People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
UNIVERSITY of 08 MAI 1945/ GUELMA ةملاق \ 1945يام8 ةعماج FACULTY OF LETTERS AND LANGUAGES تاغللا و بادلآا ةيلك DEPARTMENT OF LETTERS & ENGLISH LANGUAGE ةيزيلجنلاا ةغللا و بادلآا مسق
A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of English in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master Degree in Language and Culture.
Mrs. CHEKKAT Ilhem BOUGHIDA Nouhed
BOARD OF EXAMINERS
Chairwoman: Mrs. MEBARKI Katia (M.A.B) University 08 May 1945-Guelma- Supervisor: Mrs. CHEKKAT Ilhem (M.A.A) University 08 May 1945-Guelma- Examiner: Miss. SERHANI Meriem (M.A.A) University08 May 1945-Guelma-
The Contribution of Self-Regulation Strategy in Promoting EFL Students’ Autonomy in
Tothe most wonderful people in my life; the ones who helped me from the beginning and gave me volition, determination and hope:
My beloved mother and dear father
To my lovely brothers and sisters
To the one I wished to be with me, my precious gone grandfather whom I still long for daily,
I dedicate this humble work.
This dissertation could not have been completed without the help of my teacher and supervisor: Mrs. Ilhem Chekkat, to whom I would like to express my sincere gratitude. I owe her respect for her kindness, patience, encouragement and her valuable advice throughout the accomplishment of this work.
I would like also to thank the examining members of the jury, who they serve in my committee and for their constructive comments and observations that will surely help me enormously to improve my work.
I am immensely thankful for the contribution of Master One students, at the English Department at Guelma University; for their efforts in answering the questionnaire.
I would like again to present my appreciation and gratitude to my mother and father for being not only my family, but also friends and teachers throughout the completion of this work.
I will not forget, of course, all teachers of English Department at Guelma University.
Self-regulated strategy is one of the most useful strategies that can be implemented in English foreign language classrooms. This piece of work aims, then, at identifying the significance of self-regulation strategy in creating autonomous learners. It also implies the awareness and contribution of the self-regulation strategy use to improve EFL students’ autonomy in writing. In addition, this research study aims at directing students’
awareness towards the use of self-regulation strategy through the questions addressed to them. The dissertation sheds light on gaining deep insights into autonomy in relation to writing to obtain the needed information about the important aspects worth considering while analyzing the results. Moreover, the study’s hypothesis holds the assumption that, if learners are self-regulated, their autonomy in writing would increase. Therefore, the study is conducted through the quantitative descriptive method which aims at confirming the research hypothesis through the administration of students’ questionnaire; devoted to first year Master one students of English Department at Guelma University. The hypothesis was confirmed based on the research’s results; that is to say, the contribution of self-regulation strategy is substantial in promoting students’ autonomy in writing. In other words, students’ autonomy and writing proficiency are increased through the implementation of self-regulation strategy. Hence, students should be more exposed to self-regulation strategy in order to be autonomous writers and be more aware of its significant role in enhancing the writing skill.
List of Abbreviations
EFL: English Foreign Language.
LLSs: Language Learning Strategies.
SRL: Self-Regulation Learning.
List of Figures
Figure1: Self-Regulated Learning (based on Zimmerman’s definition, 2002)………...…9
Figure2: Phases and sub-Processes of Self-Regulation (Zimmerman ad Campillo, 2002) ….… 13
List of Tables
Table 3.1: Students’ Gender………...…..41
Table3.2: Years of learning English Language………..…....42
Table3.3: Students’ Choice of Studying English Language………...42
Table3.4: Perceptions of Students Concerning Challenging Skills to Learn…………....….43
Table3.5: Students’ Perceptions about the Importance of Autonomy in Foreign Language Classes ………...44
Table3.6: Frequency of Student’s Use of Strategies While Writing………..…45
Table3.7: Students’ Information about Self-Regulation Strategy………..46
Table3.8: Definition of Self-Regulation………...…47
Table3.9: Students’ Knowledge about the Definition of Self-Regulated Learner……...…..48
Table3.10: Students’ Perceptions of Self-Evaluation After Particular Tasks………....49
Table3.11: The Goal Behind Implementing Self-Regulation Strategy………..………50
Table3.12: Students’ Own Ranking of Various Writing Processes………..….51
Table3.13: Student’s Classification of Various Sub-Strategies………...…53
Table3.14: Students’ Reflection on Adopting a Second Way of Learning...56
Table3.15: Students’ Opinions about the Relationship Between Autonomy in Writing and Self-Regulation Strategy ………..…...57
Table3.17: Student’s Description of their Writing Level……….58
Table3.18: Students Assessment of Written Expression Module………59
Table3.19: Student’s Preference Regarding Working in Classrooms……….60
Table3.20: Student’s Views of Teachers’ Roles………..61
Ttable3.21: Student’s Opinions about Teacher’s Encouragement to Let them Learn Independently……….………...…63
Table3.22: Identifying the Purpose of Autonomy………...………...64
Table3.23: Student’s Belief about the Importance of the Writing Skill………...…65
Table3.24: Student’s Preferences about the Way of Learning Writing…………..……...…66
ContentsDedication………i Acknowledgments………..ii Abstract………...iii List of Abbreviations……….iv List of Figures………v List of Tables……….………vi Contents……….vii GENERAL INTRODUCTION………1
1. Statement of the Problem………...1
2. Aims of the Study………..2
3. Research Questions………2
4. Research Hypothesis………..2
5. Research Methodology and Design………...3
5.2. Population of the Study………...3
5.3. Data Gathering Tools………...4
CHAPTER ONE: SELF-REGULATION STRATEGY
1. Basic Definitions………..…..5
1.1. Strategy, Learning Strategies, and Language Learning Strategies………....5
1.3. Language Strategies………...6
1.4.Language learning Strategies………...…6
1.5.1. Definitions Related to Self –Regulation Strategy ...7
1.5.2. Self -Regulation Learning………..………...8
1.5.3. Components of Self-Regulated Learning…………..………...…9
1.5.4. Phases of Self-Regulated Learning………...……..10
1.6.Theories Related to Self-Regulated Learning………....14
1.6.1. Social Cognitive Theory………..14
1.6.2. Meta-Cognitive Theory ………..15
1.7.Self-Regulated Strategy Development……….15
1.8.Self-Regulated Learning Strategies ……….19
1.9.Self-Regulation Strategy and Autonomy in Writing………20
CHAPTER TWO: AUTONOMY IN WRITING
2.1.The Writing Skill ………..…22
2.2.Rules of Writing Skill………...23
2.3.Writing in Relation to Other Language Skills……….…..24
2.3.1. Writing and Reading………...25
2.3.2. Writing and Speaking………...…..25
2.4.Stages of the Writing Process………..…………..…..…..…26
2.4.1. Pre-writing Stage………...…..…26 2.4.2. Drafting Stage………...…..27 2.4.3. Reviewing Stage………...…...27 2.4.4. Editing Stage………...…28 2.5.Autonomy………..…28 2.6.Learner Autonomy………..…………...…...28
2.6.1. Learner Autonomy and Other Related Concepts………29
2.6.2. Conditions for the Development of Learner Autonomy……….31
2.7. Teacher’s Roles that Promote Learner Autonomy………...32
2.8.Fostering Autonomy in Classroom ………..32
2.8.1. Promoting Autonomy Through Practice……….34
2.9. Autonomous Writing……….……..35
CHAPTER THREE: FILED OF INVESTIGATION
3.Reasearch Design ………..37
3.1. Research Methodology ………..37
3. 2. Research Population and Sample………..37
3.3. Data Gathering Tools ………38
3.3.1. Administration of the Questionnaire……….…...38
3.3.2. Description of the Questionnaire………...…38
3.4. Student’s Questionnaire Data Analysis………..41
3.2.1. Analysis and Interpretation of the Findings………..….….41
3.2.2. Discussion of the Results from Student’s Questionnaire………...69
1. Concluding Remarks………..…...71
2. Pedagogical Implications………...71
3. Research Perspectives and Limitations……….73
Learning styles and strategies are among the main factors that determine how well students learn a second or a foreign language. An important aspect within this field is the metacognitive strategies that include “self –regulation” strategy; which is very crucial
throughout the learning process. A self –regulated learner possesses the ability to take charge of his learning process and engage effectively in it. It involves which processes students use, how frequently they use them, and how well they employ them. Students will control, monitor and reflect their own learning, and hence will be more autonomous in fulfilling their writing requirements, learning goals and tasks.
1. Statement of the problem
Many students come across some difficulties while carrying out their written tasks, because of the lack of awareness towards using self-regulation strategy. It is generally noticed that EFL students show a lack of self-regulation strategy use; even though, they encounter different writing tasks such as: essays or paragraphs. Yet, they do not fulfill the desired goals. This study attempts to highlight the contribution of self –regulation strategy to promote EFL students’ autonomy in writing in order to achieve the goals of their writing tasks, and thus, sheds light on learners’ lack of knowledge about how to use this strategy effectively. It is crucial that learners should be autonomous, have their own space to develop and raise their writing proficiency. Furthermore, they need to become more motivated when practicing the various phases of self-regulation; in terms of meta-cognitive, behavioral, and motivational aspects that lead to the control and shaping of given instructions.
2 2. Aims of the study
As a strategy, self-regulation is very effective in increasing learners’ autonomy, if they become aware of its different phases that help to fulfill the required tasks. Self-regulated learners tend to be mentally active rather than being passive throughout the learning process; in order to maintain full control over setting and attaining the required learning goals.
Therefore, the aim of this research is two-folds:
1 – To direct learners and raise their awareness towards using self-regulation strategy.
2 - To promote their autonomy in writing through self-regulation strategy use.
3. Research Questions
Hence, our research addresses the main following questions:
- Should learners be more aware of the importance of self-regulation strategy? - Does self-regulation foster learners’ autonomy in writing and then enhance their
- Does the use of the strategy of self-regulation lead learners to be more autonomous writers?
4. Research Hypothesis
1. If learners are self-regulated, their autonomy in writing would increase. (H1)
The hypothesis suggests the possibility of making students more autonomous and engaged in writing, whenever they are aware of self-regulation strategy in carrying out different written tasks. Which means that using the strategy of self-regulation is an essential component in attempting to achieve an amount of autonomy in terms of writing.
2. If learners are self-regulated their autonomy in writing would not increase. (H0)
The null hypothesis revolves around the assumption that, even though learners use self-regulation strategy in approaching a variety of written tasks, their autonomy will not increase since this strategy does not have the key factor that contributes to create self-independent learners who are able to monitor their way of learning in general and writing in particular.
5. Research Methodology and Design 5.1. Research Method
Our research has been conducted through the quantitative descriptive method; which aims at confirming the research hypothesis through administrating a students’ questionnaire; as a data gathering tool. Thus, the questionnaire has provided students’ views about how they manage to be self-regulated; in order to become autonomous competent writers.
5.2. Population of the Study
Our sample has been chosen randomly from Master I population, at the English Department of Guelma University which consists of 59 students. The selection of Master I students, as a population of study, was based on the assumption that they are supposed to have control over their meta-cognitive processing. In other words, since Master I students are usually asked to prepare their lectures, have written assignments, classroom presentations and pass exams, where they are asked to answer in an essay form that requires a given command of given writing criteria then, they are believed to have more developed meta-cognitive capacities. Thus, they are supposed to be self-regulated learners and autonomous writers.
4 5.3. Data Gathering Tools
To prove the research hypothesis, a questionnaire has been administered for the research sample students. The aim behind the questionnaire was to collect valuable information about students’ ability to be self-regulated, and how they can manage to order
their thoughts and ideas together via the use of this strategy; to be autonomous writers and thus produce good written tasks.
6. Structure of the Dissertation
Our dissertation has been divided into three chapters. The first chapter “Self-Regulation Strategy” has been devoted to discuss the literature of self-regulation strategy;
in terms of its definition, description, and relation to other effective strategies used to achieve autonomy in writing; as well as, looking for the extent to which self-regulation can contribute to the promotion of autonomous writing learners. The second chapter “Autonomy in Writing” has explored the aspect of different writing tasks, definitions of autonomy, and characteristics of autonomous learners and factors that affect autonomy in writing; in addition to the issue of autonomous writing. The third chapter “Field Investigation” deals with the description, analysis and interpretation of the findings obtained from students’ questionnaire according to both research hypothesis and research questions. Finally, some pedagogical implications and recommendations, as well as research perspectives and limitations are stated.
Self-Regulation Strategy (SR) is considered to be one of most influential strategies in foreign language learning. It is essential to implement, especially in terms of writing. This chapter offers more insights in regulation strategy; it involves basic definitions, self-regulation different studies, followed by its components, phases and most importantly the relationship between self-regulation and autonomy in writing.
1. Basic Definitions
1.1.Strategy, Learning Strategies and Language Learning Strategies 1.2.Strategy
There has never been a decisive definition of the notion of ‘strategy’. The term has had several meanings. Indeed, Oxford (1990), refers to strategy as “Strategia” that comes from the ancient Greek; where it meant “generalship or the art of war' and it involved 'planning, competition, conscious manipulation, and movement toward a goal” (p.1). In other words, a strategy is a general plan or set of plans that aims to gain an advantage or achieve a certain success. Moreover, Oxford (1990) stated that strategies are particularly important “because they are tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is essential
for developing communicative competence” (p.1). That is to say, a strategy is a tool that involves complex thoughts, ideas, goals and the ability to use the knowledge acquired effectively for actions in order to reach new conclusions.
6 1.3.Learning Strategies
Learning strategies, as a concept, have been extensively applied in educational fields; thus, various definitions have been provided; where each differs according to a certain point of view. (Oxford & Crookall, 1989, p.414). For instance, Schemeck (1988) claims that, a strategy is “the implementation of a set of procedures (tactics) for accomplishing something” and learning strategy is “a sequence of procedures for accomplishing learning” (p.5). Differently put, learning strategies are limited within the educational field. More specifically, Rigney (1978, p.165) defines learning strategies as a “cognitive strategy”, which is “used to refer to operations and procedures that the student may use
to acquire, retain, and retrieve different kinds of knowledge and performance”. Here, learning strategies are classified under cognitive strategies; which may help students acquire new competences to be able to elaborate and organize ideas, in addition to having new knowledge, to process it and use it for effective learning.
1.4.Language Learning Strategies
Language learning strategies’ research has increased since the 1970s because of the significance and the role they play in language learning. (Lee, 2010, p.135). Over the last twenty years, researchers focused on attempting to find which of language learning strategies (LLSs) is the most effective in language learning. Consequently, many scholars tried to provide different theories and taxonomies of language learning strategies. Rubin (1987), defined language learning strategies as behaviors, steps, or techniques that language learners apply to facilitate language learning. In other words, language learning strategies are considered to be a mean to enhance the learning process. Moreover, Richard drew attention to the importance to apply LLSs in different tasks (as cited in Lee, 2010, p.137) such as: those of reading and writing, because learners will be successful due the implementation of strategies in their given tasks. Simply put, LLSs are learner generated;
which means that, they help develop language competence and achieve a better level in language learning.
Much research about how students regulate and become autonomous in learning has been of a prior importance since 1970s (Wang, 2017, p.198). In terms of educational psychology, self-regulation emerged from the cognitive psychology (Nakata, as cited in Wang, 2017, p.199) which was affected by Bandura’s in the 1970s who contributed to the development of self- regulation in relation to the social cognitive theory, which indicated that learning is the result of personal, environmental and behavioral factors. (Dinsmore, Alexander, & Loughlin, 2008). In other words, self-regulation has its starting point from already existing studies which paved the way for more research about it. However, the focus shifted from theory to the actual practice of self-regulation in educational domains (Graham et al., 1991, p.91). In 1980s, there was several attempts to exercise the new notion of Self-regulation learning (SRL) in educational practices using a variety of strategies such as Self-regulation strategy development in order to approach closely learners with difficulties in many areas of learning process (Wang, 2017, p.200). Which means, to shed light on particular areas in terms of the practice to investigate more about the use of self-regulation strategy, and how it may affect the targeted goals of academic learning.
1.5.1. Definitions Related to Self- Regulation Strategy
Self-regulation strategy may be generally defined as the abilities made by learners to expand, monitor, manipulate, and improve their own learning (Corno & Mandinach, 1985). In simple terms, students usually have some capacities and strategies that enable them to direct their learning, and apply the required efforts to reach the desired goals. Furthermore, SR (self-regulation) refers to “the self-directive process by which learners transform their
mental abilities into academic skills” (Zimmerman, 2002, p. 65). This means that, SR enables learners to use their cognitive abilities. In addition, it encompasses full attention and concentration, self-awareness, openness to change, genuine self-discipline, and acceptance of responsibility for one’s learning (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman 2001, 2002; Zimmerman & Schunk, 2001). In other words, SR strategy aims at identifying one’s weaknesses and strengths and evaluating behavior and learning process.
1.5.2. Self- Regulated Learning
Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) emerged in the field of educational psychology (Schunk& Zimmerman, 1998; Zimmerman, 1998; Zimmerman &Schunk 2001). Moreover, in the recent decades much research has been conducted in the field of SRL, which meets with different disciplines including: psychology, pedagogy, neuroscience, and technology-enhanced learning. In other words, SRL developed to gain other insights from different areas. Consequently, several definitions are given to self-regulated learning. (Schunk, 2010). According to (A. Paris, 2001) and (S. Paris, 2001), SRL refers to one’s ability to autonomously monitor and regulate one’s behaviors towards the setting goals of information acquisition, by understanding and controlling one’s environment. In other words, SRL is a process in which learners are able to take control and make plans before starting to work. Self-regulation can be seen in terms of different points of view; Zimmerman (2002, p.66) highlights: “Self-regulation of learning involves more than detailed knowledge of a skill; it involves the self-awareness, self-motivation and behavioral skill to implement the knowledge appropriately.” That is, SR encompasses everything that helps students to be aware of controlling their skills; for example, they can fail to set goals, and attribute this failure to deficiencies that cannot be tackled. However, other students may recognize when they have failed and provide the needed time to understand why they have failed, and how they can fix it.
To highlight what has been discussed above, it is obvious that self-regulation aids the learning process. Before the task is tackled, the learner needs to analyze, set goals, explore a variety of strategies, reflect on them, direct their learning toward the positive side and have the opportunity for feedback in order to achieve better outcomes; i.e., to be more autonomous.
Figure 1: Self-regulated Learnig, based on Zimmerman’s definition (2002, p.66)
1.5.3. Components of Self-Regulated Learning
Self-regulated learning involves different elements that can foster the ability to regulate one’s self in the process of learning without the assistance of external source or authority. Indeed, Pintrich and De Groot (1990) agreed that self-regulated learning includes three main components: metacognitive strategies, management and control of effort, and cognitive strategies. First, metacognition is one's ability to think of one's own thinking. It involves the ability to plan, monitor and modify one's process of thinking and learning (Pintrich, 1990, p.33). In other words, metacognitive strategies imply a set of behaviors used to arrange, plan and evaluate the learning process.
Self-Regulated Learning Behavioral Skill Self-Awareness Motivation and Emotions
A successful self-regulated learner asks consistently him/herself about the progress of a certain task and tries to relate new information to already existing one. Second, management and control of efforts involve the ability to be more concentrated, self-reliant and more controlling of the surrounding environment. (Corno, 1986; Corno & Rohrkemper, 1985). In other words, management strategies incorporate the use of efforts, and to engage in different roles such as: help seeking. Third, cognitive strategies involve one's effort to support learning. These cognitive strategies include rehearsal, elaboration, and organizational strategies. (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986). To highlight, cognitive strategies are skills that allow students to better comprehend tasks such as summarizing. The implementation of these strategies, then, contributes to the development of self-regulated learners.
1.5.4. Phases of Self-Regulation Learning
Generally, models of SRL are separated into phases; one of these models is Zimmerman’s cyclic phase model (2002), which is based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory. (Schunk, Printrich, & Meece, 2008). This cyclic phase model has three phases as it is presented in (figure 2).
The first phase is the forethought phase. This phase is divided into two distinct categories: task analysis and self-motivational beliefs. (Zimmerman 2000). Task analysis is composed of both goal setting and strategic planning. Schunk (1995) Claims that, researchers have found that allowing individuals to set their goals enhances motivation and self-regulation; perhaps because self-set goals produce higher goal commitment; i.e., focusing on the attainment of already put goals. Also, strategic planning involves learner’s need to select the appropriate strategy to use; for example, memorizing strategies. (Zimmerman, 2002).The next component in the forethought phase is self -motivational beliefs, which involve self-efficacy and goal orientation about one’s
learning and expectations about the personal consequences of learning. Self-efficacy beliefs are about having the personal capability to learn for effective performance (Bandura, as cited in Kivinen,2003, p.13). However, setting goals implies estimating the process of learning for its own advantages, i.e., having personal goals and the possibility to stay committed to them. (Bandura 1991). Pintrich and Schunk (1996, p.211) believed that intrinsic interest can promote learning and achievement in a positive way. In other word, the fact that learners set a particular goal and end up by achieving it increases their intrinsic motivation. Performance phase (or volitional phase) processes fall into two major classes: self-control and self-observation. Self-control refers to the use of specific strategies that are selected during the forethought phase. Among the key types of self-control methods that have been studied are the use of imagery, self-instruction, attention focusing, and task strategies. (Zimmerman, 2002, p.57). Volition plays a mediating role between the use of learning strategies, which means cognitive engagement, and the intention to learn that is, the relation between motivation and self-control. (Garcia, 1996). The first process of self-control is self-instruction. According to Zimmerman (2002), self-instruction is about the way learners go through a particular activity. For example, asking themselves during an exercise about if the steps are correct or not; i.e., self-questioning. The second process is imagery; Zimmerman described it as a crucial element that enhances memorization through using mental images. In other words, they create a kind of visualization; for example, when the teacher tries to explain a particular object, the learner creates a mental image about it. (p.57). The third procedure is attention focusing. It is about maintaining learner’s concentration toward a specific task. Thus, it is a strategy used inside classroom to help preserve concentration and control the environment. The final strategy is task strategies, which involves the use of different strategies, as reading for comprehension, which contributes to the academic performance.
(Weinstein & Mayer, 1986). In other words, task strategies help learners comprehend and recognize the aims of tasks easily. “Self-observation” is the other performance control process, which includes meta-cognitive monitoring that involves learners’ own observation about their way of evaluating information about various processes that affect their performance (Zimmerman, 1995, p.15). In other words, metacognitive monitoring is the monitoring of one's own thought processes and already existing state of knowledge in addition to self-recording. Self-observation has been defined as students’
systematically monitoring their own performance and continuous observation of particular aspects of performance (Zimmerman & Palsen, 1995). In other words, it is a strategy used to enhance and monitor reflection when the task has been done. Moreover, self-recording involves writing down the processes and outcomes of one’s actions. (Zimmerman, 2002, p.58). Which means, a successful self-regulated learner, will use a good strategic plan to evaluate and fulfill certain tasks. The last phase is self-reflection phase that includes judgment and reaction. Self-judgment has two forms: self-evaluation and causal attributions. According to Zimmerman (2002), Self-self-evaluation allows a person to have factors that lead to stimulating one’s performance to improve learning process. In simple words, to judge how well he or she performs by comparing one’s performance with earlier levels of one’s behavior, or against other’s performance. Causal attribution refers to a person’s perceived causes of the outcomes of some behavior
or event (Weiner, 1986). In other terms, these attributions are the beliefs about the causes of one’s errors or successes. They can be regarded as the explanations (justifications) that students give to themselves about their success or failure in a task. The other main process of self-reflection phase is self-reactions, which include levels of adaptive inferences and satisfaction. Most of the attributions are related to self-satisfactions. (Bandura, 1979). In other words, learners will attribute their success or failure to their abilities and not other
factors. Concerning self- satisfaction, it is defined as the affective and cognitive reactions that students experience when they are judging themselves (Zimmerman, 2002). Which means, the activities that generate positive affect produce higher levels of motivation, and the vice versa. The second process is taking adaptive/defensive decisions. When students make adaptive decisions, they tend to think about maintaining the same task again either keeping the same strategies or using new ones. (Zimmerman, 2002). In other words, adaptive reactions refer to adjustments intended to increase the effectiveness of learner’s methods of learning. While, defensive decisions are used when students attempt to avoid performing the task over again to avoid making the same mistakes. (Wolters et al., 2003) For example: task avoidance. In other words, defensive decisions decrease in learner’s performance because of losing interest of particular activity fearing to experience new failures.
Figure 2: Phases and sub-processes of self-regulation (Zimmerman & Campillo, 2002).
PERFORMANCE PHASE Self-control
Task strategies, imagery, self-instruction, time management,
environmental, help- seeking, and self-consequences Self-observation Metacognitive monitoring &self-recording SELF-REFLECTION PHASE Self-judgment Self-evaluation Causal attribution Self-reaction Self-satisfaction/affect Adaptive/defensive FORETHOUGHT PHASE Task analysis Goal Setting Strategic Planning Self-motivation Beliefs Self-Efficacy Task interest/ value
1.6.Theories Related to Self-Regulated Learning 1.6.1. Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura (1991) developed the Social Cognitive Theory based on the idea that learning is affected by cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors. According to Bandura (1986), learning phenomena occur by just observing people’s behavior and its results. In other words, people learn from the surrounding environment. Social Cognitive Theory focuses on the assumption that observational learning is not only an imitative process; human beings are considered to be managers or agents of their own behaviors (Bandura, 2001, p.13). He believes that there are some crucial key concepts which lead to an effective learning, such as: self-regulation and self-efficacy.
Self-regulation refers to self-generated thoughts, actions, and feelings that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals (Boekaerts, Pintrich, & Zeinder,2005, p.260). That is, a self-regulated learner must know how to control his/her thoughts to achieve the required objectives. According to Bandura, self-regulation operates through self-monitoring and self-reactive influences (Bandura, 1991, p. 250). In other words, self-regulation is perceived in terms of psychological aspects that contribute to the judgment of particular aspects throughout learning process.
Another key concept which may influence learning is self-efficacy. It is about one’s belief in his/her capacities to successfully control actions or events. These beliefs can affect motivation; since they stem from the individual’s feeling of having the required cognitive abilities to complete the task. (Wood & Bandura, 1989). In simple terms, self-efficacy refers to learner’s own judgments about his/her capabilities to accomplish actions for the achievement of specific tasks.
15 1.6.2. Meta-Cognitive Theory
One essential component related to self-regulated learning is meta–cognition. Zimmerman (2002, p.65) defines meta-cognition as going beyond knowledge; which means to be aware of one’s own thinking. In other words, the act of reflecting on skills.
There are two main components when considering cognition; the first is meta-cognitive knowledge or (meta-meta-cognitive awareness). Flavell (1979) defines metacognitive knowledge as knowledge about person’s tasks, and strategies. (as cited in Handel, 2013, p.5). Therefore, it includes knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of one’s own memory, learning and effective methods of learning. In other words, it is
what individuals know about themselves and cognitive processes; i.e., learners should be aware of their cognitive strategies and targeted goals. The second component is about meta-cognitive regulation; Brown (1987) claimed that this concept is regarded as spontaneous control of one’s own learning process that may occur without being aware of it. In other words, learners may tend to arrange certain aspects of their learning unconsciously. Simply put, the use of meta-cognition helps guide learning and implement strategies into practice.
1.7.Self-Regulation Strategy Development
One element that has a close relation to self-regulation learning and autonomy in writing is “Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD). As a part of SRL research,
SRSD is a cognitive teaching strategy that allows students to spend time not only in composing written products, but also in thinking about what and how they are writing. (Harris & Graham, 1996, p.21). In other words, it helps students learn, use, and adopt the strategies used by skilled writers. It encourages students to monitor, evaluate, and revise their writing, which in turn reinforces self-regulation skills and independence. (Harris,
1996). It is then an effective instructional procedure for teaching students how to be autonomous writers.
Self-Regulation Strategy Development came as a reaction to writing difficulties. In 1980’s, it was found that this strategy can be considered as an effective approach with those who are good at writing, and those who are not good at writing. Harris (1982) believed that this approach (Self-Regulation Strategy Development) has been proven to be very crucial to help learners who struggle in the writing process, especially in improving spelling and writing. However, learners are encouraged to use several processes such as: goal setting and self-reinforcement in order to achieve better results with the help of self-regulation strategy. SRSD offers practical strategies to help learners (writers, readers) strengthen their ability to be strategic and to regulate their thought processes (as cited in Harris, et al., 2008, p.5). Harris and Graham (2005) provide a framework for SRSD consisting of six crucial instructional stages.
The first stage is development of background knowledge; where, the goal is to ensure that students will successfully understand, learn, and apply the strategy. For example, when the student is asked to write an informative essay (informative writing), he/she must understand its elements like organization, thesis statements, explanation and conclusion. (Harris, 2008, p.6).
The second stage is the discussion of the strategy. At this stage, students engage in a discussion about strategies they use to fulfill a specific task. Once they learn a strategy, they can use it during different kinds of activities and in different situations. In other words, the target writing strategies purposes should be introduced to reach a clear goal of learning. The third stage is the modulation of the strategy. It is used to show how to use positive self-statements to maintain motivation. Students should give their own feedback
about the strategy use whether to modify it or not in order to be more successful; which means, when students identify statements they will use throughout the writing process.
The fourth stage is the memorization of the strategy. In this phase students are familiar enough with the implementation of the strategy to the point in which they can use them automatically. In other words, they become fluent in the steps of a strategy so they can use them without having to stop and think about what step comes next. (Harris & Graham, 2005, p.21). The use of paraphrasing is allowed with keeping the original meaning. The fifth stage is the support of the strategy. Teachers offer constructive feedback guidance and positive reinforcement. In simple words, they make sure that they work toward attaining their initial writing goals. The sixth stage is the independent performance where students are encouraged to recognize how the strategy can improve their writing and in what settings it is beneficial to use it. In other words, students are able to practice the strategy freely without any constraints and explore its dimensions in different situations. The goal of using SRSD is to make sure that students use strategy overtime. According to Harris and Graham (2005), Students should be encouraged to recognize how the strategy improves their writing, know where else it would be beneficial and in what ways it can be modified. This means that, it is to allow students to maintain and generalize their new writing strategy skills in various settings and across several tasks using self-statement to manage motivation. In Other words, it helps students to replace negative thoughts with positive ones. The SRSD model and strategies have been shown to significantly improve students’ strategic behavior, motivation, and writing performance. (Harris & Graham, 2005, p.25).
Figure 3: Self- Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) Instructional Model. (Graham and Harris, 2005) Stage 1: “Develop background knowledge”. It is about identifying the skills students will need to use a particular strategy. Stage2: “Discuss it”. They learn how
and when to use a given strategy. Stage 6: ‘‘Independent performance’’ Students use the writing strategy and self-regulation strategies independently. Stage 3: “Model it”. In this stage,
students are shown exactly how to use steps
of the new strategy through “think-aloud” by teachers. Stage 5: ‘‘Support it.’’ It is about offering a positive reinforcement from teachers to students. Stage4: ‘‘Memor ize it’’ Students
engage in activities that
help them memorize the strategy and their personalized
1.8. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies
One characteristic of self-regulated learners is that they use learning strategies to enhance their learning. The self-regulated learning strategies described by Zimmerman (1989) encompass three strategies that all students use to improve self-regulation: personal functioning, academic behavioral performance, and learning environment. Each strategy used contributes to the creation of self-regulated learner. Boekaerts (1997) provided a classification of the use of different strategies:
1- Cognitive strategies: they consist of elaboration strategies (connections are established between new material and what is already known), rehearsal strategies, (store information in the memory), and organization strategies (to visualize the material).
2- Meta-cognitive strategies, these are used in SRL phases as described by Zimmerman (2002) which they consist of forethought phase that involves the development of planning strategies, performance phase that takes place by using monitoring strategy aims to ensure whether the learner understands the material or not by consistent questioning. The last phase is that of self-reflection through evaluation (learner evaluates the learning process).
3- Management strategies: these strategies focus on the time and learning environment and they tend to create the most favorable learning conditions. For example, strategies that help learners overcome difficulties.
4- Motivational strategies: Pintrich (2003) claims that the enhancement of the motivation element should lead to a higher level of engagement in the task; i.e., learning objectives will enhance the goal orientation. In addition to maintaining a
positive attribution because it will improve their self-efficacy (when a student believes in his/her ability to effectively accomplish a certain task).
1.9. Self-Regulation Strategy and Autonomy in Writing.
There is a close association between learner autonomy and the employment of self-regulation strategies (Wenden, 1995). Some researchers consider autonomy synonymous with self-regulation. In other words, self- regulation and autonomy are used interchangeably. However, Little (1999) argued that it is not clear how the use of self-regulated learning may enhance EFL learners’ autonomy. Which means autonomy cannot
be achieved through the use of self-regulation strategy.
Zimmerman (2002, p.11) makes a distinction between self-regulated learning and learner autonomy. On the one hand, self-regulation learning is a concept that can be learned sometimes even from the surrounding circumstances (Zimmerman, 1989, p.232). That is, they facilitate the learning process. On the other hand, learner autonomy is an inborn capacity which can be developed within classroom settings. Hence, self-regulated learning strategies are essential in promoting autonomy.
Furthermore, according to different research studies, students who use self- regulated strategies prove to be autonomous learners and are more likely to be intrinsically self- motivated. In other terms, they rely on a planned learning and use more goal setting, planning, organizing, memorizing and self-monitoring. (Maxim, 2009; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1988). As a strategy, self-regulation is very effective in increasing learners’ autonomy; specifically, when they become aware of its different phases which will help them fulfill the required tasks. Moreover, the instruction in self-regulatory strategies for academic writing is crucial (Langer, 2001). Students who are taught effective writing strategies, will be able to attribute their writing challenges to
inappropriate strategy use rather than having a poor level in writing. In other words, learners are able to develop autonomy in writing when they are aware of the implementation of self-regulated strategies.
This chapter discussed the main aspects related to self-regulation strategy and stated its importance and how it can contribute to the learning process. In addition, it made a clear distinction between self-regulation and autonomy in learning. Moreover, it focused on providing SRSD to teach learners how to regulate their thoughts and be strategic; via introducing several models that can lead to better understanding of how self-regulation strategy actually works.
AUTONOMY IN WRITING
This chapter intends to examine the concept of autonomy in association to writing. Therefore, it will tackle different issues relevant to both autonomy and writing and how each one is considered in language teaching-learning process. It aims at highlighting the concept of autonomy and its different definitions, philosophies and how it is manifested in classroom context and practice. It also attempts to present the different approaches to teaching writing, different stages of writing and its relation to other skills. The chapter concludes with the relationship of autonomy in relation to writing.
2.1. Writing Skill
Brookes and Grundy (1998) believed that, despite the fact that writing was neglected because of the focus on the spoken language, writing remains as an important component in language Teaching. In other words, because of the concentration on the speaking skill, writing remained for a period of time to have a secondary importance. In addition, Bader (as cited in Harmer,2004, p.6) claimed that as an important skill, writing has some conventions that need to be organized, which relates letters to words and words to sentences to have a coherent text. This skill is not natural or innate; its rules must be practiced. Differently put, writing requires the writer to identify its various characteristics in order to convey his/her ideas to the reader in an effective way. In terms of pedagogy, writing is a vital skill in language teaching since students need it for fulfilling different tasks; as in exams and in note taking. Its importance was acknowledged after trying to investigate it more in foreign language classrooms.
(Harmer, 2004, p.8). In other words, writing is implemented more in classes and it is not determined by grammar or rules, it is a skill in its own.
Harmer (2007) stated that any of the four skills of the English language demand learner’s considerable language knowledge because the brain is involved within the process of learner’s own interaction with different texts learners interact with (p.26). He had integrated some aspects that should be considered in writing. According to him, a good writer pays attention to his/her spelling and punctuation in addition to the required information; in order to reach a clear message. Here, both spelling and punctuation should be mastered in an effective way to avoid misunderstandings in specific contexts.
Another aspect of writing is cooperative work; even though many students write individually, it is preferable to adopt the cooperative writing in classes, because group writing allows giving more detailed and constructive feedback. (Harmer, 2007, p.29). Hadfield (2008) provided a way of guiding students to manage and express their ideas; in which it consists of dividing the writing activity in multiple stages and incorporating the practice of important sub-skills in this process. He pointed the use of brainstorming which is also a good technique to do for writing. According to him, writing is better achieved when learners practice the division of this skill to different phases instead of practicing it directly; each with the involvement of sub-skills to facilitate its development and reach an effective product. In other words, major aspects of writing should not be taught in isolation.
2.2. Rules of Writing Skill
Writing as a means of communication requires certain characteristics and rules; among them clarity, word choice and coherence. Starkey confirmed their importance (as cited in Hamadouch, 2010, p. 26). Clarity is considered to be the basic rule in writing. It is achieved when learners use powerful and specific adjective and adverbs; and also, when avoiding words
or phrases that have more than one meaning. In other words, to avoid ambiguous words and sentences that may have one meaning or multiple interpretations.
Another important rule to consider is “word choice”; Starkey (2004) and Kane (2000) emphasized the use of both aspects of word meaning denotation and connotation. They refer to denotation as the literal meaning and connotation as the hidden meaning; in other words, explicit and implicit meanings of words, phrases and sentences. Starkey (2004) stated that “connotation is a word’s implied meaning which involves emotions, cultural assumptions, and suggestions” (p.21). That is, the learner confirms that each word used denotes what is intended to say. According to what has been said, connotative and denotative meanings are important to implement when choosing words in writing; without the use of informal language to avoid confusing the readers.
Besides, in any type of writing coherence is a critical aspect; Murray and Hughes (2008, p.45) agreed that coherence is represented through the use of ideas in a correct and clear manner. It means that, the adequate arrangement of one’s ideas and perspectives that are easily
understood by learners. Coherence is simply related to how well learners can communicate their ideas in a logical and clear way.
2.3. Writing in Relation to Other Language Skills
Writing is not an isolated skill which is taught individually, each of the four skills work together for their development. Hartley (1990) Claimed that the inter-related natures of the four skills are presented clearly in other areas; that is to say, each skill contributes to the other in a certain way. For example, when students are asked to prepare a certain written task, they do not just write on the paper but they are asked also to come to the board and present what they have written. In addition, the same view of considering language skills as inter-related is manifested by Johnson (2008), who believed that
language skills enhance each other; i.e. the development of individual language skill improve the development of others. For example, reading can assist students to become better writers, and writing in return can enhance the reading fluency.
2.3.1. Writing and Reading
In fact, it seems that the two skills are separate when looking at the nature of writing and reading, because writing is a productive one and reading is a passive activity; however, these two language skills are inter-related and can be elaborated. That is, both skills are complementary and function together. Indeed, Johnson (2008, p.7) argued that the relationship between the preceding skills lies within the fact that reading aids students to be familiar with the rules of grammar, in order to develop their language structure and vocabulary and hence become good writers. Stotsky (1983) provides evidence to prove the relationship between the two skills (reading, writing). The study shows that there is a connection between the realization of reading and the adequacy of writing, i.e. good writers resort to be better readers. Also, the study proves that better writers read more than poorer ones; which means that, there is a mutual relationship between the trait of writing and the reading’s experience. From the previous points, the inter-relation between writing and reading is reflected through the characteristics of each skill. (Stotsky, 1983, p.4).
2.3.2. Writing and Speaking
As productive skills, both writing and speaking can form language results similarly to listening and reading, which are both passive activities. Brown (1994) pointed out various differences between writing and speaking skills in regard to different factors. In terms of performance; for instance, written language is permanent and one can come back to it several times, while speaking demands a continuous process at actual moment. In other words, writers tend to have enough time to plan, review and revise their writings. In terms of orthography,
writing does not involve much of knowledge as opposed to speaking which encompass several means that are implemented to add value to the message conveyed such as: intonation and stress. (Brown, 1994, p.27). Another essential difference is that of complexity, writing can be considered as a complex skill that needs sufficient concentration; since it involves the use of a variety of long sentences and considers the use of appropriate structure of language. However, speaking language is about using short and simple sentences to convey the desired meaning and make it clear and understood for the listener. In other words, complexity as a component is encountered more in writing. Harmer (2004) focused on the fact that, despite the differences between writing and speaking, in some settings these differences no longer exist. For example, in terms of chatting and using texting writing is not a formal or well structured, but sounds more as an actual speech than as a cohesive and coherent writing. (p.7). In other words, writing can take an informal structure whenever it is put in specific contexts.
2.4. Stages of Writing Process
Writing is a procedure which consists of several stages. Flower and Hayes (1981) provided a model for writing that consists of pre-writing, drafting, and reviewing framework.
2.4.1. Pre-writing Stage
During this stage the writer tends to gather ideas and generate information, using brainstorming and clustering, in addition to other techniques. In other words, pre-writing identifies everything a learner should do before starting a draft. Parson (1985, p.29) claimed that students who are engaged in various pre-writing practices have better opportunities to achieve writing tasks than others who do not consider preparation. To explain, students who consider going through pre-writing stage are more successful in reaching the already put goals. The pre-writing stage is important and beneficial for students; since it directs the writing process and keeps it narrowed (just talk about certain topic). It also guides students
to develop their writing skill and organize the work and makes it clear by generating ideas and reflects writer’s own confidence. Elsewhere, Murray (1988, p.16) believed that, it is essential to make students aware of the importance of the prewriting stage; which means that, teachers should encourage students to reflect more in this particular stage; since it guarantees the acceptability of the product. Activities concerning pre-writing stage could be carried out in groups or with the whole class; consequently, pre-writing stage makes students better writers through the use of effective plan.
2.4.2. Drafting Stage
During this stage, the writer jots down the ideas that come to mind. The beginning of this stage can be difficult, but with the necessary practice and repetition it will become easy. Drafting stage had been defined by Galko (2002, p.49) as “. . . It is a time to really focus on the main ideas you want to get across in your paper . . . As you draft, you do not need to worry about grammar, spelling, or punctuation. You will have time to refine these mechanical parts of your paper at a later stage.” In other words, the definition about drafting
stage implies paying attention to the content in general rather than different aspects of the language; what matters then is the successive process of generating the main ideas.
2.4.3. Reviewing Stage
The reviewing stage is the process of going back and discovering a new vision of the previous stage. Grenville (2001, p.153) stated that: “[while revising], you will be looking for changes that will help readers understand the information better or be more convinced by your argument. Once you have found the places that need fixing, you have to decide whether to cut, add or move.” In other words, it is the stage when the writer tries to correct mechanical errors and make some changes in the use of words or structures of language. Johnson (2008) believed that reviewing is the essential of writing. In addition, peer review is an important practice for students because it enhances the students’ ability to organize different aspects of
writing; which means to be more aware of his/her target readers in addition to the purpose of writing.
2.4.4. Editing Stage
Editing is considered to be the last step of writing; where the writer pays more attention to some aspects of the language; such as punctuation and spelling. Indeed, Johnson (2008, p.167) stated that: “editing’ means making your piece as reader-friendly as possible by making the sentences flow in a clear, easy-to read way.” In simple terms, the writer keeps checking on errors of spelling, grammar and most importantly punctuation to ensure that his writing is clear with no misunderstandings.
Benson (2001, p. 18) assumed that autonomy in education has been claimed to be an ultimate goal for a long time. This assumption can be owed to the fact that autonomy drew attention to several issues concerning the process of learning, for example, to explore more learners’ implementation of skills and capacities to direct their learning. Benson and Voller (1997, p. 2) agreed that autonomy is particularly used in situations where learners study by themselves through the use and implementation of unique and different skills considering the purpose and method of one’s learning process; i.e., to enhance their current state of learning. He believed that, autonomy is “a capacity for critical reflection, decision making and independent action”. (Little,1999, p .4). In other words, this refers to the process of critical thinking and the capacity to decide about what to learn, acquire and what to achieve. Moreover, Little (1994, p. 81) stated that autonomy is not something that teachers teach learners (as a kind of a method); since it is not about teacher’s responsibility. However, it involves more than one’s own independent action and reflection. He reflects on the idea that, being autonomous is seen in terms of the state of independence or acting separately from others.
29 2.6. Learner Autonomy
As a concept, the development of learner autonomy became significant as part of educational research. Indeed, Palfreyman and Smiths (2003, p.1) assumed that there are some principles that might be actually used to enhance and promote learner autonomy inside the classroom and language learning. They illustrated their claim by giving an argument, which held the idea that autonomy is considered as an effective approach for learners to follow; in order to control and guide their learning process; that is, to be self-independent.
Learner autonomy is a broad concept which includes many views and definitions. According to Benson (1997), there are three ways of defining learner autonomy within an educational area. First, learner autonomy is regarded as a psychological concept; in which it holds different learner’s attitudes and abilities in order to direct his/her learning. In other words, it deals with the behaviors of learners and what makes them be able to learn independently. The second way to define what is meant by learner autonomy is the technical side. It highlights the use of specific language learning strategies that contribute to facilitate the attainment of specific goals. Simply put, to use strategies such as cognitive strategies in writing and practice them in order to use them inside or outside the classroom.
Moreover, Chan (2001), explores more the concept of learner autonomy identifying some basic characteristics within autonomous learners as: motivation, organized, active and opportunity seekers for better academic learning. In other words, autonomous learners attempt to keep their own learning based on their positive and focused criteria.
2.6.1. Learner Autonomy and Other Related Concepts
Autonomy refers to the ability or attitudes which enable learners to control their learning (Benson, 2001). The implementation of the concept of autonomy is often related
to other terms such as self-instruction, self-direction, and independent learning. In other words, autonomy can be associated with other close concepts that seem synonymous. According to Dickinson (1987, p.3), self-instruction refers to different situations learners tend to work (alone or with others) without teacher’s role as a controller. In other words, learners are independently engaged in language learning. However, Nunan (1997, p.5) believed that a teacher remains as a guide throughout the learning process; hence, he/she is authoritative. This view does not reflect autonomy because learners have to be involved in making decisions; so they may not develop the skills and strategies necessary to foster their autonomy. To explain, learners are not involved in promoting their autonomy. According to Dickinson (1987), self-direction is “a particular attitude to the learning task, where the learner accepts responsibility for all the decisions concerned with his learning but does not necessarily undertake the implementation of those decisions” (p.11). In other words, learners may lack the capacity to take responsibility; even though they are aware. Braman (1998) claimed that as opposed to autonomy, self-directed learning is based on one’s individualistic attitudes and values; which means, there is a significant relationship between readiness for self -directed learning and individualism. Moreover, Tudor (1996) defined self-direction learning as “the strategic and attitudinal traits of a learner who is able, or who is in the process of developing the ability to make informed decisions relative to his language learning . . .” (p.26). Accordingly, this
definition can be considered as synonymous to autonomy because learners are able to take decisions about their learning.
In autonomous learning context, there is a view that autonomy refers to total independence from the instructor, i.e. self-independence. However, autonomy involves more than set of skills that is why teacher’s role is of major importance. In this respect, autonomy does not mean learning in isolation without teacher’s guidance, but, as stated
by Little (1991, p.23), “it is a social construct that includes the ability to function effectively as a cooperative member in a group”. In other words, learners need to set some working principles and attempt to balance their roles as autonomous learners; in addition to teacher’s role in order to keep a balanced environmental support.
2.6.2. Conditions for the Development of Learner Autonomy
Fostering autonomy is not only related to learners but also to teacher who should be part of this process; through assisting them to achieve effective goals put by learners. In other words, the teacher is considered to be a crucial element in helping learners throughout their learning and act as a guide.
Dam (1995, p.22) suggested that the first condition that is crucial to the development of learner autonomy is “responsibility”. Responsible learners are those who have the willingness and the capacity to accept the idea that they should put a lot of efforts in order to ameliorate their learning. In other words, responsible learners are those who can plan, assess, monitor and focus on their progress. Moreover, an important element in the success of language learning is “motivation”. Autonomy is related to motivation in the sense that the more motivated the learners are, the more efforts they make in their language learning. Differently put, both autonomy and motivation are interrelated. Dickinson (1995, p.23) claimed that learners’ success or failure is related to their own efforts and motivation. In other words, motivation reflects autonomous learners.
Furthermore, the use of “metacognitive strategies” can also be a way of building up Autonomy. Oxford (1990, p.38) suggested that learners need to practice the use of these strategies because they can help them control the different skills they encounter while learning. So forth, the implementation and the constant use of various strategies can lead to make conscious decisions to determine and control what they can change in order to improve their learning.
2.7. Teacher’s Roles that Promote Learner Autonomy
The traditional role of the teacher in teaching is being a figure of authority and an information provider. (Tudor, 1993). Additionally, an organizer is another role the teacher plays in setting up the activities, motivating the students and providing authoritative feedback on their performances. In other words, teacher’s traditional role lies in terms of assisting learners and equipping them with the needed materials and setting up a plan; in order to facilitate their learning process.
Moreover, according to Gremmo and Riley (1995) a teacher possesses different roles; among which is being a counselor. Thus, he/she is supposed to assist learners to establish values, techniques and ideas in the language learning process. Simply put, the teacher as a counselor is able to raise the awareness of his or her language learning. Little (1999) believed that it is difficult for learners to accept responsibility immediately for their learning. He added that, it is teachers’ responsibility to help them to do so by providing them with sufficient materials, resources and with chances to practice them. Therefore, teachers’ awareness about their various roles toward learners is important in order to help students achieve responsibility toward their own education; through implementing different methods and techniques, because the more learners are aware of the learning process, the more they become autonomous.
2.8.Fostering Autonomy in Classroom
According to Little (2002) a learner can be considered as an autonomous learner when he can make sense of what he is learning (what he wants to reach as objectives), accept responsibility for what he is learning and try to evaluate his own learning (assess what to adopt and what to avoid such as: strategies). In other words, he emphasized that autonomy should be set on social norms; where there is a close