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Ark. Mat., 38 (2000), 37-44

(~) 2000 by Institut Mittag-Leflter. All rights reserved

Polynomials on dual-isomorphic spaces

F61ix Cabello S~nchez, Jesds M. F. Castillo and Ricardo Garcfa(I)

In this note we study isomorphisms between spaces of polynomials on Banach spaces. Precisely, we are interested in the following question raised in [5]: If X and Y are Banach spaces such that their topological duals X ' and F are isomorphic, does this imply that the corresponding spaces of homogeneous polynomials P ( n X ) and p ( n y ) are isomorphic for every n > 17

Dfaz and Dineen gave the following partial positive answer [5, Proposition 4]:

Let X and Y be dual-isomorphic spaces; if X ' has the Schur property and the ap- proximation property, then P('~X) and 7~(~Y) are isomorphic for every n. Observe that the Schur property of X ' makes all bounded operators from X to X ' (and also from Y to Y') compact. T h a t hypothesis can be considerably relaxed. Follow- ing [6], [7], let us say t h a t X is regular if every bounded operator X - + X ' is weakly compact. We prove the following result.

T h e o r e m 1. Let X and Y be dual-isomorphic spaces. If X is regular then 7~("X) and 79(~Y) are isomorphic for every n>_l.

In fact, it is even true that the corresponding spaces of holomorphic maps of bounded type 7~b(X) and Hb(Y) are isomorphic Fr6chet algebras. Observe that the approximation property plays no r61e in Theorem 1. This is relevant since, for instance, the space of all bounded operators on a Hilbert space is a regular space (as every C*-algebra [7]) but lacks the approximation property.

Our techniques are quite different from those of [5] and depend on certain properties of the extension operators introduced by Nicodemi in [10]. For stable spaces (~hat is, for spaces isomorphic to its square) one has the following stronger result.

T h e o r e m 2. If X and Y are dual-isomorphic stable spaces, then 7)(nX) and P('~Y) are. isomorphic for every n> l.

(1) Supported in part by DGICYT project PB97-0377.


At the end of the p a p e r we present examples of Banach spaces X , Y with 79(nX) and 7)(nY) isomorphic for every n > 1 despite t h e following facts.

Example 1. All polynomials on X are weakly sequentially continuous, while Y contains a complemented subspace isomorphic to 12 (thus there are plenty of polynomials which are not weakly sequentially continuous).

Example 2. T h e space X is separable and Y is not.

Example 3. Every infinite-dimensional subspace of X contains a copy of 12, X has the R a d o n - N i k o d y m p r o p e r t y and Y is isomorphic to co.

1. M u l t i l i n e a r m a p s a n d N i c o d e m i o p e r a t o r s

Our notation is s t a n d a r d and follows [5]. Let Z1, ..., Zn be Banach spaces.

Then, for each l < i < n , there is an isomorphism

(-){: C(Zl, ..., z n ) > c ( z l , ..., z{_~, z{+~, ..., z~; z~) given by

(Ai(zl,..., z~-l, z~+l,..., z,~), zi) = A ( z l , . . . , z,~).

T h e inverse isomorphism will be denoted ( . ) i . Thus, for any vector-valued multi- linear m a p BC~-.(Z1, ..., Zi-1, Zi+l, ..., Z,~; Z~), we have

~ i ( z 1 , . . . , Z i - - l , Z i , Z i + l , . . . , Z n ) = ( ~ ( Z 1 , . . . , z i _ l , z i + l , . . . , z n ) , z i } .

Our main tool are the extension operators introduced by Nicodemi in [10]

whose construction we briefly sketch (see also [6]). Let X and Y be Banach spaces.

Given an operator ~5: X r - + y ~, one can construct a sequence of bounded operators

~5(n): s 1 6 3 between the spaces of multilinear forms as follows. For 1 < i <

n, define

e~):z.(x,!~.!,x,y,(,~.:&z) ~ z(x,(~:..~),x,y,(~:~..+l) z)

a s

Finally, define ~(~) by

9 ~ ) ( A ) = (~oA,) ~.

Clearly, if ~P:Xr--~F is an isomorphism, so is every ~i 9 (n) following lemma.

Hence we have the


Polynomials on dual-isomorphic spaces 39

L e m m a 1. Let ~P: X ' - - ~ Y ' be an isomorphism. Then ~(~) is an isomorphism for every n > l.

C o r o l l a r y 1. If X and Y are dual-isomorphic spaces, then s and s are isomorphic for every n > l.

We are ready to prove Theorem 2.

Proof of Theorem 2. The hypothesis on X and Y together with [5, Theo- rem 2(ii)l and Corollary 1 above yields p ( n x ) ~ s as de- sired. []

Identifying P ( n X ) with the space of symmetric forms s (nX) (and also P ( ~ Y ) with s (my)) one might think that, given an isomorphism (I): X'--+ Y', the restriction of ~(~) to s could give an isomorphism between the spaces of polynomials.

Unfortunately we are unable to prove that ~(~)(A) is symmetric when A is (we believe t h a t not all isomorphisms ~ achieve this). Fortunately, this is always true when X is regular. The following result will clarify the proof of Theorem 1.

P r o p o s i t i o n 1. Let X and Y be dual-isomorphic Banach spaces. If X is regular then so is Y .

Proof. Let B denote bounded operators and t4; weakly compact operators. It clearly suffices to see t h a t B ( Y , X ' ) = W ( Y , X ' ) , which follows from the regular- ity of X (B(X, Y ' ) = W ( X , Y')) together with the natural isomorphism B(Y, X ' ) = B(X, Y') and Gantmacher's theorem ( W ( Y , X ' ) = W ( X , Y')). []

Our immediate objective is the following representation of Nicodemi operators.

L e m m a 2. Let O: X ' - - + Y ~ be a bounded operator. For every A C s and all y i ~ Y one has

(I)(n) (d)(yl, ..., y~) = l i m ... lira A ( x l , . . . , xn), xl-+~'(yl) ~n~+~'(yn)

where the iterated limits are taken for x i C X converging to ~'(Yi) in the weak*

topology of X ' .

Proof. Let B e s !!), X, Y, ('~.::.~), Y). Then

~ i (~) B ( X l , . . . , X i - - l , Y i , Y i + l , . . . , y n ) : ( ~ ~ 1 , Y i , Y i + l , . . . , Y n )

= ( ( ( ~ ~

= ((I)(Bi (Xl~ ... , x i - 1 , Y i + l , . . . , Yn)), Yi)

= ( S i ( X l , ..., x i - 1 , yi-L1, ..., Yn), (]~1 (Yi)}

= x{-+~' (y~) 1Qn/1 ' ( g i ( x l , . . . , x i - 1 , Y i + l , . . . , Yn), Xi)

= x~-~'(y~) lim B ( X l , ..., x{_,, xi, Y~+I,..., Y~),


f r o m which the result follows. []

It is a p p a r e n t l y a well-known fact t h a t if X is a regular space, t h e i t e r a t e d limit in t h e p r e c e d i n g l e m m a does not d e p e n d on t h e order of t h e involved variables.

L e m m a 3. Suppose that X is regular. Then, f o r every A E s and every permutation 7c of {1, ..., n}, one has

lim ... lim A ( x l , . . . , X n ) lim ... lim A ( x l , . . . , x n )

x~-+x'{ x,~-~x~ x.(~)--+x~o) x~(,O-+x" n ~( )

for all " x i E X , where the iterated limits are taken f o r x i E X converging to x i in "

the weak* topology of X " .

We refer t h e r e a d e r to [2, Section 8] for a simple proof. It will be convenient to write the limit a p p e a r i n g in L e m m a 3 in a m o r e c o m p a c t form. Thus, given A E E ( n X ) , consider t h e multilinear f o r m ct/3(A) given on X " b y


( x l , . . . , x ~ ) = lira ... lim A ( x s , . . . , x ~ ) .

x~ ~x'~' x,~-+x'/~

T h i s is t h e A r o n B e r n e r extension of A (see [1, P r o p o s i t i o n 2.1], or [2, Section 8].

A c t u a l l y the extension o p e r a t o r a ~ : s163 '') is n o t h i n g b u t t h e N i c o d e m i o p e r a t o r induced b y t h e n a t u r a l inclusion X ' ~ X ' " . In this setting, it is clear t h a t if ~: X'--->Y' is a n o p e r a t o r , t h e n

5e (n) (A)(y~, ..., y~) = c ~ ( A ) ( ( P ' ( y l ) , ..., o2'(yn)).

F r o m this, we o b t a i n the following l e m m a .

L e m m a 4. Let X be a regular space and let ~: X'--+ Y ' be an operator. Then, for each n > l, the restriction of q~(n) to s takes values in s

Proof. I t obviously suffices to see t h a t c,~(A) belongs to Z;8(nX '') for every s y m m e t r i c A C E ( n X ) . If rcES~, t h e n

~ / 3 ( A ) ( z ~ ' , . . . , z ~ ) = lira ... lim A ( z l , . . . , x n ) xl ~x'~' xn-+x'/~

lira ... lira A ( x ~ ( 1 ) , . . . , x ~ ( n ) )

= lim ... lira A ( x ~ o ) , ..., x~(n))

Xv(1)---,~X~(1) X ( ) ~ X H . . . . (~)

o~/~(A) " "

= (x~(1), ..., x~(n)), as desired. []


Polynomials on dual-isomorphic spaces 41 End of the proof of Theorem 1. If d ) : X ' - + Y ' is an isomorphism and X is a regular space, then, by the lemma just proved, for every n>_ 1 the Nicodemi operator (I)(n) yields an isomorphism from f_,,(nX) to 12,(nY). It remains to prove that this map is surjective. This is an obvious consequence of Proposition 1, L e m m a 4 and the following result which shows the (covariant) functorial character of Nicodemi's procedure on the class of regular spaces. []

P r o p o s i t i o n 2. Let X , Y and Z be regular spaces and let ~ : X ' - - + Y ' a n d

~P: Y'--+ Z' be arbitrary operators. Then (qJoO)(n)=~(n)o~ (n) for every n>_l.

Proof. We only need the regularity of X . It is plain from the definition that for e v e r y


the multilinear form aft(A) is separately weakly* continuous in the first variable. If X is regular, L e m m a 3 implies that c ~ ( A ) is separately weakly* continuous in each variable. Thus,

(~(n) o(i)(n))(A)(Zl,---, zn ) = ~(n) ( ~)(n) ( A ) )( zl , ... , zn)

= lim ... lim O ( n ) ( A ) ( y l , . . . , y ~ ) v i - ~ ' ( z l ) v,~-+ee'(z~)

= lim ... lira a/3(A)(f)'(y~), ..., ~>'(Yn)) u~-+v'(z~) y,~c,'(z~)

= a Z ( A ) ( ~ ' ( ~ ' ( y ~ ) ) , - . . , ~' (~'(yn)))

= (~o~)(~)(A)(z~, ..., z,~), and the proof is complete. []

Remark 1. In general, (~o~)(,0 may differ from ~(~)off)(n); see the instructive counterexample in [6, Section 9].

C o r o l l a r y 2. Let X and Y be dual-isomorphic complex spaces. If X is regular, then the Frdchet algebras of holomorphie maps of bounded type 7-&(X) and ~ b ( Y ) are isomorphic.

Proof. (See [6] for unexplained terms.) Let ~2:X'--+Y ~ be an isomorphism.

It is easily seen that the Nieodemi operators have the following property: for all

A C / : ( n X ) and all B E s one has r174174 Taking

into account t h a t the norm of ~(~) is at most

I1~11 ~,

it is not hard to see t h a t the map 1~,~~ ~(n): 7-t.b(X)-+7"tb(Y) given by ( ~ - 1 <I)(n)(f)=~,~~176 ~(n)dnf(O)/n! is an isomorphism of Prdchet algebras. []

2. T h e e x a m p l e s

Example 2 can be obtained taking X = C [ 0 , 1] and Y = c o ( J , C[0, 1]), where J is a set having the power of the continuum. Clearly, X and Y are regular spaces.


Moreover, by general representation theorems, one has isometrics

X! =/1 (J,/1 (N) @1 L1 [0, 1]) = / 1 (a x J,/1 (N) @1 L1 [0, 1]) = ll (J,

X') = Y',

so T h e o r e m 1 applies.

The space X of Example 3 is Bourgain's example [3] of a n / 2 - h e r e d i t a r y space having the Radon Nikodym property and such that X ~ is isomorphic t o / 1 (which obviously implies that X is regular).

Finally, Example 1 is obtained from Theorem 2 taking


and Y 11 (I$)| Clearly, X has the Schur property (weakly convergent sequences converge in norm), and therefore all polynomials on X are weakly sequentially continuous.

T h a t Y admits 2-polynomials that are not weakly sequentially continuous is trivial.

We want to see t h a t X is stable (this clearly implies t h a t Y is stable too) and t h a t e oc

X I and Y / a r e isomorphic. Let ( n)n 1 be the obvious basis of X and consider the following subspaces of X

X l = [r r r e7, e8, e9, r r e15, r ..-], X 2 = [e2, e5~ e6, r r e12, c17, r e19, e20,


It is easily verified that


and also that

X ~ X I ~ X 2 ,

so t h a t X and Y are stable. To finish, let us prove that X ~ and Y~ are isomorphic. Since


the proof will be complete if we show that 12 is complemented in X ~. (This was first observed by Stegall who gave a rather involved proof; for the sake of completeness we include a simple proof which essentially follows I4].) Let Q: X 11(1~)--+12 be given by Q((Xn)nCC_l)=~nCC_ 1 an. Clearly, Q is a quotient map and therefore Q': (/2) ' =


is an isomorphic embedding. For each k_>l, consider the local selection

Sk: 12---~ll(l~ ~)

given by


where Pk denotes the projection of 12 onto the subspace spanned by the first k elements of the standard basis and Ik:

l~-+ll(I'2 ~)

is the inclusion map. Now, take a free ultrafilter U on N and define T:



T x ' ( x ) = l i ~ x'(S~x)

for J c X ~ and xr T h e n T is a left inverse for Q~. Indeed, let fr I and take


One has T ( Q ' ( f ) ) ( x )

limuQ'(f)(Skx) limuf(QSkx)--f(x)

since QSkx converges in norm to x. This completes the proof.


2. In view of [5, L e m m a 3], the following result may be interesting:

Let X be a regular space whose dual is stable. Then, for every ~ > 1 , the spaces


and s are isomorphic. (This can be proved by the methods of [5], taking into account t h a t since X 2 is a predual of X ' , Theorem 1 yields isomorphisms




We refrain from giving the details.)


Polynomials on dual-isomorphic spaces 43

R e m a r k 3. An operator T: X - + X ' is said to be symmetric if T x ( y ) = T y ( x ) holds for all x, y E X . A Banaeh space X is said to be symmetrically regular if every symmetric operator X - + X I is weakly compact. Observe that Theorem 1 and Corollary 1 remain valid (with the same proof) replacing "X regular" by " X and Y symmetrically regular". This observation is pertinent since Leung [9] showed that there are symmetrically regular spaces (the duals of certain James-type spaces) which are not regular. On the other hand, 11 seems to be (essentially) the only known non-symmetrically regular space (see [2, Section 8]). In this way, although the starting question of Dfaz and Dineen remains open, the results in this paper show that no available spaces seem to be reasonable candidates for a counterexample (one of the spaces should be non-stable and non-symmetrically regular simultaneously).

We do not know if a symmetrically regular space and a non-symmetrically regular space can be dual isomorphic. Again, observe that no predual of l ~ is symmetrically regular.

Acknowledgements. After a previous version of this paper had been written we received valuable feedback from several colleagues: J u a n Carlos Dfaz informed us that Silvia Lassalle and Ignacio Zalduendo had independently obtained Theorem 1 (see [8]); Ignacio Villanueva made us aware t h a t Lassalle and Zalduendo had found an incorrect statement in our manuscript. It is quite a pleasure to t h a n k each of them for helping us to improve the paper.

R e f e r e n c e s

1. ARON, R. and BERNER, P., A H a h ~ B a n a c h extension theorem for analytic map- pings, Bull. Soc. Math. France 106 (1978), 3 24.

2. ARON, R., COLE, B. and CJAMELIN, T., Spectra of algebras of analytic functions on a Banach space, Y. Rcine Angew. Math. 415 (1991), 51-93.

3. BOURGAIN, J., New Classes of s Lecture Notes in Math. 889, Springer- Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1981.

4. CASTILLO, J. M. F. and GONZJ~LEZ, M., On the DPP in Banach spaces, Acta Univ.

Carolin. Math. Phys. 35 (1994), 5 12.

5. DfAZ, J. C. and DINEEN, S., Polynomials on stable spaces, Ark. Mat. 36 (1998), 87 96.

6. GALINDO, P., GARCfA, D., MAESTRE, ~I. and MUJICA, J., Extension of multilinear mappings on Banach spaces, Studia Math. 108 (1994), 55 76.

7. GODEFROY, G. and IOCHUM, B., Arens regularity of Banach algebras and the geom- etry of Banach spaces, d. Funct. Anal. 80 (1988), 47 59.

8. LASSALLE, S. and ZALDUENDO, I., To what extent does the dual Banach space E' determine the polynomials over E?, Preprint, 1998.

9. LEUNG, D. H., Some remarks on regular Banach spaces, Glasgow Math. d. 38 (1996), 243 248.


10. NICODEMI, O., Homomorphisms of algebras of germs of holomorphic functions, in Functional Analysis, Holomorphy and Approximation Theory (Machado, S., ed.), Lecture Notes in Math. 843, pp. 534 546, Springer-Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg, 1981.

Received June 30, 1998

in revised form February 3, 1999

F~lix Cabello S~nchez

Departamento de MatemAticas Universidad de Extremadura Avenida de Elvas

ES-06071 Badajoz Spain

email: fcabello@unex.es Jesfis M. F. Castillo

Departamento de Matem~ticas Universidad de E x t r e m a d u r a Avenida de Elvas

ES-06071 Badajoz Spain

email: castillo~unex.es Ricardo Garcfa

Departamento de MatemAticas Universidad de E x t r e m a d u r a Avenida de Elvas

ES-06071 Badajoz Spain

email: rgarcia@unex.es


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