• Aucun résultat trouvé

A classification reception center for the Ohio Division of Corrections


Academic year: 2021

Partager "A classification reception center for the Ohio Division of Corrections"

En savoir plus ( Page)

Texte intégral








O N4








for the Ohio Division of Corrections

Bubnitted August twenty-fourth nineteen hundred and fifty-one in partial fulfillment of

the require:ments for the degree laster in Architecture

Nicholas A. Tekusha

Professor Lawrence B. Anderson ead of Department of Architecture 1,assachusetts Institute of Technology


A Classification Reception Center for the

Ohio Division of Corrections.

by Nicholas A Tekushan

submitted for the degree of Master in Architecture in the

Department of Architecture on August 24, 1951.

The purpose of the New Penology is the long-range protection of society. The emphasis on the method by which this can be best accompltshed is currently shifting from more punitive confinement to diagnosis and rehabilitation with individual-ization in the treatment of offenders as the key thought.

Classification is fundamentally a method of coordinating diagnosis and treatment throughout the correctional process.

The Classification Recention Center with a well-trained pro-fessional staff forms the hub of a correctional system. All adjudged offenders are committed to this specialized Center for diagnosis, for classification and for transfer to the proper treatment institution.

The Ohio application represents an architectural case study based on a required housing capacity of seven hundred and

fifty offenders and a period of stay of ninety days. The

study deals with program development, site selection and design analysis. Plans and elevations are included.


Cambridge 39, Massachusetts August 24, 1951

Dean Pietro Belluschi

School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Dear Dean Belluschi:

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Architecture, I submit this thesis entitled, "A Classification Reception Center for the Ohio Division

of Corrections."

Respectfully yours,


I wish to express my appreciation to the following for

the assistance extended me during the course of my thesis work.

In the Field of' Penology:

Mr, Maury C. Koblentz, Assistant Chief

Ohio Division of Corrections, Columbusp Ohio

Mr. Henry J. Mascarello, Executive Director

United Prison Association of Massachusetts Boston, Massachusetts

Mr. George W. 5lade, Director of Public Information United Prison Association of Massachusetts

Boston, Massachusetts

Mr. Roberts J. Wright, Assistant Secretary American Prison Association, New York, N.Y.

In Governmental Agencies:-'

Mr. Clements, Director

Franklin County Planning Commission, Columbus, Ohio Mr. Sam DeVoss

Franklin County Building Department, Columbus, Ohio

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology:

The following faculty members of the School of Architecture and Planningi

Professor Lawrence B. Anderson Professor Herbert L. Beckwith Professor William H. Brown Professor Kevin A. Lynch Professor Robert B. Newman Mr. Thomas McNulty

David M. Pellish, Graduate Student in City Planning

A. Gordon Wheler, Jr., Graduate Student in Sanittry Engineering


A Classification Reception Center for the

Ohio Division of Corrections

is still a "Pokey"





The Theories of Crime 5

The Objectives of the New Penology 7

The Function of the Classification Reception Center 9

The Form of the New Institution 12 THE OHIO- APPLICATION - A CASE STUDY

The Need 16

Program Development 19

Receiving and Classification 20

Admini stration 26

Housing 28

Educational Facilities 31

Recreational Facilities 36

Kitchen and Dining Facilities 39

Inmate Service Center 43

Medical Facilities 47

Security 50


Site Selection

General Site Considerations 56

Proximity to an Urban Center 56

Urban Centers Considered 57

Relationship to County and City Growth Patterns 59

Relationship to Principal Highways and

Railroad Facilities 59

Relationship to Air Transportation 60

Relationship to a Small Community 61

The Problem of Water Supply 61

The Problem of Sewage Disposal 63

Site Selected 64

Real Estate Survey 65

General Data

Climatological Survey 66

DesignAnalysis 68



Following Page

A. Organization Chart 20

B. Classification Procedure 20

C, Commitments by County and by Age to 57

Ohio State Correctional Institutions

(Male felons 16 years of age and over)

D. Map showing Principal Highways and 57

Passenger Railroade serving Central Ohio

E. Franklin County Map indicating Growth 59

Pattern and Principal Highways and

Railroads serving West and South Areas

of County

F. Photographs showing General Character of 64


vice of shallowness and fails to realize what is has done. When the man's punishment is over, it leaves him to

him-self ... it abandons him at the very moment when its

highest duty towards him begins."



The substitution of imprisonment for corporal punishment in America had its inception in Philadelphia under the guiding hand of the Society of Friends or Quakers. Tho zealous efforts of the Quaker reformers and other inter-ested persons, through the Philadelphia Prison Society,

led to the renovation of the Walnut Street Jail in 1790

and the establishment there of a state penitentiary.

Prior to that time prisons were used primarily for the detention of persons awaiting trial and for the confine-ment of debtors. Misdemeanants and felons were either

fined or, if less fortunate, were subjected to various

rather brutal forms of corporal punishment.

The act establishing the new system of prison managemen-t

and treatment instituted in the Walnut Street Jail called for solitary confinement and hard work as reform measures.

As the word penitentiary would indicate, the Quakers felt

that solitary cellular confinement would induce reflection and penitence.

Out of this experiment grew the Pennsylvania or Separate System of prison discipline, probably first put into com-plete and systematic operatlion in the Eastern State


The Pennsylvania System established the architectural pattern of outside cells with a central corridor and the use of the radiating-wing type of cell block.

Under this system the prisoner lived and worked in sol-itude; in fact, often the only humans the prisoner ever saw were the keeper and the prison chaplain. The prolonged silence, needless to say, left many mentally unfit for re-lease into society.

The Auburn State Prison in New York built in 1816 repre-sents somewhat of a departure from the Pennsylvania System. Under the Auburn or Silent System, a prisoner was confined

in a single cell at night and worked in silence in a work-shop with fellow prisoners during the day. In addition to the manufactured goods turned out, this system of forced silence also produced quite a number of inarticulate intro-verts.

The cells at the Auburn State Prison were just high enough to stand in, long enough to lie in and wide enough to

stretch your arms in, one at a time. The cells were built back to back in rows, tier upon tier, with all openings on outside corridors. Although larger cells were used in later installations, the Auburn State Prison did establish the architectural pattern of rectangular cell houses and inside cell blocks.


Time and experience finally showed that to punish, abase and mentally incapacitate human beings was not exactly con-& ducive to reformation.

In the Reformatory System first introduced in this country in 1876 at Elmira, New York, rehabilitation was given

priority over punishment as the purpose of incarceration. The Reformatory System followed the pattern of the Irish Prison System introduced several years earlier in Europe. At the Elmira Reformatory the rules on silence were relaxed,

and an incentive grading system which permitted a shorten-ing of the time of imprisonment through the act of good behavior was substituted for the definite sentence.

Unfortunately, the physical plant of the Elmira Reformatory was designed for maximum security, and many later reform-atories followed the same oppressive pattern. This de-plorable persistency has undoubtedly handicapped reform-atory work considerably.

The United States Bureau of Prisons makes this interesting

observation1 .

"The Auburn system won out over the Pennsylvania system in the United States and has dominated our

1 Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and

Construc-tion, United States Bureau of Prisons, Washington, 1949,


prison administration and construction ever since

that time. This triumph of the Auburn system was

due In part to the fact that shop industry was more productive and profitable than work carried on in

individual cells, thus offering a more favorable economic prospect than the Pennsylvania plan."

The introduction of the reformatory was definitely a recog-nition of the importance of inmate classification and most

certainly indicated a modification in the prevailing theory of crimei



(J The Theories of Crime

The classical theory of crime is based upon the assumption that right is always right and wrong is always wrong and that man is free to make his choice irrespective of his psychological make-up and the circumstances involved.

The classical theory, then, ignores sociological and psychological factors almost entirely and subscribes to the philosophy that the nature of the crime can be the only basis for the measurement of a mants depravity. This theory prevailed from primitive time up to the latter part of the eighteen hundreds with little modification.

Evidence of the popularity of the classical theory can be

found even in the works of Gilbert and Sullivan. For example, in Act 11 of the operetta, The Mikado, written in 1885, the Mikado sings out:

"The billiard sharp whom anyone catches His doom's extremely hard

He's made to dwell

-In a dungeon cell

On a spot that's always barred

And there he plays extravagant matches In fitless finger-stalls


On a cloth untrue With a twisted cue

And elliptical billiard ballse

My object all sublime I shall acheive in time

-To let the punishment fit the crime

-The punishment fit the crime,"

Advances in psychology and sociology, however, paved the way for the positivist theory according to which there must be an individual interpretation in each case taking into consideration not only the nature of the crime com-mitted but also the psychological make-up of the criminal and tho circumstances under which he committed the crime, Hereditary and congenital handicaps and sociological

fac-tors all enter into such an interpretation.

It is in this direction that lie the objectives of the


It is generally agreed that basically the primary purpose of penal-institutions is the immediate and long-range

pro-toction of society. The nopular argument is that imprisonment

not only incapacitates individuals from committing crimes during the period of incarceration, but that, as a threat, it

deters others and that, as punishment, it results in the

reformation of some criminals.

It is interesting to note here that over 95% of all

pris-oners are eventually returned to society, most of them

within a relatively short time. If the socially-maladjusted

individual is.not treated for this malady, if, as is fre-quently the case, the prison experience not only fails to

bring about an improvement in the character of the offender but actually contributes to the individual's degeneration,

then, ironically, the public is actually maintaining at considerable expense to itself a socially-destructive in-stitution.

Professor Frank Tannenbauml observes that the New Penology

has "three definite and inescapable objectives" which are

actually interconnected.

(1) "The prison system must prevent the deterioration

Tannenbaum, Frank, Crime and the Communit, Ginn and


which is an almost inevitable by-product of confine~ ment. It must seek to prevent the regression, the Introversion, the self-centering, the substitution of imaginary for real interests, the tendency to

day-dreaming, the disposition to cast back to previous

satisfying experience as a substitute for the lack of

current experience."

(2) "Secondly, the prison must seek to break down undesirable

habits which the individual brought with him into the prison.1t

(3) it....it must go further and deliberately seek to

in-culcate new habits and interests."

Individualizntion in the treatment of criminals is then the guiding thought behind the New Penology. To accomplish the ends mentioned above, it is important that the inmates be kept busy doing new things, acquiring new skills and

secur-ing new interests.

The purpose of the New Penology, then, is the long-range pro-tection of society; and it is ossentially the emphasis on the

method by which this can be best accomplished that is changing

--changing from mere punitive confinement to diagnosis and

reha-bilitation -- changing from a passive method to an active


The Function of the Classification Reception Center

Edmund R. East1 observes that classification "has two distinct applications predicated, however, upon the same

basic principles and objectiven and interrelated in


"There is, first," he notes, "a classification of insti-tution within a given correctional system wherein each

institution is designed by structure, program and per-sonnel to treat a certain type offender; second, there is-the classification, i.e., systematic study and individ-ualized treatment, of offenders within each institution."

Classification, then, is fundamentally a method of coor-dinating diagnosis and treatment throughout the

correc-tional process.

There are at present three types of classification systems in the United States.

(a) The Classification Clinic

The Classification Clinic is actually a diagnostic unit within an institution. Under the clinic arrange-ment diagnostic reports with recommendations are made to the administrative autiorities by professional

1 East, Edmund R., Classification Reception Centers, J.Crim,


personnel. The objectiong to the clinical unit are


(1) There is no assurance that the diagnostic report

will be used and

(2) There is no connection in procedure between

diagnosis and treatment.

(b) The Integrated Classification System

The Integrated Classification System is one in which the classification committee consists of both the professional and administrative personnel of an

institution. Here the professional staff handles the development of the diagnostic material, but the classi-fication committee consisting of both professional

and administrative personnel enters into the transla-tion of this material into a treatment program. The major objection to this type of integrated unit lies in the fact that technically it makes the professional personnel subservient to the administration and its needs and, therefore, makes it possible to relegate proper classification to a secondary position in the institution's program.

(c) The Classification Reception Center

Under the Classification Reception Center setup


center for diagnosis, for classification and for transfer to the proper treatment institution. Under this plan each treatment institution must also have a classification organization which will observe the effects of the recommended program on the indi-vidual and suggest reclassification when this is deemed necessary.

By delegating the responsibility for collecting

diagnostic information to one such center, greater specialization is permitted and a more accurate designation of treatment institution and treatment

program is assured. The Classification Reception Center as a separate unit is practical, however, only in the larger states.

The American Prison Association1 feels that at the present time "reception centers would achieve their greatest

usefulness and best efficiency if located outside of, and administratively separated from, any other institution".

Undoubtedly, the Classification Reception Center is the hub of the correctional system under the New Penology.

1 Handbook on Classification in Correction Institutions, American Prison Association, New York City, 1947, p 24.


4 The Physical Form of the New Center

Several of the more progressive states already have fairly large Classification Reception Centers in operation. To the best of my knowledge, however, not one of these Centers

operates in a physical plant designed expressly for that purpose. In short, there is no prototype in existence.

One of the largest units and probably the most publicized for its work is the New York Reception Center located at the Elmira Reformatory. The Department of Correction of the State of New York gives the following description of

the physical facilities of the unit1 .

"The Reception Center occupies a unit of Elmira Reformatory paralleling 375 feet of the north wall and including 132 feet of the east side or front of the Reformatory. The large cell block contains 352

outside cells; these are arranged in four tiers, 88

cells to a tier, and 44 cells on either side of each tier. The cellblock itself opens into the Reforma-tory auditorium at the far end, thereby providing easy access to the auditorium for motion pictures and Protestant religious services. Catholic services are held in the Reformatory Catholic Chapel. The front

end of the cellblock opens on one side into the yard

Reception Center, Department of Correction, State of


between the Reception Center cellblock and D block of the Reformatory, thereby providing an outdoor' recreation area 390 by 80 feet. In addition to the

large cellblock there is a small cellblock which originally contained 64 inside cells. Nineteen of

these cells have been removed or taken over for store-room, employees' toilets, and other purposes, leaving

45 cells for additional inmate housing. Seven cells on the lower tier of B block are now used for segre-gation purposes and 14 on the upper tier next to the medical unit are used for an infirmary. There is, therefore, overall regular housing accommodation for,

376 inmates.

"In addition to the cellblocks, there are six areas, each 50 feet by 50 feet, which have been altered to provide the necessary offices and space for program activities. These areas house the following facili-ties:

(1) Business and administrative offices.

(2) Medical unit including examination room, drug

(3) (4) (5) (6)

room and laboratory; the Chaplains' offices;

the parole office.

Exploratory vocational shop, Recreational room.

Psychological and psychiatric unit.


"The ground floor has been altered to include front entrance, key room, visiting room, receiving and package room, clothing room, shower room and barber


"The Reception Center is, therefore, self-sufficient

except for the following facilities and services

which are provided by Elmira Reformatory.

(1) Kitchen and messhall. Reception Center inmates

eat at different times than Reformatory inmates. (2) Laundry.

(3) Maintenance and reOairs,

(4) Hospital, - for serious illness and emergency

cases only. All physical examinations and

treatment of minor illnesses are handled in the Reception Center. There are rarely more than one or two Reception Center inmates in the Elmira Reformatory hospital.

(5) Utilities, - power, light, heat and water."

Because offenders committed to a Classification Reception Center are generally unknown quantities, there is an inclina-tion to overstress security and, hence, to turn to existing correctional institutions with their tool-proof steel and

massive walls for inspiration This will only inhibit the


It is up to the architect to construct a new physical

environmentt one which will have a favorable psychological effect on the newly-committed offender; one in which the

aims of the New Penology - classification, segregation

and rehabilitation can be effectively carried out; yet



The Need.

During the two years or so since the Division of

Correc-tions has been activated under the Department of Public Welfare of the State of Ohio, great strides have been made

in providing the State with a progressive correctional system.

Realizing that a Classification Reception Center would be of little use until facilities were available to carry out the segregation and individual rehabilitation recommenda-tions of the Center, the Division of Correcrecommenda-tions conducted several classification studies of inmate population to determine the facilities that would be required. The

Department of Public Welfare in 1949 recommended as a


(a) The retention and remodeling of the Ohio Penitentiary as a maximum security institution;

(b) The conversion of the Ohio State Reformatory at

Mansfield into a medium security penitentiary;

(c) The retention of the London Prison Farm as a minimum security unit;

(d) The erection of a new Training School at Marion;

(e) The erection of a new psychopahic unit at the Lima State Hospital and


(f) The erection of a new defective delinquent unit at the Lima State Hospital.

When operating as planned, these institutions would have

the capacities indicated below.

Unit Capacity

Ohio Penitentiary (maximum security) 2,400

Mansfield Penitentiary (medium security) 2,000

London Prison Farm (minimum security) 2,500

Marion Training School (minimum security) 1,500

Psychopethic Unit - Lima State Hospital 600 Defective Delinquent Unit - Lima State Hospital 600

With these institutions as a basis the Department of Public Welfare has further recommended:

(a) The enactment of enabling legislation to provide for a central receiving center to which all male felons

16 years old and over would be committed for

observa-tion, classification and segregation; and

(b) The enactment of enabling legislation that would

author-ize the Classification Reception Center to assign an offender to the institution which could best carry out the individual treatment program recommended.

The courts, then, would commit the offender to the

Classi-fication Reception Center rather than to a specific


As a result of the experimental classification studies

made over the past couple of years in Ohio, it is recommended that the period of stay at the Center be set at ninety days. On the basis of court commitments over the preceding years, with provisions for expansion taken into consideration, it

is further recommended that adequate facilities be provided

for a maximum capacity of 750 offenders.

In determining the best location for the Center, considera-tion should be given the economic possibility of erecting next to it at some future date a new Ohio Penitentiary to replace the present plant built in 1834 in what has since become the heart of Columbus' commercial district.


Program Development

For purposes of simplification the study of the program

has been divided into the followin5 admittedly inter-related sections.

(a) Receiving and Classification

(b) Administration (a) Housins

(d) Educational Facilities

(e) Recreational Facilities

(f) Kitchen and Dining Facilities (g) Inmate Service Center

(h) Medical Facilities (1) security

(j) Adjunct Facilities

The minimum staff requirements recommended by the American Prison Association for a Classification Reception Center with a capacity of 325 to 375 were used as a guide. 1


Receiving and Classification

The two graphical charts, Organization Chart -

Classifica-tion RecepClassifica-tion Center and Classification Procedure, show the proposed operation of the Center probably more clearly

and concisely than a written explanation.

Although the Classification Reception Center's program is an integrated procedure, it can for purposes of analysis

by divided into the following general sections.

(a) Reception Procedure.

(b) Testing and Interview Schedule# (c) Activities Program.

(d) Classification Committee Procedure.

(e) Transfer.

The reception procedure, in turn, can further be subdivided

into the following steps in the order given.

(a) Examination of Commitment Papers by Receiving Officer.

(b) Disposition of Personal Clothing. (c) Bathing.

(d) Preliminary Medical Examination.

(e) Issuance of Clean Clothing.

(f) Completion of Details of Identification including:

(1) Fingerprinting, (2) Photographing, and


I--C H I E F





















5 U P P L Y







ON VIs AL 0R C L A S S I F I C A T I O N C 0 M M I

















D I It E C

T 0 R I













I 14















A 5
















- -m

b I


(3) Taking of other Identification Data.

The admission operation could be considerably simplified if commitments were received between certain hours only, say 9 in the morning to 3 in the afternoon on weekdays.

Because of the size of the State and the limited transporta-tion facilities from some points, 9 to 5 would probably be more logical; and, consequently, some individual hold-over rooms would have to be provided for those arriving too late in the afternoon to be processed.

The testing and interview schedule for each man is prepared

by the Case Coordinator. During this period the inmate is

given various psychological, mental, educational, mechanical aptitude, interest and personality tests. He is given a

complete physical examination and interviewed by the chaplain, the psychologist, the psychiatrist, the educational super-visor, the vocational supervisor and the sociologist. The report of each of these staff members is submitted to the

Case Coordinator.

The inmatets program of activities during his stay is based

on these tests and interviews. During this time, social

workers- can obtain additional information from the inmate's

community~and staff members can observe how the inmate reacts and adapts himself to the activities program.


The reports from the various departments are then combined into what is called an admission summary for presentation to the Classification Committee. Copies of this summary are furnished the members of the Classification Committee and the Ohio Division of Corrections. These copies are generally distributed one or two days before the Classi-fication Committee meeting so that members may have an opportunity to review the complete report prior to the meeting.

As is indicated on the organizational chart of the

Classi-fication Reception Center, the Classification Committee consists oft

(a) The Director,

(b) The Assistant Director, (c) The Case Coordinator,

(d) The Chief Custodial Officer, (e) The Chief Psychologist,

(f) The Chief Psychiatrist, fg) The Chief Sociologist,

(h) The Chaplain,

(i) The Chief Medical Officer, (j) The Educational Supervisor, (k) The Vocational Supervisor, and

(1) The officer directly in charge of the housing unit


After the future program and institution of the inmate is tentatively planned, the inmate is called in and given full opportunity to discuss the program with the Classification Committee. It is considered important that the inmate know that the Classification Committee has taken an interest in planning for his future and that this planning was the result of the concerted effort of all on the staff.

Transfer to the appropriate institution follows.

The Committee on Classification and Case Work of the

American Prison Association presented this very effective summaryl of the importance of the reception-classification period,

",The reception period presents an opportunity for the members of the staff to get a clear picture and accurate estimation of each inmate. It gives the inmate an oppor-tunity to ask questions and discuss problems which are

causing him trouble, It helps him to accept the reality

of commitment, It makes him feel that he is being treated as a man and not as a number. He becomes in-terested in his own improvement And developmont when he realizes that he is planning with the staff his own

program of rehabilitation,"

Handbook on Classification in Correctional Institutions, American Prison Association, New York, 1947, p 46.


Receiving - Transfer Receiving Lobby

Receiving-Transfer Office

Overnight Holding Rooms, 20 required

Processing Hold Room, with lavatory

Personal Clothing Inventory and Wrapping Personal Clothing Storage*

Bathing and Dressing Area

Preliminary Medical Survey Room Transfer Hold Room, with lavatory Clothing Issuance Room

Bertillon Room, with Darkroom

Clothing Stock Room* Staff Toilet

Corridors, stairs and so forth

Approximate Space Requirements in square feet 250 300 4,000 500 150 300 600 225 500 350 400 800 - 75 2,100 10,550 * May be in basement.


Receiving and Classification

Class if



Classification Control Center Waiting Area

Assistant Director's Office Secretary's Office

Case Coordinatorts Office

Psychiatrists' Offices, 6 required Psychologists' Offices, 6 required Sociologists' Offices, 4 required

Interview Rooms for Social Workers, 4

Testing Room

Social Workers' Office with Vault General Clerical Office

Record Storage (may be in basement) Central Record Vault (recent records) Classification Committee Room

Staff Conference Room Staff Toilets

Inmate Toilet Stock Room'

Corridors, stairs and so forth

Approximate Space Requirements in square feet 300 400 300 175 175 700 700 500 400 600 600 700 800 300 400 500 200 30 150 2,670 10,600


Only thoso administrative functions that are not an integral

part of other sections are included here.

Of these the visiting lounge offers many interesting design

possibilities. The customary screen separating inmate and visitor has given way to plain desks and tables in many correctional institutions. Possibly prison visiting can be made even more effective in promoting inmate adjustment* Possibly the visiting room should be a large lounge visually broken up into small conversational groups where visitors

could sit comfortably and talk with their loved ones. The

occasional dangerous person could be restricted to one of the small interview rooms, and the doubtful inmate would

need only to be watched a little closer. Additional

super-vision, if considered necessary, could be provided for through such moans as the use of one-way glass.

For visiting to hove any therapeutic value, it seems



Outside Security Perimeter

Entrance Lobby (Information, Waiting

Area, Product Display, Public

Toilets and Public Telephones) Director's Office, with lavatory Secretary's Office

Conference Room

Interview Rooms, 2 required Business Office

Chief Clerk's Office, with Vault General Office

Mail and Censoring Room Staff Toilets

Inside Socurity Perimeter

Visiting Lounge

Interview Rooms, 2 required

Inmate Waiting Room, with Lavatory

Corridors, storage and services

Approximate Space Requirements in square feet 900 300 200 400 200 400 300 300 250 200 700 200 175 1,425 5,950



The housing.problem in such a Center is complicated by the fact that offenders fall into every security classification

from maximum to minimum. To design all the housing units

on the basis of maximum security would obviously be both wasteful and psychologically undesirable.

Group segregstion in such an institution can probably be

best achieved through the use of smaller housing units.

This makes it possible to easily increase or decrease

in-mate groupings on the basis of security by relatively small incroments or to easily take over a unit for medical pur-poses in case of an emergency. Segregation could further be effected without the usual feeling of isolation through the introduction of group recreational areas preferably near the entrance to each housing unit. Under this scheme each group would have its own outdoor area.

For maximum sunlight and fresh air outside rooms are pre-ferred. There is also an expressed preference for individual rooms over congregate housing even though admittedly dormi-tory housing would not be as expensive. For one thing, an individual room can be made to look less institutional and provides some privacy to which an inmate is entitled. The use of single rooms also tends to minimize the problem of sexual perversion.


For outside rooms, the United States Bureau of Prisons

recommends a space allocation1 of 200 square feet per

per-son. This includes provisions for corridors, stairs, toilets

and so forth. Special segregation housing to take care of

3% of the inhates is also recommended.

Each room must have a water closet and lavatory. Shower

fixture requirements2 for congregate use are as follows,

1 to 6 inmates - 1 fixture.

7 to 16 inmates - 2 fixtures.

17 to 50 inmates 3 fixtures. 51 to 100 inmates - 5 fixtures.

2 Ibid., p 196.

Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and Construe-tion, United States Bureau of Prisons, Washington, 1949,


General Housing,750 rooms

Segregation Housing, 20 rooms Day.Rooms, one per housing unit

Requirements in square feet 150,000 4,000 21,600 175,600


The fact that approximately 60% of the adjudged offenders committed to Ohio state correctional institutions in 1950 were under thirty years of age lends emphasis to the im-portance of a well-planned educational program as a

p.ten-tial rehabilitation measure.

The purpose of the education program at the Center will be:

(a) To determine the inmate't education needs and


(b) To develop an understanding of desirable goals and social values,

(c) To implant confidence and the desire for

self-improve-ment, and

(d) To recommend a suitable course of study which the inmate

can pursue at the assigned institution and which will

prepare him for release.

The educational program may be broken down into four general

class if ications1.

(a) Social Education.

(b) General Academic Education. (c) Vocational Education

1 Details for a comprehensive educational program may be

found in the Manual of Suggested Standards for a State Correctional System, American Prison Association, New York, October 1946, Chapter 9, pp 1-4.


The social education program will be essentially one of orientation designed to develop healthy attitudes and sound

social values. By encouraging the inmate to frankly

ex-press his feelings on social values, problems of adjustment, and education in general, the counselor can over a period of time usually evaluate the inmate's sincerity and the degree to which the inmate can control his emotions.

The general education program will consist mostly of short refresher and general interest courses intended to develop confidence and an urge for self-improvement. Because of the time element this portion of the program will not be very extensive.

The vocational shops are not intended to be used to teach inmates new trades during their short stay at the Center.

R ather, they are intended as exploratory or tryout units

for use by picked groups. These shops will aid the counse-lor in determining the type of vocational program, if any, for which the inmate is best suited and in predicting the inmate's vocational adjustment.

The incorporation of maintenance work into the vocational program should also be considered. Some inmates may express

a keen interest in, or because of a handicap may be best suited for, one of the services. Brief tryout periods may


be desirable in these cases. Some suggested applications are:

(a) Plant Maintenance,

(b) Laundry,

(c) Maintenance of Grounds, and

(d) Food Preparation and Service.

Since approximately 15% of the Center's inmate population will always be in quarantine, hospitalized or otherwise unavailable for the educational program, the number of shops and classrooms can be reduced accordingly.

The following formula should gXve a good approximation of the number of classrooms

required.-Total number of Average number of

men available class hours per week

for the program X per man : Number of rooms

Average size of Number of available required.

classes class hours per week

On the basis of approximately 35 men per classroom at six to nine hours per man per week, 9 units would be required. Two of these should be larger units for visual-aid use. This

takes into consideration the fact that the average room with

even a carefully prepared schedule will be used only about 70% of the available time.1

Evenden, E.S., Strayer, G.D. and Engelhardt, N.L., Standards for College Buildings, Bureau of Publications, Teachers


Based on a capacity of 25 men per shop at six to nine hours

per man per week, five tryout shops wi'th some diversity of

equipment would be adequate to meet the needs of the

voca-tional program.

In computing the required areas, the following recommenda-tions for school design were used:

Classroomal 25 square feet per man

Shops2 80 square feet per man

2 Ibid. p 353.

Based on applicable data in Time-Saver Standards, F. W.




Exploratory Shops, 5 required General Classrooms, 7 required

Visual Aid Classrooms, 2 required

Educational Supervisor's Office Educational Counselors' Offices, 7 Vocational Supervisorts Office Vocational Counselors' Offices, 5

General Offices, 2 required

Corridors, toilets, storage, etc.

Approximate Space Requirements in square feet 10,000 6,125 3,500 300 700 300 500 600 7,275 30,500


Recreational Facilities.

The American Prison Associationi points out that recrea-tional facilities are of great value:

(a) "as a disciplinary control measure,

(b) "as a positive factor in the mental and physical

health of inmates,

(c) "as a wholesome outlet for energies that might



destructive outlets" and

(d) "as a neans of instruction in cooperation and teamwork.

Recreation, then, has its proper place in the rehabilitation program. To meet the diversified interests of such a group,

quite a wide variety of sports should be provided. Provi-sions should also be made for rest areas, complete with grass, trees and benches, where older men could sit and watch the

younger and more active participants.

The changing and shower room will replace the conventional gymnasium locker room. Instead, wire clothes baskets will

be furnished. These will be checked at the equipment and

basket check room for the time that the inmate is participat-ing in the recreational program. The changparticipat-ing and shower room, then, would be free of places where items could be

easily concealed and free of all obstructions that might interfere with supervision.

Manual of Suggested Standards for a State Correctional System, American Prison Association, New York, 1946, Chapter 12, p 1.


A gymnasium1 68 feet by 111 feet, somewhat larger than the standard basketball court, should be adequate. Such a gymnasium would accommodate three practice courts 35 feet by 60 feet.

Space allocations for most of the recreational facilities included in the program are based on data listed in

Time-Saver Standards,2

1 Evenden, E.S., Strayer, G.D. and Engelhardt, N.L.,

Standards of College Buildings, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, 1938,

p 165.

2 Time-Saver Standards. F. W. Dodge Corp., New York, 1946,


Recreational Facilities

Indoor Activities

Gymnasium (90? x 135')

Individual Exercise Area (25' x 50') Volleyball, 2 courts

Handball, 3 courts

Changing and Shower Room

Equipment and Basket Check Room Offices

Corridors, storage and so forth

Outdoor Activities

Baseball Diamond

Softball Diamonds, 2 required

Touch Football (can overlap diamonds) Volleyball, 2 courts

Quoits, 6 areas

Deck Tennis, 3 courts

Circulation and Rest Areas

Approximate Space Requirements in square feet 12,150 1, 250 6,000 2,400 6,000 800 600 10,000 39,200 97,500 100,000. 54,500 6,200 12,000 2,160 90,640 363,000


Kitchen and Dining Facilities

The inmate dining arrangement presents one of the most contro-versial problems in the design of a correctional institution, Proponents of the large dining room argue that the central kitchen and dining room arrangement provides the most

econom-ical and efficient distribution of food.

The opponents point out that:

(a) The large dining room has been the scene of the great majority of prison riots,

(b) Segregetion of classified units is not achieved,

(c) The unnecessary amount of movement required in marching

prisoners from the housing unit to the dining room and back just presents a greater guarding problem, and

(d) The large room is used only a few hours a day, whereas

smaller dining rooms located adjacent to each housing unit could also be used for recreational purposes.

That the great majority of prison riots start in the large dining room and that segregation of classified units is not

achieved under this arrangement is generally agreed.

If small dining rooms were located adjacent to each housing unit, however, adequate means would have to be provided for getting



If identical housing units and dining rooms. were placed

one over the other, hot food could be quickly dispatched

by dumb-waiter. Many feel, however, that the skyscraper has

a definite institutional appearance and that psychologically, therefore, it would not be the happiest solution.

Small dining rooms in each housing unit would involve assig

ing several men to dining room duties at each meal. Because

of the schedule that each man rMust follow, especially during the first three or four weeks at the Center, this is not particularly desirable.

To provide a number of small dining rooms near the kitchen,

on the other hand, would still involve the movement of

in-mates between the housing units and the dining rooms. This,

however, need not present a serious custodial problem if

the serving schedule and circulation patterns are properly

worked out, Considering the fact that the inmate spends most of his evenings and weekends in his housing unit, a walk to the dining room would probably be a very welcomed chan'e.

It is, therefore, proposed that a number of smaller dining rooms be provided with the serving and tray-washing equip" ment forming a core which could be easily supervised from


a central kitchen.

The United States Bureau of Prisons recommends the following

space allocations.1 Corridors, toilets and so forth are


(a) Dining facilities - 17 square feet per person.

(b) Kitchen facilities - 15 square feet per person.

Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and Construc-tion, United States Bureau of Prisons, Washington, 1949,



in s Food PreDaration and Bakey

General Food Preparation Room Meat Cutting Room (Refrigerated) Vegetable Preparation Room

Vegetable Storage (Refrigerated) Garbage Rofrigerator

Trash Room

Scullery, with Pot and Pan Storage Kitchen Proper

Stewardts Office (centrally located)

Janitor's Closet (off of kitchen) Inmate Locker and Lounge Room

Lavatory and Toilet Room (near lockers)

Soap and Detergent Closet

Daily Store Room (coffee, extracts, etc.) Staff Kitchen

Staff Dishwashing Room

Bakery, with Flour and Bread Storage

Inmate Dining

Staff Dining, 2 shifts

Staff Lounpe and Toilets

29,450 irements auare feet 13,500 12,750 1,700 1,500


The library, auditorium, chapels, commissary, barber shop and band and choral room have been rather arbitrarily grouped under this heading.

For the three major elements the United States Bureau of Prisons has recommended the following space allocations.1

(a) Library - 5 square feet per inmate. (b) Auditorium - 10 square feet per inmate. (c) Barber Shop 0.9 square feet per inmate.

It should also be noted in this connection that the American Prison Association recommends2 that the size of the library be based on a minimum of ten books per inmate, that

shelv-ing be provided for 85% of the collection and that seatshelv-ing

be provided for 5% of the institution's population.

Addi-tional shelving, however, should be provided to permit expansion within a book classification and thus avoid the frequent shifting of books. In schools3 the stack space is generally increased 40% over the area required to shelve the collection.

1 Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and

Construc-tion, United States Bureau of Prisons, Washington, 1949, p 189.

2 Manual of Suggested Standards for a State Correctional System, American Prison Association, New York, 1946, Chapter 10, p 7.

3 Evenden, E.S., Strayer, G.D. and Engelhardt, N.L.,

Standards for College Buildings, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City,


in the newer Federal correctional institutions. This has been found to be more effective in creating an interest in

the library than the pickup and delivery system under which inmates were forced to choose their books from a printed

list. The library should be kept open during the evening hours. For security reasons, therefore, it should be lo-cated more in relation to the housing units than with

respect to the educational facilities.

The auditorium, it is felt, should not be designed to serve

a dual function. Entelhardt, Engelhardt and Leggetti note that "it is a physical impossibility to combine the char~

acteristics of a good auditorium and a good gymnasium into a successful hybrid."

A similar situation arises when an auditorium is made to

serve as a chapel. For one thing, the religious atmosphere

is lacking.

In a gymnasium-auditorium, the use of portable seats presents

both an administrative and, in such an institution, a security problem. Moreover, portable seats in an auditorium of any size constituto a definite fire and panic hazard.

Engelhardt, N.L., Engelhardt, NL.Jr., and Leggett, Stanton, Planning Secondary School Buildings, Reinhold Publishing Company, New York City, 1949, p 131.


Since a group of inmates will always be either in quaran-tine, hospitalized or otherwise restricted to their housing

unit, the auditorium would have to provide seating for only

85% of the normal population and should be designed for both motion pictures and the occasional presentation of inmate


A breakdown of the Ohio inmate population by religion shows

the following relationship as average,

Protestant . . .


Catholia . . . . . . . . 27%

Other Religions . . . . 9% (Largest group 3%)

On this basis it is proposed that an undenominational chapel

be provided with a capacity of 50%. This would allow for

some fluctuation in the size of the religious groups. On major religious holidays, such as Easter and Christmas, two Protestant services could be held.


Approximate Space Requirements in square feet Library Auditorium, Auditorium proper Projection Booth

Dressing Rooms, 2 required

Storage 3,750 6,400


200 300 200 8,700 Chapel and Chaplains Offices



Chaplains' Offices, 3 required 500

4,250 Commi ssary Commissary Stores Commissary Office 400 200 125 Barber Shop


Medical Facilities

According to the United States Bureau of Prisons, medical facilitiesi should consist of an outpatient department or

clinic designed to handle 10% to 20% of the Center's inmate

population, plus an inpatient department with a capacity of 3% to 5% of the total inmates,

Since surgical cases will be transferred to the Ohio

Pert-tentiary, an inpatient department with a capacity of 3%

of the population should be sufficient, On this basis,

a 25-bed hospital would be quite adequate. Should an emergency arise where the bed capacity of the hospital

unit would be inadequate to handle all cases, a housing unit could be temporarily diverted to medical use.

The outpatient department, on the other hand, should probably be designed to handle closer to 20% of the inmate population because of the additional examination work inherent In this

type of institution.

The medical facilities should be located reasonably near the receiving-transfer unit and the housing units.

1-Medical program requirements and approximate space alloca-tions are based on the recommendaalloca-tions made, and typical layouts shown, in the Handbook of Correctional Institution

Design and Construction, United States. Bureau of Prisons,


Medical Facilities

Approximate Space Requirements

Clinic in square feet

Waiting Room 550

General Examincetion and Treatment Room 400

Physiotherapy Room 300

Hydrotherapy Room 300

Inmate Toilet, nenr Waiting Room 100

Eye, Ear, Node, and Throat Room 300 Assistant Medical Officer's and 300

Psychologist's Office

X-Ray Laboratory with Darkroom 450

Pharmacy 250

Clinical Laboratory 250

Medical Technical Assistant's Office 175

Clerical and Record Room 300

Chief Medical Officer's Office 250

Dental Clinic (3 rooms) 600

Office, Operating Room and Laboratory

Staff Toilet 50

Corridors, stairways and so forth 1,125


Medical Stores 750


Medical Facilities

Approximate Space Requirements

Inpatient Department in square feet

Sick Rooms, 22 required 2,200

Restraint Rooms, 3 required 300

Bathroom (showers, sitz bath, continuous 200

flow tub)

Diet Kitchen-Pantry 250

Doctor's Office 200

Female Wursest Room 200

Nurses Station, with lavatory 100

Utility Room 200

Linen Storage 175

Corridors, stairways and so forth 955


Building a twenty-foot solid masonry or reinforced concrete wall around a correctional institution is both extremely expensive and psychologically undesirable. Some wire fence arrangement would probably be just as effective from a

security standpoint and yet would not make the inmate feel so definitely shut off from the rest of humanity.

For a Classification Reception Center with a capacity of approximately 375 inmates, the American Prison Association recommends the following minimum custodial staffit

Chief Custodial Officer . &. . *. . . 1

Assistant Custodial Officers . . . . 4

Custodial Officers . . . 30

On thtis basis the custodial staff of a Center with a

capacity of 750 inmates would total not less than 70

officers. The exact number of custodial officers required

would, of course, depend largely on the physical design of the Center.

Handbook on Classificatioh in Correctional Institutions, American Prison Association, Now York, 1947, p 26.


Approximate Space


Al __ -in square feet

Outside Security Perimeter

Central Control Room 450

Arsenal (adjacent to Control Room) 120

Key Room (adjacent to Control Room) 80

Guards' Lounge, with toilet 600

Guards' Looker Room, with showers 700

Guards' Exercise Room 1,500

Guardst Pistol Range' (141 x 100') 1, 400

Guards' Bowling Alleys2 (2 lines) 1,080

Inside Security Perimeter

Chief Custodial Officer's Office 200

Assistant Custodial Officers' Office 400

Secretaryls Office 150

Corridors, toilets, storage and so forth 2,570

9 ,250

Ramsey, C. G., and Sleeper, H. R., Architectural Graphic

Standards, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 8rd Edition

19p41, p 257.



ApproximAte Space







Double wire fence, inside 'ence 12 feet high

and outside fence 8 feet high topped with

barbed wire.

SGcurity Traps for pereonnel and vehicles as requiredo

Inspectoscopos and tear gas equipment should be provided where necesary.

GuRrd Towers, as required by design,

Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and Construcw

tion, United States Bureau of Prisons, Washington, 1949,


AdJunct Facilities

It can be argued that the warehouse facilities should be located outside the security perimeter so that the routing of supplies through a security trap or sally port into the Center proper can be more easily controlled. On the other

hand, such warehouse units as the food warehouse would

probably function more effectively if located near the kitchen.

Since the supply needs of such a Center will not be nearly as great as those of an average correctional institution with large industrial shops, it probably would be more feasible to locate the warehouses in a fence.d-off area within the security perimeter, so that the same sally port or security trap can serve the warehouses, the shops, the receiving-transfer wing and the hospital emergency entrance.

The United States Bureau of Prisons recommends the following space allocations. These space allocations include corridors,

toilets and so forth.

Laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 square feet per man

Maintenance Shops . . . 15 square feet per man

Storehouse . . . 38 square feet per man

Garage and Fire Station . . . . 7.5 square feet per man

Handbook of Correctional Institution Design and Construc-tion, United States Bureau of Prisonsp Washington, 1949,


Since the power plant will not depend on inmate help for its operation, the plant can be located outside the security perimeter. Coal could easily be brought in by railroad,

and no security traps would be required. The power plant should be designed so that it can be expanded at a future date to supply the proposed new Ohio Penitentiary. Since the design of the power plant is a problem in itself, only the location of the plant is indicated on the site plan.

Water will be supplied from the Columbus city water system while sewage disposal will be taken care of by a septic

tank system located outside the security enclosure and near the service road. The problems of water supply and sewage disposal are treated in more detail in the section on site selection.


Adjunct Facilities

Warehouse Facilities

Receiving and Shipping General Warehouse

Food Warehouse

Receiving Area

General Stores Area

Storekeeper's Room

Refrigerated Stores

Holdover Room (for late deliveries) Heated Stores (for flour and cereal) Sally Port between warehouse and

kitchen - acts as secure

hold-ing room.



Clean Clothes Hold Room

Office (locate for maximum supervision) Laundry Room

Sterilizing Mending Sorting

Garage and Fire Station Power Plant

Sewage Disposal System

Approximate Space Requirements in square feet 28,500 11,250 9,000 5,525


Site Selection

General Site Considerations

There are a number of rather obvious but, nevertheless,

Important general conditions which should be given consider-ation in the selection of the site. These may be itemized as follows.

(1) Location where fog is prevalent should be avoided.

(2) Accessibility to a good highway is necessary.

(3) An ample supply of good water must be provided.

(4) Size of plot should be adequate.

(5) Railroad facilities should be available, especially

if the power plant is a coal-burning unit.i

(6) Land suitable for limited farming is preferred.

Proximity to an Urban Center

It is generally agreed that such a correctional institution should be located in neither a congested urban center nor a remote area. Locating the Classification Reception Center near an urban center, however, affords certain advantages.

(a) The staff can live in town.

(b) Less difficulty will be encountered in building up and

maintaining a well-trained staff.

(c) Visitors will have less trouble reaching the Center. (d) Storage space requirements can be reduced.


(e) Water and power can generally be purchased inexpensively.

Urban Centers Considered

A study of the state maps, showing location of other state

correctional institutions, court commitments by county, principal highways and main railroad lines, indicates that the Classification Reception Center should be located either

near Columbus or Marion. The arguments applicable to each

site are presented below.

(a) Marion Location

(1) Marion, site of the Marion Training School now under construction, is about equidistant from all

other state correctional institutions that would be served by the Center.

(2) Marion is approximately the central point on the basis of court commitments by county.

(3) Highway connections to Marion are good.

(4) Transfer to the Marion Training School would be


(5) The center could be located near the Marion

Train-ing School for services.

(6) Rail connections with most of' the eastern and

southern portions of the state, however, are not


Documents relatifs

of PCY1 are not located near to the binding site of the presegetalin A1 [27-32] peptide (orange).. Product inhibition of PCY1 by the follower peptide.. Biochemical activity of PCY1


Bien que les orientations ministérielles de 1995 9 reconnaissent aussi le rôle du médecin traitant dans le cadre du continuum intégré de services en déficience physique en termes

The following sessions discussed the shapes taken by the patristic and homiletic texts in various traditions: Coptic (Alin Suciu, ‘Greek Patristics in.. Coptic: Early Translations

- A phase of intensive mediation between the Revue et Gazette musicale in Paris and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in Paris during the 1830s;. - A phase of latent development

Pour répondre aux objectifs des Vlan la règle suivante doit être impérativement respectée : une trame doit être associée à un Vlan et un seul et ne peut pas sortir du Vlan,

Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by absence of FMRP, an RNA-binding protein implicated in regulation of mRNA translation

To evaluate the effect of the microwave PM noise on the stability, we added band-limited PM noise that was narrow compared to f m and centered on the second ~ or fourth, sixth,

A truck has taken possession of a new trailer from a π-Switch bay in accordance with his work order and has come from the π-Maneuver (node 7).. The driver has to

A painting dated to 1511 sheds light on the reality of the economic, diplomatic, and cultural relationship between the Mamluk sultans and the city of Venice.. by

tant.Pour des raisons de place et pour la politique. d'acquisition des publications hors commerce,que Lyon pourrait difficilement' mener eu plus des 8 departements dont elle a

We propose a multi-level analysis of human motion for assessing physical exercises in a context of a robot coach system for

a Scheme of pulp regions isolated for single-cell RNA-seq from adult human molars and apical papillae of growing human molars (dotted regions). b Characterization of cell

Expressive Control of Singing Voice Synthesis Using Musical Contexts and a Parametric F0 Model.. Luc Ardaillon, Céline Chabot-Canet,

Though it is hardly surprising that studies within Austen’s criticism have attended, so far, primarily to her resonance within the English-speaking literary tradition, this

Extract of a letter from Osvaldo Cruz to his wife Emilia da Fonseca Cruz, Casa Oswaldo Cruz (COC) Archives (Manuscripts).. “Resolvi hoje aqui uma questão que nos vai tornar a vida

À partir d’une exposition à la pratique des archivistes médicaux au sein d’un centre hospitalier universitaire québécois, nous avons identifié deux classifications

Kuenzi Department for Plastic-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital of Zürich,.. Rämistrasse 100, 8094 Zürich, Switzerland e-mail:

Si tous les animaux produisent des crottes, elles sont très différentes d’une espèce à l’autre!. Il en existe de toutes les formes, de toutes les consistances et de beaucoup de

 the "VEGA-SCIENCE" (http://sci-vega.ru) satellite information service providing the remote users with interactive access to the data archives of the

Chairman, of the 3 percent increase that went to school divisions, an increase that was required under the Teacher Retirement Fund; an increase in

Au sein de l’épithélium cochléaire, la polarité planaire est établie par l’intégration de deux voies de signalisation : la voie dépendante des protéines G, qui définit une

Échelle Visuelle Analogique (EVA), peut parfois être utilisée chez l’enfant et chez l’adulte pour évaluer l’anxiété préopératoire.. On a montré que le score EVA