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Research Article

On the Range of the Radon Transform on Z

𝑛

and the Related Volberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Ahmed Abouelaz,1Abdallah Ihsane,1and Takeshi Kawazoe2

1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University Hassan II of Casablanca, Faculty of Sciences A¨ın Chock, Route d’El Jadida Km 8, BP 5366, Maˆarif, 20100 Casablanca, Morocco

2Department of Mathematics, Keio University at Fujisawa, Endo, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-8520, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Ahmed Abouelaz; ah.abouelaz@gmail.com Received 6 October 2014; Accepted 30 December 2014

Academic Editor: Shaofang Hong

Copyright © 2015 Ahmed Abouelaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We characterize the image of exponential type functions under the discrete Radon transformRon the latticeZ𝑛of the Euclidean spaceR𝑛(𝑛 ≥ 2). We also establish the generalization of Volberg’s uncertainty principle onZ𝑛, which is proved by means of this characterization. The techniques of which we make use essentially in this paper are those of the Diophantine integral geometry as well as the Fourier analysis.

1. Introduction

First of all, we recall briefly that the uncertainty principle states, roughly speaking, that a nonzero function and its Fourier transform cannot both be sharply localized, which can be interpreted topologically by the fact that they cannot have simultaneously their supports in a same too small compact (see the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in [1]).

Considerable attention has been devoted to discovering different forms of the uncertainty principle on many settings such as certain types of Lie groups and homogeneous trees.

Several versions of the uncertainty principle have been established by many authors in the last few decades. Among the contributions dealing with this important topic, let us quote principally [1–4]. On the other hand, we note that the uncertainty principle is one of the major themes of the classical Fourier analysis as well as its neighboring parts of the mathematical analysis.

We consider here the lattice Z𝑛 of the Euclidean space R𝑛 (𝑛 ≥ 2). For𝑎 = (𝑎1, . . . , 𝑎𝑛) ∈ Z𝑛 \ {0}and 𝑘 ∈ Z, the linear Diophantine equation𝑎𝑥 = 𝑘has an infinity of solutions inZ𝑛if and only if𝑘is an integral multiple of the greatest common divisor𝑑(𝑎)of the integers𝑎1, . . . , 𝑎𝑛, where 𝑎𝑥denotes the usual inner product of𝑎and𝑥regarded as two

vectors of the Euclidean spaceR𝑛(see [5] for more details).

Therefore, for𝑎 ∈ P = {𝑚 ∈ Z𝑛 \ {0} | 𝑑(𝑚) = 1}, the set𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘) = {𝑥 ∈ Z𝑛 | 𝑎𝑥 = 𝑘}of all its solutions in Z𝑛 is infinite and forms a discrete hyperplane inZ𝑛. LetG be the set consisting of all hyperplanes𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘)inZ𝑛, where (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P ×Z. We note that Gplays a role as discrete Grassmannian and can be parametrized asP×Z/ ± 1(see [5, Section 2]). Moreover,Gcan be written as the following disjoint union:

G=G(1)G(2), (1) where

G(1)= {𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘) | (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, ‖𝑎‖2| 𝑘}

= {𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘) | (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z} , G(2)= {𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘) | (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, ‖𝑎‖2∤ 𝑘}

= {𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘) | (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, 𝑘 ∉ ‖𝑎‖2Z} , (2)

with‖𝑎‖2= ∑𝑛𝑖=1𝑎2𝑖, for all𝑎 = (𝑎1, . . . , 𝑎𝑛) ∈P.

Volume 2015, Article ID 375017, 9 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/375017

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As an analogue of the Euclidean case, the discrete Radon transform𝑅onZ𝑛, which maps a function𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)to a function𝑅𝑓onG, is defined by

𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘)) = ∑

𝑚∈𝐻(𝑎,𝑘)

𝑓 (𝑚) , (3)

for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, where𝑙1(Z𝑛)is the space of all complex- valued functions𝑓defined onZ𝑛such that𝑚∈Z𝑛|𝑓(𝑚)| <

+∞(see [5] for more details on this Radon transform).

In this paper, we are interested in developing the study of the restriction of the Radon transform𝑅𝑓of𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)to G(1). By means ofTheorem 1stated below, considered here as the first main result, we succeeded in proving the second main result concerning the generalization of Volberg’s UP onZ𝑛 (seeTheorem 2). We precise thatG(1)is the most important subset of the discrete GrassmannianGfor our study of both fundamental results (see Sections3and4).

The purpose of this paper is to study the characterization of the image of exponential type functions under𝑅, as well as the generalization of Volberg’s UP onZ𝑛.

Our work is motivated by the fact that the uncertainty principle for the discrete Radon transform𝑅onZ𝑛 plays a fundamental role in the field of physics, especially in quantum mechanics.

Our paper is organized as follows.

InSection 2, we fix, once and for all, some notation and also give certain properties of the discrete Radon transform 𝑅 onZ𝑛, which will be useful in the sequel of this paper.

Moreover, we recall Volberg’s theorem on Z in the same section.

Section 3deals with the characterization of the image of exponential type functions under𝑅, which is given by the following main theorem (seeTheorem 4).

Theorem 1 (characterization of the image of exponential type functions under𝑅). Let 𝑓be a positive function of 𝑙1(Z𝑛).

Then

(i)the following two conditions are equivalent:

(1)𝑓(𝑚) = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼‖𝑚‖2),

(2)𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼𝑘2), ∀𝑎 ∈P, where𝛼 > 1is an absolute constant;

(ii)the following two equivalences hold:

(3)[|𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘))| ≤ exp(−𝛽𝑘2), ∀(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P× Z] ⇔ [𝑓(𝑚) = 0, ∀𝑚 ∈Z𝑛\ {0}],

where𝛽 > 0is an absolute constant,

(4)[|𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘))| ≤ |𝑘|exp(−𝛾𝑘2), ∀(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P× Z] ⇔ 𝑓 = 0,

where𝛾 > 0is an absolute constant.

Section 4is devoted to establishing the generalization of Volberg’s UP on the lattice Z𝑛 (seeTheorem 2below). We make here use of the discrete Fourier transformF, which maps a function𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)to a functionF𝑓onT𝑛defined by

F𝑓 (𝜆) = ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑛𝑓 (𝑚)exp(−2𝑖𝜋𝜆𝑚) , ∀𝜆 ∈T𝑛, (4) whereT𝑛=R𝑛/Z𝑛is the𝑛-dimensional torus.

For 𝑎 P and 𝑓 𝑙1(Z𝑛), we denote by 𝐵(𝑎) (resp., 𝑓|𝐵(𝑎))the set

𝐵 (𝑎) = {𝑚 ∈Z𝑛| 𝑎𝑚

‖𝑎‖2 Z} , (5)

(resp., the restriction of𝑓to𝐵(𝑎)), where𝑎𝑚 = ∑𝑛𝑖=1𝑎𝑖𝑚𝑖by putting𝑎 = (𝑎1, . . . , 𝑎𝑛)and𝑚 = (𝑚1, . . . , 𝑚𝑛).

In this section, we consider the function𝜓defined on

Tby

𝜓 (𝑎, 𝑠) = 𝑎𝑠

‖𝑎‖2, ∀ (𝑎, 𝑠) ∈P×T, (6) and also F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠)) (where 𝑠 T) and

‖F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))‖, respectively, given by F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅)) (𝜓 (⋅, 𝑠)) (𝑎) =F(𝑓|𝐵(𝑎)) ( 𝑎𝑠

‖𝑎‖2)

= ∑

𝑚∈𝐵(𝑎)

𝑓 (𝑚)exp(−2𝑖𝜋𝑎𝑚𝑠

‖𝑎‖2) , (7)

for all(𝑎, 𝑠) ∈P×T, with𝐵(𝑎) = {𝑚 ∈Z𝑛 | 𝑎𝑚/‖𝑎‖2 Z}, respectively,

󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅)) (𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩=sup

𝑎∈P󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨F(𝑓|𝐵(𝑎)) (𝜓 (𝑎, 𝑠))󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 , ∀𝑠 ∈T, (8) Tbeing the one-dimensional torus. Now, we state the follow- ing main theorem (seeTheorem 10).

Theorem 2 (generalization of Volberg’s UP on the latticeZ𝑛).

Let𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)satisfying the following three conditions (1)|𝑓(𝑚)| ≤ 𝐶0exp(−𝛼‖𝑚‖), for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛, where𝐶0,𝛼

are strictly positive absolute constants.

(2)The functionT ∋ 𝑠 󳨃→ ‖F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))‖belongs to 𝐿1(T).

(3)T Log(‖F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))‖)𝑑𝑠 = −∞.

Then𝑓 = 0.

2. Notations and Preliminaries

In this section, we fix some notation which will be useful in the sequel of this paper and recall certain properties of the discrete Radon transform on Z𝑛 (𝑛 ≥ 2). We also introduce various functional spaces. For 1 ≤ 𝑝 < +∞,

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let𝑙𝑝(Z𝑛) (resp., 𝑙(Z𝑛))be the space of all complex-valued functions 𝑓 defined on Z𝑛 such that 𝑚∈Z𝑛|𝑓(𝑚)|𝑝 <

+∞ (resp., sup𝑚∈Z𝑛|𝑓(𝑚)| < +∞). Let us denote by𝐶0(Z𝑛) the space of all complex-valued functions𝑓defined onZ𝑛 such that𝑓(𝑚) → 0as‖𝑚‖ → +∞, with‖𝑚‖2 = 𝑚21+

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + 𝑚2𝑛 for all𝑚 = (𝑚1, . . . , 𝑚𝑛) ∈ Z𝑛. It is clear that, for 1 ≤ 𝑝 < 𝑞 < +∞, we have the following inclusions:

𝑙1(Z𝑛) ⊂ 𝑙2(Z𝑛) ⊂ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⊂ 𝑙𝑝(Z𝑛) ⊂ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⊂ 𝑙𝑞(Z𝑛)

⊂ 𝐶0(Z𝑛) ⊂ 𝑙(Z𝑛) . (9) For1 ≤ 𝑝 < +∞, we denote by‖ ⋅ ‖𝑝the discrete norm on the space𝑙𝑝(Z𝑛)defined by

󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑓󵄩󵄩󵄩󵄩𝑝= ( ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑛󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑓(𝑚)󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑝)

1/𝑝

, ∀𝑓 ∈ 𝑙𝑝(Z𝑛) . (10) We define the discrete Radon transform 𝑅 on Z𝑛 as follows:

𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘)) = ∑

𝑚∈𝐻(𝑎,𝑘)𝑓 (𝑚)

=

𝑚∈Z𝑛,𝑎𝑚=𝑘𝑓 (𝑚) , (11) for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P×Zand𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛), where𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘)is the hyperplane inZ𝑛defined by

𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘) = {𝑚 ∈Z𝑛| 𝑎𝑚 = 𝑘} (12) and

P= {𝑎 = (𝑎1, . . . , 𝑎𝑛) ∈Z𝑛\ {0} | 𝑑 (𝑎) = 1} , (13) 𝑑(𝑎) being the greatest common divisor of the integers 𝑎1, . . . , 𝑎𝑛(see [5] for more details), and𝑎𝑥denotes the usual inner product of 𝑎 and 𝑥 regarded as two vectors of the Euclidean spaceR𝑛.

The set𝐵(𝑎) = {𝑚 ∈Z𝑛 | 𝑎𝑚/‖𝑎‖2Z}can be written as follows:

𝐵 (𝑎) = ⋃

𝛼∈Z𝐻 (𝑎, 𝛼 ‖𝑎‖2) (disjoint union) . (14) Because, for all(𝛼, 𝛽) ∈Z2such that𝛼 ̸= 𝛽, we have

𝐻 (𝑎, 𝛼 ‖𝑎‖2) ⋂ 𝐻 (𝑎, 𝛽 ‖𝑎‖2) = ⌀. (15) We note that

𝑎∈P𝐵 (𝑎) =Z𝑛. (16)

Indeed, for𝑚 ∈Z𝑛\ {0}, we can take𝑎 = 𝑚/𝑑(𝑚) ∈P, then 𝑎𝑚/‖𝑎‖2= 𝑑(𝑚) ∈Z. Moreover,0 ∈ 𝐵(𝑎)for all𝑎 ∈P.

For a function𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛), we define its discrete Fourier transformF𝑓on the𝑛-dimensional torusT𝑛as follows:

F𝑓 (𝜆) = ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑛𝑓 (𝑚)exp(−2𝑖𝜋𝜆𝑚) , ∀𝜆 ∈T𝑛. (17)

We define the discrete one-dimensional Fourier trans- formF1by

F1𝑔 (𝑥) = ∑

𝑡∈Z𝑔 (𝑡)exp(−2𝑖𝜋𝑡𝑥) , ∀𝑥 ∈T, (18) whereTis the one-dimensional torus.

For𝑓 ∈ 𝐿1(T𝑛), the Fourier coefficients of𝑓are denoted by𝑓(𝑚)̂ (𝑚 ∈Z𝑛) and defined by

𝑓 (𝑚) = ∫̂

T𝑛𝑓 (𝑥)exp(2𝑖𝜋𝑚𝑥) 𝑑𝑥, ∀𝑚 ∈Z𝑛. (19) Let𝑎𝑗 = (1, 𝑗, 𝑗2, . . . , 𝑗𝑛−1) ∈ P, with𝑗 ∈ N\ {0}. The inversion formula for the discrete Radon transform is given by

𝑗 → ∞lim𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎𝑗, 𝑎𝑗𝑚)) = 𝑓 (𝑚) , (20) for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛and𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)(see [5, Theorem 4.1] and also [6]).

At the end of this section, we recall Volberg’s theorem on Z.

Theorem 3 (Volberg’s theorem, see [1]). Let 𝛼 > 0 and suppose that𝑓is a nontrivial function onZsuch that𝑓(𝑡) = 𝑂(exp(−𝛼|𝑡|))as𝑡 → −∞. Moreover, suppose that its Fourier transformF1𝑓is integrable on the one-dimensional torusT. ThenT Log|F1𝑓(𝑥)|𝑑𝑥 > −∞.

3. Characterization of the Image of Exponential Type Functions under𝑅

In this section, we study the characterization of the image of exponential type functions under the discrete Radon transform𝑅 onZ𝑛. More precisely, we state the following main theorem which will be proved after introducing some intermediate lemmas.

Theorem 4 (characterization of the image of exponential type functions under𝑅). Let 𝑓be a positive function of 𝑙1(Z𝑛).

Then

(i)the following two conditions are equivalent:

(1)𝑓(𝑚) = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼‖𝑚‖2),

(2)𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼𝑘2), ∀𝑎 ∈P, where𝛼 > 1is an absolute constant;

(ii)the following two equivalences hold:

(3)[|𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘))| ≤ exp(−𝛽𝑘2), ∀(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P× Z] ⇔ [𝑓(𝑚) = 0, ∀𝑚 ∈Z𝑛\ {0}],

where𝛽 > 0is an absolute constant,

(4)[|𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘))| ≤ |𝑘|exp(−𝛾𝑘2), ∀(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P× Z] ⇔ 𝑓 = 0,

where𝛾 > 0is an absolute constant.

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In order to avoid any too long proof ofTheorem 4and then prove it clearly, we need the following useful lemmas.

Lemma 5. Let𝛼 > 0 and𝑓be the function defined onZ𝑛 by:𝑓(𝑚) =exp(−𝛼‖𝑚‖2), for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛. Then there exists a constant𝐶 > 0(which depends only on𝛼and𝑛) such that, for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, we have

0 < 𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, 𝑘 ‖𝑎‖2)) ≤ 𝐶exp(−𝛼𝑘2) . (21) Proof. Let𝑆(𝑎, 𝑘) = ∑𝑚∈Z𝑛,𝑎𝑚=𝑘‖𝑎‖2exp(𝛼(𝑘2−‖𝑚‖2)). The left inequality of(21) is trivial since𝑓 > 0implies clearly that 𝑅𝑓 > 0. To show the right inequality of (21), it suffices to prove the inequality𝑆(𝑎, 𝑘) < 𝐶, for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P×Z. For this, we distinguish two cases.

(1) The Case When‖𝑎‖2 ≥ 2. We have𝑎𝑚 = 𝑘‖𝑎‖2and𝑎 ̸=

0; then, by the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality,𝑘‖𝑎‖ ≤ ‖𝑚‖. It follows that𝑘 ≤ ‖𝑎‖−1‖𝑚‖; thus

𝑆 (𝑎, 𝑘) ≤

𝑚∈Z𝑛,𝑎𝑚=𝑘‖𝑎‖2

exp(𝛼 ‖𝑚‖2(‖𝑎‖−2− 1)) , (22)

since‖𝑎‖2 ≥ 2by hypothesis. The above inequality can be transformed as follows:

𝑆 (𝑎, 𝑘) ≤ ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑛

exp(−𝛼

2 ‖𝑚‖2) = 𝐶1, (23) which implies(21).

(2) The Case When‖𝑎‖2< 2,That Is,‖𝑎‖2= 1. Since𝑎 ∈P Z𝑛\{0}, we can change the order of the coordinates of𝑎, then we can take𝑎 = (0, . . . , 0, 1), and thus𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚𝑛 = 𝑘, with 𝑚 = (𝑚1, 𝑚2, . . . , 𝑚𝑛). It follows that

𝑆 (𝑎, 𝑘) = ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑛−1

exp(−𝛼 ‖𝑚‖2) = 𝐶2. (24) Let𝐶 =Max(𝐶1, 𝐶2). From(23)and(24), we have𝑆(𝑎, 𝑘) ≤ 𝐶 for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z. Consequently,

𝑚∈Z𝑛,𝑎𝑚=𝑘‖𝑎‖2

exp(𝛼 (𝑘2− ‖𝑚‖2))

= (exp(𝛼𝑘2)) (

𝑚∈𝐻(𝑎,‖𝑎‖2𝑘)𝑓 (𝑚)) ≤ 𝐶, (25)

where𝑓(𝑚) = exp(−𝛼‖𝑚‖2). Then by the above inequality, we obtain

𝑚∈𝐻(𝑎,‖𝑎‖2𝑘)

exp(−𝛼 ‖𝑚‖2) ≤ 𝐶exp(−𝛼𝑘2) ,

∀ (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z.

(26)

AndLemma 5is proved.

Lemma 6. Let 𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛). We assume that there exists a function𝜑 :N → [0, +∞[such that𝜑(𝑡) → 0as𝑡 → +∞, satisfying the following condition:

󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎,𝑘))󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝜑(|𝑘|), ∀(𝑎,𝑘) ∈P×Z. (27) Then𝑓is supported at the origin; that is,𝑓(𝑚) = 0for all 𝑚 ∈Z𝑛\ {0}.

Proof. Let𝑚 = (𝑚1, 𝑚2, . . . , 𝑚𝑛) ∈ Z𝑛\ {0}. Permuting the coordinates of 𝑚, we can assume that 𝑚𝑛 ̸= 0. Applying hypothesis(27)to𝑎 = 𝑎𝑗 = (1, 𝑗, 𝑗2, . . . , 𝑗𝑛−1)and𝑘 = 𝑎𝑗𝑚 = 𝑚1+ 𝑚2𝑗 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + 𝑚𝑛𝑗𝑛−1, where𝑗 ∈N\ {0}, we obtain

󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎𝑗, 𝑎𝑗𝑚))󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ 𝜑(󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑎𝑗𝑚󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨), ∀𝑗 ∈N\ {0} . (28) Since𝑚𝑛 ̸= 0, this implies that|𝑎𝑗𝑚| → +∞as𝑗 → +∞;

therefore, the right hand side of inequality(28)tends to zero as𝑗 → +∞. By the inversion formula (see [5, Theorem 4.1]), the left hand side of the same inequality converges to|𝑓(𝑚)|

as𝑗 → +∞. Then𝑓(𝑚) = 0. AndLemma 6is proved.

We cannot hope to obtain more than this result: given a function𝑓onZ𝑛such that𝑓(𝑚) = 0for𝑚 ̸= 0and𝑓(0) = 1, we have 𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘)) = 0 if 𝑘 ̸= 0, and 𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 0)) = 1. Inequality(27)is verified for every function 𝜑such that 𝜑(0) = 1.

Lemma 7. Let𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)verifying the following condition:

󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎,𝑘))󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ |𝑘|𝑒−𝛼𝑘2, ∀ (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, (29) where𝛼is a strictly positive absolute constant. Then𝑓 = 0.

Proof. By applyingLemma 6, we obtain𝑓(𝑚) = 0, for all𝑚 ∈ Z𝑛\ {0}. Now, we show that𝑓(0) = 0. Condition(29)implies that𝑅𝑓(𝐻(𝑎, 0)) = 0, for all𝑎 ∈P. Then, since we have

𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, 0)) = ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑎𝑚=0𝑛

𝑓 (𝑚) = 𝑓 (0) + ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑎𝑚=0𝑛\{0}

𝑓 (𝑚) ,

∀𝑎 ∈P, (30)

with𝑎𝑚=0,𝑚∈Z𝑛\{0}𝑓(𝑚) = 0, we infer that𝑓(0) = 0. Thus, 𝑓(𝑚) = 0, for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛. And this provesLemma 7.

We now return to the proof ofTheorem 4.

Proof ofTheorem 4.The implication(1) ⇒ (2)ofTheorem 4 follows from Lemma 5. On the other hand, we deduce equivalence (3) (resp., (4)) of Theorem 4 from Lemma 6 (resp., Lemma 7). Consequently, to complete the proof of Theorem 4, it remains to prove the implication(2) ⇒ (1)of this theorem. For this, suppose that(2)is satisfied and prove (1). Under our assumption, we have

0 < 𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) < 𝐶exp(−𝛼𝑘2) , ∀𝑎 ∈P, (31)

(5)

where 𝐶 > 0 is an absolute constant. Multiplying the members of (31)by 𝑘2𝛽/𝛽!, with𝑘 ̸= 0 and 𝛽 ∈ N, (31) becomes

0 < 𝑘2𝛽

𝛽!𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) < 𝐶𝑘2𝛽

𝛽! exp(−𝛼𝑘2) , ∀𝑎 ∈P, (32) but

𝑘2𝛽

𝛽! = (𝑘2)𝛽

𝛽! ≤ 𝑒𝑘2, ∀𝛽 ∈N. (33) Then(32)can be transformed as follows:

0 < 𝑘2𝛽

𝛽!𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) < 𝐶𝑒(1−𝛼)𝑘2, ∀ (𝑎, 𝛽) ∈P×N.

(34) Since𝛼 > 1, there exists a constant𝐶0 > 0(which does not depend on𝛽) such that

0 < ∑

𝑘∈Z

𝑘2𝛽

𝛽!𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) < 𝐶0, ∀𝑎 ∈P, (35) but

𝑘∈Z

𝑘2𝛽

𝛽!𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘))

= ∑

𝑘∈Z

(𝑘2)𝛽

𝛽! 𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘))

= ∑

𝑘∈Z

(𝑘2)𝛽

𝛽! ( ∑

𝑎𝑚=‖𝑎‖2𝑘

𝑓 (𝑚)) < 𝐶0.

(36)

For‖𝑎‖ = 1, equality(36)becomes

𝑘∈Z

𝑘2𝛽

𝛽!𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑒𝑗, 𝑘)) = ∑

𝑘∈Z

𝑘2𝛽 𝛽! ( ∑

𝑒𝑗𝑚=𝑘

𝑓 (𝑚))

= ∑

𝑚∈Z𝑛

𝑚2𝛽𝑗 𝛽! 𝑓 (𝑚)

= 1 𝛽!

𝑚∈Z𝑛

𝑚2𝛽𝑗 𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶0,

(37)

where (𝑒𝑗)1≤𝑗≤𝑛 is the canonical orthonormal basis of R𝑛. Moreover, (37) implies that the series 𝑚∈Z𝑛𝑚2𝛽𝑗 𝑓(𝑚) is convergent; then there exists a constant𝐶 > 0(which does not depend on𝛽) such that

𝑚2𝛽𝑗 𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶, (38) for all𝑗 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 𝑛}and𝑚 ∈ Z𝑛such that‖𝑚‖2 → +∞.

Therefore, for all𝛽 ∈Nand𝑗 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 𝑛}

(𝛼𝑛)𝛽

𝛽! 𝑚2𝛽𝑗 𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶(𝛼𝑛)𝛽

𝛽! , (39)

and thus

(𝛼𝑛𝑚2𝑗)𝛽

𝛽! 𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶(𝛼𝑛)𝛽

𝛽! , (40)

which gives by summing with respect to𝛽 (+∞

𝛽=0

(𝑛𝛼𝑚2𝑗)𝛽

𝛽! ) 𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶+∞

𝛽=0

(𝛼𝑛)𝛽

𝛽! . (41)

Inequality(41)can be transformed as follows:

𝑒𝑛𝛼𝑚2𝑗𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝛼, ∀𝑗 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 𝑛} . (42) Hence,

𝑓 (𝑚) < 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝛼𝑒−𝑛𝛼𝑚2𝑗, ∀𝑗 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 𝑛} . (43) Since𝑓(𝑚) ≥ 0, inequality(43)implies

𝑓 (𝑚)2≤ 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝛼𝑒−𝑛𝛼𝑚2𝑗𝑓 (𝑚)

≤ (𝐶𝑒𝑛𝛼)2𝑒−𝑛𝛼𝑚2𝑗𝑒−𝑛𝛼𝑚2𝑖,

(44)

for all𝑖, 𝑗 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 𝑛}. It follows from inequality(44)that 𝑓 (𝑚)𝑛≤ (𝐶𝑒𝑛𝛼)𝑛𝑒−𝑛𝛼‖𝑚‖2, (45) for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛such that‖𝑚‖2 → +∞. Thus,

𝑓 (𝑚) ≤ 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝛼𝑒−𝛼‖𝑚‖2, (46) for all 𝑚 ∈ Z𝑛 such that ‖𝑚‖2 → +∞, which proves the implication(2) ⇒ (1). And this completes the proof of Theorem 4.

Remark 8. Let𝑓be a positive function of𝐿1(T𝑛)such that 𝑓 ∈ 𝑙̂ 1(Z𝑛). Then

[󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑅 ̂𝑓(𝐻(𝑎,𝑘))󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 ≤ |𝑘|exp(−𝛾𝑘2) , ∀ (𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z]

⇐⇒ 𝑓 = 0,

(47) where 𝛾 > 0 is an absolute constant. It suffices to apply Theorem 4to𝑓.̂

Now, denote by𝐴1(T𝑛)the subspace of𝐿1(T𝑛)consisting of all functions𝐺 ∈ 𝐿1(T𝑛)such that𝑚∈Z𝑛𝐺(𝑚)| < +∞, and let 𝐿1(G) be the subspace of 𝐿1(G) consisting of all functions𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1(G) such that there exists 𝐺 ∈ 𝐴1(T𝑛) satisfying the condition

F1𝐹 (𝐻 (𝑎, ⋅)) (𝜃) = 𝐺 (𝜃𝑎) , ∀𝜃 ∈T, (48) where𝐿1(G)is the space of all complex-valued functions𝐹 defined onGsuch that𝑘∈Z|𝐹(𝐻(𝑎, 𝑘))|is finite for all𝑎 ∈ P(see [5]), andTis the one-dimensional torus. The authors

(6)

of [6] have proved that the discrete Radon transform𝑅is a continuous bijection of𝑙1(Z𝑛)onto𝐿1(G)(see [6, Corollary 7]).

For𝛼 > 0, we put

A𝛼= {𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛) | 𝑓 (𝑚) = 𝑂 (𝑒−𝛼‖𝑚‖2)} , B𝛼= {𝑅𝑓 :G󳨀→C| 𝑅𝑓 (𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) = 𝑂 (𝑒−𝛼𝑘2) ,

with𝑓 ∈A𝛼} .

(49) Since the map:𝑙1(Z𝑛) ∋ 𝑓 󳨃→ 𝑅𝑓|G(1) is not injective, we define here two equivalence relationsRon𝑙1(Z𝑛)andTon 𝐿1(G)as follows:

[𝑓R𝑔 ⇐⇒ 󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨(𝑓 − 𝑔) (𝑚)󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼‖𝑚‖2)] ,

∀𝑓, 𝑔 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛) ,

(50)

[(𝑅𝑓)T(𝑅𝑔) ⇐⇒ 𝑅 (󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑓 − 𝑔󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨)(𝐻(𝑎,‖𝑎‖2𝑘))=𝑂 (𝑒−𝛼𝑘2)] ,

∀𝑅𝑓, 𝑅𝑔 ∈ 𝐿1(G) , (51) in order to state the following interesting theorem which gives a one-to-one correspondence between the quotient sets 𝑙1(Z𝑛)/A𝛼and𝐿1(G)/B𝛼.

Theorem 9. The functionΨ : 𝑙1(Z𝑛)/A𝛼 → 𝐿1(G)/B𝛼, which maps each equivalence class𝑓̇to the equivalence class of𝑅𝑓, is a bijection.

Proof. It suffices to prove the injectivity of the functionΨ. It is easy to see that

Ψ ( ̇𝑓) = Ψ ( ̇𝑔) ⇐⇒ 𝑅 (󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨𝑓 − 𝑔󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨) = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼𝑘2) . (52) Then, fromTheorem 4, we infer that

󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨(𝑓 − 𝑔)(𝑚)󵄨󵄨󵄨󵄨 = 𝑂(𝑒−𝛼‖𝑚‖2) . (53) Therefore

̇𝑓 = ̇𝑔. (54)

Hence,Ψis injective. And the theorem is proved.

4. Generalization of Volberg’s Uncertainty Principle on the LatticeZ𝑛

In this section which deals with the generalization of Vol- berg’s UP on the lattice Z𝑛, we state the following main theorem which will be proved after introducing some inter- mediate lemmas.

Theorem 10 (generalization of Volberg’s UP on the lattice Z𝑛). Let𝑓 ∈ 𝑙1(Z𝑛)satisfying the following three conditions

(1)|𝑓(𝑚)| ≤ 𝐶0exp(−𝛼‖𝑚‖), for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛, where𝐶0, 𝛼 are strictly positive absolute constants.

(2)The functionT ∋ 𝑠 󳨃→ ‖F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))‖belongs to 𝐿1(T).

(3)T Log(‖F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))‖)𝑑𝑠 = −∞.

Then𝑓 = 0.

Here, for the definition of the function 𝜓 : P × T Cand the expression of F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠)), as well as

‖F(𝑓|𝐵(⋅))(𝜓(⋅, 𝑠))‖(where𝑠 ∈T), we just refer the reader to the Introduction (see(6),(7), and(8)).

In order to proveTheorem 10clearly, we need the follow- ing useful lemmas.

Lemma 11. Let𝛼 > 0and𝑓0be the function defined onZ𝑛 by:𝑓0(𝑚) = exp(−𝛼‖𝑚‖), for all𝑚 ∈Z𝑛. Then there exists a constant𝐶 > 0(which depends only on𝛼and𝑛) such that, for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈P×Z, we have

0 < 𝑅𝑓0(𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) ≤ 𝐶exp(−𝛼 |𝑘|

√2) . (55) Proof. Let̃𝑆(𝑎, 𝑘) = ∑𝑚∈Z𝑛,𝑎𝑚=𝑘‖𝑎‖2exp(𝛼(|𝑘|/√2−‖𝑚‖)). The left inequality of(55)is trivial since𝑓0> 0implies clearly that 𝑅𝑓0 > 0. To show the right inequality of(55), it suffices to prove the inequalitỹ𝑆(𝑎, 𝑘) < 𝐶, for all(𝑎, 𝑘) ∈ P×Z. For this, we distinguish two possible cases.

(1) The Case When‖𝑎‖ = 1. Since𝑎 ∈ Z𝑛\ {0}, we can take 𝑎 = (0, 0, . . . , 0, 1)by permuting the coordinates of𝑎, which implies that𝑎𝑚 = 𝑚𝑛= 𝑘. Consequently

𝑅𝑓0(𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘)) =

𝑚∈Z𝑛,𝑎𝑚=‖𝑎‖2𝑘

𝑓0(𝑚)

=

𝑚𝑛=𝑘 (𝑚1,...,𝑚𝑛−1)∈Z𝑛−1

𝑓0(𝑚)

=

𝑡=(𝑚1,...,𝑚𝑛−1)∈Z𝑛−1

exp(−𝛼√𝑘2+ ‖𝑡‖2) . (56) Since √‖𝑡‖2+ 𝑘2 (‖𝑡‖ + |𝑘|)/√2, it is clear that

−√‖𝑡‖2+ 𝑘2 ≤ −|𝑘|/√2 − ‖𝑡‖/√2. Thus, the left hand side of (56)can be majorized as follows:

𝑅𝑓0(𝐻 (𝑎, ‖𝑎‖2𝑘))

𝑡=(𝑚1,...,𝑚𝑛−1)∈Z𝑛−1

exp(−𝛼 ‖𝑡‖

√2) ⋅exp(−𝛼 |𝑘|

√2) . (57) This inequality can be transformed as follows:

̃𝑆(𝑎, 𝑘) < 𝐶1=

𝑡=(𝑚1,...,𝑚𝑛−1)∈Z𝑛−1

exp(−𝛼 ‖𝑡‖

√2) . (58) And(55)holds in this first case.

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