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Influence of Cyclic Dimer Formation on the Phase Behavior of Carboxylic Acids. II. Cross-Associating Systems

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Submitted on 26 Aug 2014

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Influence of Cyclic Dimer Formation on the Phase

Behavior of Carboxylic Acids. II. Cross-Associating

Systems

Jiri Janecek, Patrice Paricaud

To cite this version:

Jiri Janecek, Patrice Paricaud. Influence of Cyclic Dimer Formation on the Phase Behavior of Car-boxylic Acids. II. Cross-Associating Systems. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, American Chemical Society, 2013, 117, pp.9430-9438. �10.1021/jp4012125�. �hal-01058133�

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Supporting Materials

Influence of Cyclic Dimer Formation on the

Equilibrium Behavior of Carboxylic Acids II

-Cross Associating Systems

Jiˇr´ı Janeˇcek1,2 and Patrice Paricaud2∗

1 Mines ParisTech, CTP, 35, rue Saint Honor 77305 Fontainebleau cedex,

France.

2

ENSTA-ParisTech, UCP, 828 Boulevard des Mar´echaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex, France.

email: patrice.paricaud@ensta-paristech.fr

Appendix I

The number densities of molecules non-bonded on one site (A or B), σAk

and σBk and the number density of the free molecules σ0k at equilibrium

are determined by minimizing the Helmholtz energy. The differentiation of the expression for the association Helmholtz energy (eq. (1) of the current article) Aassoc V kBT =∑ i ( σΓiln σ0i σΓi + σΓi − σAi− σBi+ σAiσBi σ0i ) − ∑ i ∑ j σAiσBj∆AiBj − 1 2 ∑ i ∑ j σ0iσ0jΦij, (1)

with respect to σAk, σBk and σ0k leads to the following three conditions for

each component k −1 + σBk σ0k − ∑ j σBj∆AkBj = 0, (2) −1 + σAk σ0k − ∑ i σAi∆AiBk = 0, (3)

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σΓk σ0k − σAkσBk σ2 0k − 1 2 ∑ j σ0jΦkj− 1 2 ∑ i σ0iΦik = 0. (4)

Note that eq. 1 of the current article is expressed in terms of the homoge-nous scalar number densities after having performed some assumptions for the computation of the integrals ∆AiBk and Φik, while the original expression

of the free energy is expressed in terms of number density distribution func-tions.1, 2

The minimization of the Helmholtz energy should then be obtained by performing functional differentiation with respect to the number density distributions. Here the minimization is performed with respect to the scalars σAk, σBk and σ0k for the sake of simplicity.

The two sums in the last equation are identical if Φij = Φji. One can

express the equilibrium conditions (eqs. 2) to 4) in terms of the fractions of molecules non-bonded at a given site (A or B) (XAk = σAk/σΓk,XBk =

σBk/σΓk , and in terms of the fraction of free molecules, X0k = σ0k/σΓk ), as

−1 + XBk X0k − ρ ∑ j xjXBj∆AkBj = 0, (5) −1 + XAk X0k − ρ ∑ j xjXAj∆AjBk = 0, (6) 1 X0k − XAkXBk X2 0k − ρ ∑ j xjX0jΦjk = 0. (7)

This set of conditions that determine the composition at equilibrium can be solved by using the numerical method described in Appendix II. In order to eliminate the integrals ∆AiBj and Φij from the association contribution of

the Helmholtz energy, one can multiply eqs. 2 and 3 by σAk/2, and by σBk/2,

respectively, and sum the conditions over all components k. This leads to 1 2 ∑ k ( σAk− σAkσBk σ0k ) = −1 2 ∑ k ∑ j σAkσBj∆AkBj, (8) and 1 2 ∑ k ( σBk− σAkσBk σ0k ) = −1 2 ∑ k ∑ j σAjσBk∆AjBk. (9)

After changing the summation indices in the right-hand side of eqs. 8 and 9, and adding these two equations, one can express the second term of eq. 1) as

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− ∑ i ∑ j σAiσBj∆AiBj = ∑ k ( σAk 2 + σBk 2 − σAkσBk σ0k ) (10)

By multiplying eq. 4 by σ0k and summing up for all components, one can

show that − 1 2 ∑ i ∑ j σ0iσ0jΦij = 1 2 ∑ i ( σAiσBi σ0i − σΓi ) . (11)

By inserting eqs. 10 and 11 into eq. 1, the association contribution of the Helmholtz energy density can be written as

Aassoc V kBT =∑ i ( σΓiln σ0i σΓi + σΓi− σAi− σBi 2 − σAiσBi 2σ0i ) . (12)

The final relation for the association Helmholtz energy Aassoc N kBT =∑ i xi ( ln X0i − XAi 2 − XBi 2 + XAiXBi 2X0i + 1 2 ) , (13)

is obtained by employing the fractions of non bonded molecules instead of the number densities in eq. 12, and by dividing eq. 12 by the total number density and replacing σΓi by xiρ.

An extension of the DBD association scheme to groups (molecules) con-taining more than two association sites can be done in a way analogous to the extension of the classical approach. For mixture containing components i, each with set of sites ia, the association Helmholtz energy is expressed as

Aassoc N kBT =∑ i ∑ ia ( ln Xia− Xia 2 + 1 2 ) (14)

For the DBD model analogous generalization can be written in terms of ’pairs of association sites’, Aassoc N kBT =∑ i ∑ ip xi ( ln X0i − XAi 2 − XBi 2 + XAiXBi 2X0i +1 2 ) (15)

where the inner summation runs over all pairs ip located at molecule of component i. The compressibility factor can be obtained from the derivative of the Helmholtz energy with respect to the total number density ρ. The association contribution to the compressibility factor is given by

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Zassoc = ρ ∂ ∂ρ (Aassoc N kBT ) =∑ i xi ( XBi − X0i 2X0i ) ∂XAi ∂ρ + +∑ i xi ( XAi − X0i 2X0i ) ∂XBi ∂ρ + ∑ i xi ( 2X0i− XAiXBi 2X2 0i ) .∂X0i ∂ρ(16) The association contribution to the chemical potential of component k is given by µk kBT = A assoc N kBT + (Zassoc− 1) + ∂ ∂xk (Aassoc N kBT ) − ∑ j xj ∂ ∂xj (Aassoc N kBT ) . (17)

The derivatives of the association Helmholtz energy with respect to molar fractions, which are required for the calculation of the association contribu-tion to the chemical potential, are given by

∂ ∂xk (Aassoc N kBT ) = ( ln X0k− XAk 2 − XBk 2 + XAkXBk 2X0k + 1 2 ) + +∑ i xi ( XBi− X0i 2X0i ) ∂XAi ∂xk +∑ i xi ( XAi − X0i 2X0i ) ∂XBi ∂xk + ∑ i xi ( 2X0i− XAiXBi 2X2 0i ) ∂X0i ∂xk . (18)

The partial derivatives of the fractions of molecules non bonded at a given site and of the fractions of free molecules, can be obtained by solving a set of 3n linear equations. This set of equations is obtained from the derivative of the equilibrium conditions (eqs. 5, 6 and 7) with respect to the total number density (compressibility factor) or with respect to a particular molar fraction (chemical potential), by keeping the remaining variables fixed. Note that the association strengths ∆AiBj and Φij depend on both density and composition

through the contact values of the radial distribution functions.

Appendix II

The fractions XAk and XBk and X0k, are the solutions of the equilibrium

conditions (eqs. 5, 6 and 7 of the current article) that are linked together through the sums over all associating components. It is convenient to write these conditions as

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XBk X0k = 1 + ρ∑ j xjXBj∆AkBj, (19) XAk X0k = 1 + ρ∑ j xjXAj∆AjBk, (20) 0 = 1 X0k − XAkXBk X2 0k − ρ ∑ j xjX0jΦjk. (21)

For compounds k which do not form doubly bonded dimers, i.e., for com-pounds k with Φjk = 0 for all compounds j, eq. 21) reduces to X0k =

XAkXBk. The first two equations then turn into the equilibrium conditions

for the classical association approach:

XAk =  1 + ρ ∑ j xjXBj∆AkBj   −1 , XBk =  1 + ρ ∑ j xjXAi∆AjBk   −1 . (22)

This set of equations is solved by using an iterative self-substitution proce-dure: The left-hand side is taken as the new approximation that is inserted back into the right-hand side until the desired accuracy is reached. Thus, the new estimates of XAk/X0k and XBk/X0k for each component k are calculated

as ( XBk X0k )new = 1 + ρ∑ j xj(XBj)old∆AkBj, (23) ( XAk X0k )new = 1 + ρ∑ j xj(XAi)old∆AjBk. (24)

Because of the non-trivial form of eq. 21), we proposed another self substitu-tion iterative approach for X0k. By multiplying eq. 21) by X0k and inserting

the new estimated values

( XAk X0k )new and ( XBk X0k )new

, one can consider the following quadratic equation with respect to Xnew

0k : 1 −   ( XAk X0k )new( XBk X0k )new + ρ∑ i̸=k xiX0ioldΦik  X0new k − ρxkΦkk(X new 0k ) 2 = 0. (25)

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The quadratic equation has two real roots, and the only root between 0 and 1 is taken as the new estimated values of X0k. New estimates of XAk and

XBk are then obtained from

(XAk)new = (X0k) new ( XAk X0k )new . (26)

The new values of XAk and XBk are reinserted into eqs. 23) and 24) until

convergence is reached. For compounds that do not form DBD, the new estimates of XAk and XBk are directly obtained at the first iteration step,

because of the relation X0k = XAkXBk.

The initial values for XAk and XBk are obtained from the solutions of the

classical 2B association term, by using Φij = 0 for all components. The initial

value for X0k is then given by X0i = XAiXBi. We have tested the procedure

to a prototype mixture of six associating compounds forming DBDs, with different values of bonding energy and volume such that XAk > 0.99 for some

components and XAk < 0.01 for some others. Convergence was reached with

less than 100 iterations.

References

(1) Sear, R. P.; Jackson, G. Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory for As-sociation into Doubly Bonded Dimers. Mol. Phys. 1994, 82, 1033–1048. (2) Sear, R. P.; Jackson, G. Thermodynamic Perturbation-Theory for

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