as the members of the steering committee : Céline Helbert (EC Lyon), Luc Pronzato (CNRS / UNICE), Clémentine Prieur (UGA), Fabrice Gamboa and François Bachoc (UPS), Jérémy Rohmer (BRGM), Guillaume Perrin (CEA DAM), Amandine Marrel and Guillaume Damblin (CEA DEN), Alain Glière (CEA DRT), Delphine Sinoquet (IFPEN), Yann Richet (IRSN), Sébastien Da Veiga (SAFRAN), Frédéric Huguet (Storengy).
Gradual Typing for Smalltalk Being able to combine static and dynamic typing within the same language has clear benefits in order to support the evolution of prototypes or scripts into mature robust programs. While being an emblematic dynamic object-oriented language, Smalltalk is lagging behind in this regard. We report on the design, implementation and application of Gradualtalk, a gradually-typed Smalltalk meant to enable incremental typing of existing programs. The main design goal of the type system is to support the features of the Smalltalk language, like metaclasses and blocks, live programming, and to accomodate the programming idioms used in practice. We studied a number of existing projects in order to determine the features to include in the type system. As a result, Gradualtalk is a practical approach to gradual types in Smalltalk, with a novel blend of type system features that accomodate most programming idioms. [ 13 ]
7.5. Reconciling Dynamic Languages and Isolation
Handles. Controlling object graphs and giving specific semantics to references (such as read-only, ownership, scoped sharing) have been the focus of a large body of research in the context of static type systems. Controlling references to single objects and to graphs of objects is essential to build more secure systems, but is notoriously hard to achieve in the absence of static type systems. In this article we embrace this challenge by proposing a solution to the following question: What is an underlying mechanism that can support the definition of properties (such as revocable, read-only, lent) at the reference level in the absence of a static type system? We present handles: first-class references that propagate behavioral change dynamically to the object subgraph during program execution. In this article we describe handles and show how handles support the implementation of read-only references and revocable references. Handles have been fully implemented by modifying an existing virtual machine and we report their costs. [ 13 ]
Rotten Green Tests: a First Analysis. Unit tests are a tenant of agile programming methodologies, and are widely used to improve code quality and prevent code regression. A passing (green) test is usually taken as a robust sign that the code under test is valid. However, we have noticed that some green tests contain assertions that are never executed; these tests pass not because they assert properties that are true, but because they assert nothing at all. We call such tests Rotten Green Tests. Rotten Green Tests represent a worst case: they report that the code under test is valid, but in fact do nothing to test that validity, beyond checking that the code does not crash. We describe an approach to identify rotten green tests by combining simple static and dynamic analyses. Our approach takes into account test helper methods, inherited helpers, and trait compositions, and has been implemented in a tool called DrTest. We have applied DrTest to several test suites in Pharo 7.0, and identified many rotten tests, including some that have been sleeping in Pharo for at least 5 years. [ 22 ] Mining inline cache data to order inferred types in dynamic languages. The lack of static type information in dynamically-typed languages often poses obstacles for developers. Type inference algorithms can help, but inferring precise type information requires complex algorithms that are often slow. A simple approach that considers only the locally used interface of variables can identify potential classes for variables, but popular interfaces can generate a large number of false positives. We propose an approach called inline-cache type inference (ICTI) to augment the precision of fast and simple type inference algorithms. ICTI uses type information available in the inline caches during multiple software runs, to provide a ranked list of possible classes that most likely represent a variable’s type. We evaluate ICTI through a proof-of-concept that we implement in Pharo Smalltalk. The analysis of the top-n+2 inferred types (where n is the number of recorded run-time types for a variable) for 5486 variables from four different software systems shows that ICTI produces promising results for about 75% of the variables. For more than 90% of variables, the correct run-time type is present among first six inferred types. Our ordering shows a twofold improvement when compared with the unordered basic approach, i.e., for a significant number of variables for which the basic approach offered ambiguous results, ICTI was able to promote the correct type to the top of the list. [ 22 ]
Report on supplementary information
Our audits were conducted for the purpose of forming an opinion on the basic financial statements of IICA as of December 31, 2007 and 2006. The supplementary financial information shown in Exhibits 1, 2 and 3 is presented for purposes of additional analysis and is not a required part of the basic financial statements. This supplementary financial information is the responsibility of the management of IICA. Such information has been subjected to the auditing procedures applied in the audit of the 2007 basic financial statements and, in our opinion, is fairly stated in all material respects, in relation to the 2007 basic financial statements, taken as a whole.
This report provides a summary of activities over the last 6 months of the DESIR project in Israel as well as an overview of the work down towards Israel’s accession to DARIAH across the DESIR project.
The Humanities in Israel, as in the entire Western world, have been in a state of crisis over the past two decades, and the integration of the digital humanities may be one avenue for strengthening the relevant disciplines, leading to innovative projects, launching attractive academic programs, and promoting collaboration and Interdisciplinary research. Israel’s accession to DARIAH would undoubtedly constitute a major step in this direction, inasmuch as the various and diverse DH projects under way throughout the country may benefit from the collaboration with the infrastructures of the European Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities and may, in turn, make their own contribution.
We provide our language with both a graphical and textual format.
1) Graphical Format: We propose a graphical tool which contains several windows. The most important ones are those for zone, roles, and equipment declaration, and for the descrip- tion of the activity. In the declaration window, users define the zone of the activity, then select the roles of its actors and the needed equipment. In the activity description window, users specify expected events that participate in the activity and organize them in a story board, in the form of a timelined "organigram", using a tool panel that displays ADeL operators, sub-activities, and events. Moreover, users can describe their activities in a hierarchical and modular way, which means that they can create an activity that includes several sub-activities. This makes the description easier to read and to understand. However, it may be difficult to express complex activities using a purely graphical tool. Thus, we also created a textual format of the language which allows users to describe such activities. 2) Textual Format: The description of activities in the textual format consists of several parts: first, define the types
The police have also proved to be an unwilling partner in immigra- tion enforcement measures. Reasons include a scarcity of resources, il- legal immigration ranking low on their priority list or because of con- cerns over police-community relations. Since the inner city riots of the 1980s and the MacPherson report (1999), which associated the police with matters of institutional racism, any activities that could give rise to further immigrant alienation or to accusations of racism have been actively avoided. Whereas in the past, immigration enforcement staff had no enforcement powers and therefore required the police to exe- cute search warrants or arrests, IND/BIA staff were given such author- ity in 2003 (see Section 4). By 2007, the UK Borders Act again ex- tended existing powers of immigration officers to cover a wider range of police powers of detention. This meant that cooperation with the po- lice would no longer be necessary, and for a while it seemed as though the police were even less involved in immigration control matters than before. Meanwhile, new police units and operations have been estab- lished and the police are beginning to play a greater role in immigra- tion enforcement, particularly in special matters such as trafficking and document fraud. In 2007, Operation Swale was introduced to ‘cre- ate a more joined-up approach to immigration issues’ and to improve collaboration between the BIA and the Home Office – notably, the po- lice and, namely, the London Metropolitan Police (Met) (The Job 2007). Operation MAXIM was also founded to create a cooperative partner- ship among the London Met, the UK Immigration Service (UKIS), the Identity & Passport Service (IPS) and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) (ibid.).