Cognitive workload

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Cardiovascular Activity linked to the Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation

Cardiovascular Activity linked to the Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation

Concerning HRV, RMSSD was presented as the most discriminant feature for cognitive workload level estimation, since a significant difference in RMSSD has been found between two levels of cognitive demand. This feature had already shown good results for discriminating task difficulty by employing more than two levels (Mandrick et al. 2016). Furthermore, conversely to HR, when the habituation factor was analyzed, RMSSD showed a monotone increase during the LA compared to the HA condition, where the maximum was reached at the middle of time course. This result could be due to a more efficient emotional regulation when the level of arousal is low (Appelhans & Luecken, 2006), while an eventual feeling of temporal pressure just before the end of the dual-task scenario could affect this regulation under HA. Hence, our results suggest the suitability of RMSSD for the calibration of weak emotions along time and to determine cognitive workload variations.
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Cognitive Workload and Personality Style in Pilots Heart Rate Study

Cognitive Workload and Personality Style in Pilots Heart Rate Study

Interestingly, knowing which personality traits show greater physiological adaptability to cognitive workload variations can be useful to take into consideration in the selection of future pilots as well as in the application in similar contexts like the emerging autonomous vehicles. However, the limitation of the relatively small sample size leads us to be cautious with our conclusions. It would be desirable to complete the study in a larger population and to analyze the HRV parameters to complement HR.

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Age and cross-cultural comparison of drivers' cognitive workload and performance in simulated urban driving

Age and cross-cultural comparison of drivers' cognitive workload and performance in simulated urban driving

3) Center of Human-Machine-Systems, Berlin University of Technology, 행정주소 확인 필, Germany (Received 30 January 2009; Revised 29 September 2009 ) ABSTRACT −Driving demands significant psychomotor attention and requires even more when drivers are engaged in secondary tasks that increase cognitive workload and divert attention. It is well established that age influences driving risk. Less is known about how culture impacts changes in attention. We conducted parallel driving simulations in the US and Korea to measure the extent to which age and culture influence dual-task performance. There were 135 participants divided into two groups: a younger group aged 20-29, and an older group aged 60-69. Whereas some differences by culture appeared in absolute control measures, the younger participants showed similar mean velocity and compensatory patterns associated with increased cognitive load in the urban setting; however, the results from the older samples were less similar.
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Flight simulator and fNIRS : study of relation between acute stress and cognitive workload

Flight simulator and fNIRS : study of relation between acute stress and cognitive workload

In aviation, knowing the internal state of pilots is desirable to prevent and detect abnormal situa- tions such as an excessive cognitive workload (CW) or acute stress, both known to impact human performance 1. Detecting these states becomes crucial with the possible emergence of Single Pilot Operations (SPO), during which tasks will be largely supported by a single pilot and the aircraft systems. The mental constructs of CW and acute stress have been extensively studied in the hu- man factor literature, but the analysis of their respective impact in the same ecological situations remains poorly studied. In the current study, twenty-one private pilots from the French Civil Avi- ation University were recruited. They all performed two realistic flight simulator scenarios with the same difficult level and duration (around 35 minutes each). The CW was manipulated with the difficulty of a secondary task (low CW vs high CW; for details, see [2]) and the level of stress was manipulated by means of a social stressor (low arousal vs high arousal). We examined brain hemodynamic activity via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with a portable NIRS sys- tem (NIRSport, NIRx Medical Technologies, NY, USA). We recorded 14 fNIRS channels that were subdivided to create four regions-of-interest: left prefrontal and parietal cortex; right prefrontal and parietal cortex. Analyzes were focused on oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) concentration changes. We found a main effect of CW (p = .01, ηp² = .31) with a higher Oxy-Hb level under high CW condition vs low CW. This effect of cognitive workload was significant particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (CW x laterality interaction, p = .01, ηp² = .21). An interaction between CW and acute stress level was also found (p = .04, ηp² = .20). Post-hoc analysis showed that the increase in Oxy-Hb concentration between high CW and low CW was significant only under high arousal. In accordance with previous research [3,4,5], our results confirmed that an augmentation in CW leads to an increase in OxyHb concentration. However, the lateralization of this effect to the right prefrontal cortex was a little unanticipated. Usually, left prefrontal cortex is the region where the maximum Oxy-Hb concentration increase was found [5] and manipulation of arousal involves the right hemisphere [6], no such result was found here. The moderate effect of the high arousal condi- tions tends to indicate that our stress manipulation was relatively weak [2]. However, our results emphasized that the combination of high mental workload and acute stress (high arousal condi- tion) was the one that triggered the higher OxyHb concentration. This result supports the idea that these two constructs might interact and could promote a recruitment of further resources at the expense of unsuitable physiological cost, as proposed by the cognitive-energetical framework [7].
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Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation: Heart Rate Study

Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation: Heart Rate Study

contrast, the latter generates a high arousal (HA), since the pilot was supervised by two evaluators, filmed and involved into a mock competition with the rest of the participants. Results: Performance for the secondary task showed significant faster reaction times (RT) for HA compared to LA condition (p=.003). Moreover, faster RT was found for LC compared to HC (p < .001) condition. No interaction was found. Concerning HR measure, despite the lack of main effects an interaction between emotion and cognition is evidenced (p=.028). Post hoc analysis showed smaller HR for HA compared to LA condition only for LC (p=.049). Conclusion. The control of an aircraft is a very complex task including strong cognitive demands and depends on the emotional state of pilots. According to the behavioral data, the experimental set has permitted to generate satisfactorily different emotional and cognitive levels. As suggested by the interaction found in HR measure, these two factors do not seem to have a cumulative impact on the sympathetic nervous system. Apparently, low cognitive workload makes pilots more sensitive to emotional variations. These results hint the independency between data processing and emotional regulation. Further physiological data are necessary to confirm and disentangle this relation. This procedure may be useful for monitoring objectively pilot’s mental workload.
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Cardiovascular correlates of emotional state, cognitive workload and time-on-task effect during a realistic flight simulation

Cardiovascular correlates of emotional state, cognitive workload and time-on-task effect during a realistic flight simulation

Effects of emotion and cognition on the performance in the flight simulation and the secondary task Behavioural results supported that both emotional and cognitive factors significantly affe[r]

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A Neuroergonomics Approach to Mental Workload, Engagement and Human Performance

A Neuroergonomics Approach to Mental Workload, Engagement and Human Performance

This review has identified some undesired mental states that account for degraded performance (see section “Understanding Performance Related Mental States” and “Solutions to Mitigate Degraded Performance”). A crucial step is to design cognitive countermeasures to prevent the occurrence of these phenomena. The formal framework that we proposed (see Table 1) paves the way to design neuro-adaptive technology for augmented cognition and enhanced human-machine teaming ( Peysakhovich et al., 2018 ; Krol et al., 2019 ; Stamp et al., 2019 ). The implementation of such neuro-adaptive technology relies on a pipeline that consists of a signal acquisition step, a preprocessing step to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, a feature extraction step, a classification step to diagnose the current mental states, and lastly an adaptation step ( Zander and Kothe, 2011 ; Roy and Frey, 2016 ). This last step implies the implementation of formal decisional unit ( Gateau et al., 2018 ) that dynamically close the loop by triggering the most appropriate cognitive countermeasures ( May and Baldwin, 2009 ). There are currently three types of mitigating solutions to instigate a change in behaviors via: (1) adaptation of the user interface, (2) adaptation of the task and of the level automation, and the (3) “neuro- adaptation” of the end-users.
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When the nursing workload measurement among comatose patients becomes a reality …

When the nursing workload measurement among comatose patients becomes a reality …

The time weighting of these 91 nursing activities of this federal tool was carried out within the framework of this study. All B-NMDS interventions and their score modalities were rated separately, independently of any patient To facilitate interpretation the time rating per intervention is recoded to a relative weight expressed in relative points. A denominator of five minutes was chosen. Thus, we can calculate the nursing workload (in points) based on the carried out nursing activities

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Influence of Workload on Auditory Evoked Potentials in a Single-stimulus Paradigm

Influence of Workload on Auditory Evoked Potentials in a Single-stimulus Paradigm

We intend to go further by examining how AEPs elicited by a single-stimulus paradigm are influenced by workload for a laboratory task, the Sternberg memory task, in which participants ha[r]

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Efficient Workload Classification based on Ignored Auditory Probes: A Proof of Concept

Efficient Workload Classification based on Ignored Auditory Probes: A Proof of Concept

The contributions of this paper are threefold: 1 to assess the validity of the single-stimulus paradigm for effective mental workload estimation; 2 to assess the relevance of a processin[r]

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Realtime Assessment of Team Workload and Collaboration during C2 mission flight

Realtime Assessment of Team Workload and Collaboration during C2 mission flight

In the context of human machine teaming for mission effectiveness we report on some prelim- inary empirical findings, in which we measure and assess mental workload, physical workload, and stress on individual and team levels while fly-ing a mission scenario in a spaceship simulator. The simulator is operated by 4 entities; two human operators (tactical, operational), one AI (en- gineer) and a commanding officer. We implemented a Command and Control C2 scenario such that the spaceship encounters several mission phases and operations like search and rescue, repair, combat, transport, et cetera. These mission phases vary in complexity and difficulty and differen- tiate for and between the various operators. Phase duration is approximately five minutes. The total duration to complete the mission is around 45 minutes. The task of the tactical operator is navigating and fighting while the operations operator takes the responsibility of tracking and identifying targets. A simple AI represents the role of the on-board engineer and manages power consumption and damage control. The commanding (human) of-ficer is given a display presenting the observed versus expected human machine states which he can consider for realizing mission efficiency and performance. The data acquisition system is measuring the two operators (tactical and opera-tional) simultaneously (hyperscanning): both wearing an EEG device (Muse), GSR and heartrate device (Shimmer) and we track their mouse input while inter-acting with the simulation. The assessment modules take EEG for classifying mental workload, GSR and heartrate (Shimmer) for capturing the level of stress, and mouse movements elucidating physical workload. What is displayed are the observed versus expected physical and mental workload, stress and collaboration levels within and across the various mission phases for the different operators. The assessment ap- plication normalizes the workload and stress measurements based on the operator personal profile for which we used the NASA TLX score-card. Implications for human machine teaming, mutual human-machine under-standing, autonomy trade-off between human and machines, task automa- tion are discussed.
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Cognitive and non-cognitive skills in developing countries

Cognitive and non-cognitive skills in developing countries

The first method of assessment stems from psychology and the so-called lexical hypothesis: traits that are important in people’s lives tend to be captured in language (Golsteyn and Schildberg-H¨orisch, 2017). The Big Five personality test, usually attributed to Allport and Odbert (1936) is an example of one of the most widely accepted self-assessment instruments and has been replicated across cultures (John and Srivastava, 1999) and developmental stages of the life course (Soto et al., 2008). Self-assessments are inherently subject to bias, which refers to measuring the true skills with error. One cause of such bias is the reliance of self-assessments on a “correct” assessment of oneself, making the information relatively subjective (McConaughy and Ritter, 1995). Further, information captured by a self-assessment is usually retrospective (Shapiro and Kratochwill, 2000) and specific to the reference group implied when assessing oneself. West et al. (2016) provide an example of the latter. The authors look at a large set of non-cognitive skills among eighth graders and find that children who attended charter schools had generally better results in terms of educational attainment and attendance but simultaneously rated themselves as worse than children attending regular public schools. West et al. (2016) attribute this to reference bias: children in charter schools compared themselves to other high-achieving children in charter schools and therefore rated themselves more critically. Anchoring vignettes have been used to overcome the problem of different reference groups in non-cognitive skills measurement, for example in Brazil (Primi et al., 2016). 3 In addition, self-assessments can be prone
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Effects of cognitive appraisal and mental workload factors on performance in an arithmetic task Running title: Cognitive appraisal effects on workload

Effects of cognitive appraisal and mental workload factors on performance in an arithmetic task Running title: Cognitive appraisal effects on workload

external and internal sources of load may enable determining the capacity that is left in working memory to implement efficient strategies to solve a particular task or a problem at work. Even though this methodology has been shown to be less specific than when each load type is assessed by different and multiple indicators, it may have an operational value in applied contexts. It is however noteworthy that “it is not entirely clear to what extent workload and cognitive load refer to the same concept across contexts” (Lepping et al., 2014, p.33). In safety- related job situations in particular, high demands or work overload have been found to be positively related to job strain and safety behavior (Li et al., 2013). In another study cognitive load in the arithmetic task described here was assessed together with air traffic controllers’ job perception (job demands, control and social support), and control operations that were recorded following the psychological tests. Results revealed that controllers’ performance in the high difficulty and high time pressure task conditions was associated with their real job activity and supervisor support (Mélan and Cascino, 2014). Thus, assessing intrinsic and extraneous load with the same load measure may be informative in applied contexts when combined with more specific, job-related dimensions. Further, experimental paradigms like the one used in this study may be regarded as simplified models of real-job activities that involve similar cognitive processes. For instance, operating several flights at the same time or solving conflicts between aircrafts (intrinsic load) require air traffic controllers to make the right decisions under high time pressure and to give ground-to air instructions in a limited time (extraneous load; Mélan and Galy, 2012).
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Mental Workload Alters Heart Rate Variability, Lowering Non-linear Dynamics

Mental Workload Alters Heart Rate Variability, Lowering Non-linear Dynamics

Habituation Our task’s characteristics and particularly its monotony, as well as the instructions’ constancy might have enabled a habituation phenomenon. Thus, mental workload mainly lies in the attention required during a long time and thereby the struggle against fatigue and drowsiness, substantially more than the cognitive load, which is preponderant in the beginning of the task only. The physical task elicited in our study may have been lower than in other tasks closer to the real practice, and it may contribute to a non-activation of the sympathetic system, as attested by the unchanged sympatho-vagal balance and the non-elevation of heart rate and blood pressure. The design of the ideal study would be a compromise between the duration of the task and the habituation aroused, i.e., a more complex task, for example, that involves the working memory, and/or a longer task duration.
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Modulating Workload for Air Traffic Controllers during Airport Ground Operations

Modulating Workload for Air Traffic Controllers during Airport Ground Operations

In general, the Average scenario had a median score of 3.92 (about moderate workload) and the Hard scenario had a median of 5.75. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used with an alpha value of 0.05 to determine significance. Scenar- io was shown to have a significant main effect on the TLX score among all participants, W = 0, Z = -2.81, p < 0.002, r = 0.63. This result indicates that the Average and Hard scenario evoke sufficiently different workloads. Figure 2 illustrates a boxplot of these results. This change in difficulty was further confirmed by the workload. Scenario was determined to have a significant effect on the percentage of aircraft treated in each scenario, W = 0, Z = -2.80, p < 0.002, r = 0.63 (medians for Average and Hard are 95.5% and 64.0%, respectively). This result demonstrates that performance has declined due to the complexity of each scenario.
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Discovery of "Interesting" Data Dependencies from a Workload of SQL Statements

Discovery of "Interesting" Data Dependencies from a Workload of SQL Statements

tion domain for machine learning and data mining techniques. In this pa- per we consider some applications of decision tree learning in the domain of river water quality. More speci call[r]

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Risk and Reward: Extending stochastic glycaemic control intervals to reduce workload

Risk and Reward: Extending stochastic glycaemic control intervals to reduce workload

Keywords: Glycaemic control, Hyperglycaemia, Blood glucose, Insulin therapy, Insulin sensitivity, Insulin resistance, Workload, Trade-off Open Access © The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat iveco mmons .org/ licen ses/by/4.0/ . The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creat iveco mmons .org/publi cdoma in/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
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L'APPROCHE COGNITIVE DE L'APPRENTISSAGE

L'APPROCHE COGNITIVE DE L'APPRENTISSAGE

"La psychologie cognitive considère que l'apprentissage est fondamentalement l'acquisition d'un répertoire de connaissances et de stratégies cognitives et métacognitives" "Le système cognitif de l'élève ne contient pas que des connaissances statiques, des connaissances factuelles. Il contient aussi des connaissances dynamiques. Il inclut un ensemble de stratégies cognitives (exemples d'apprentissage de stratégies cognitives : les cours de méthodologie du travail intellectuel, l'apprentissage d'algorithmes, l'apprentissage de l'utilisation du dictionnaire, etc.) et métacognitives (les stratégies métacognitives se réfèrent à la connaissance ainsi qu'au contrôle effectif des stratégies cognitives et des composantes affectives qu'implique la réalisation des tâches) qui permettent à l'élève d'agir sur son environnement, d'utiliser les informations qu'il acquiert... Ces stratégies doivent être enseignées ou présentées explicitement. Mais il importe non seulement de rendre l'élève conscient des stratégies possibles, mais également de leur économie et de leur efficacité".
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Pour introduire à la linguistique cognitive

Pour introduire à la linguistique cognitive

La contribution d‟Alain Rouveret présente l‟évolution récente de la théorie de Chomsky (de l‟approche dite des « principes et paramètres » des années 1980 à l‟actuel « programme minimaliste »). Dans ce cadre théorique, la langue est caractérisée en termes de calculs (syntaxiques) sur des représentations mentales et ces connaissances intériorisées dans l‟esprit de chaque locuteur sont postulées participer de l‟équipement biologique de l‟espèce humaine. La notion de « grammaire universelle » avancée par Chomsky se propose d‟expliquer la rapidité et l‟uniformité de l‟apprentissage du langage par l‟enfant, quelle que soit la langue, par l‟existence de caractéristiques communes aux langues (des « principes » universaux innés) : seule resterait à apprendre par l‟enfant, selon la langue, la sélection des valeurs des différents « paramètres » attachés aux principes. Le « programme minimaliste » vise à épurer au maximum le modèle et à rendre compte du caractère jugé « optimal » de l‟organisation du langage — notamment des principes d‟économie contraignant le calcul syntaxique, en vue de permettre d‟associer à une configuration d‟items lexicaux, d‟une part une représentation phonétique (décodable par le système acoustique-articulatoire), et d‟autre part une représentation sémantique (interprétable par le système conceptuel). Comme le souligne Alain Rouveret à la fin de son article, la théorie chomskienne est appelée à se prononcer sur plusieurs questions d‟importance pour une linguistique cognitive, notamment celle du « minimalisme » de l‟ensemble du dispositif grammatical (non seulement du noyau dur syntaxique, mais aussi de la morphologie, de la phonologie et de la sémantique), et celle de l‟interface entre ce dispositif et chacun des deux systèmes acoustique- articulatoire d‟un côté, conceptuel de l‟autre.
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Pour une Analyse Cognitive de Discours.

Pour une Analyse Cognitive de Discours.

en réalité la coactivation de deux Cx fusionnées : <<[X] + <[sur]> + [Y]>>. Du point de vue discursif l’appareil théorique et analytique permet, à partir de l’étude d’énoncés pris dans leur contexte d’énonciation (i) d’expliquer le phénomène, (ii) de retracer la génération cognitive du phénomène, (iii) et de représenter le tout. Ainsi, la génération de la Cx s’explique par la mobilisation d’un segment du constructicon qui s’est construit diachroniquement en devenant une norme sociale, par l’injection de connaissances spécifiques (en particulier la nature du lieu – ce doit être une ville –, la taille de la ville – ce doit être une grande ville –, etc.) et par la contrainte discursive héritée de la double pression normative de la situation de communication et du genre de texte mobilisé dans cette dernière.
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