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Three Examples in the Theory of Spaces of Continuous Functions


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Three Examples in the Theory of Spaces of Continuous Functions

Publications du Département de Mathématiques de Lyon, 1972, tome 9, fascicule 1 , p. 99-103


© Université de Lyon, 1972, tous droits réservés.

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Mathématiques Lyon 1972 t. 9-1


Richard HAYDON (*)


This article is an expanded version of the note (H), giving the same exam- ples in rather greater detail. The first example is of a completely regular space X in which every bounded subset is finite but such that the repletion uX contains an infinite compact subset. This enables us to construct a barrelled lcs E whose associated bornological space E is not barrelled. The second example is of a pseudocompact space Y in which every compact subset is finite ; Cc( Y ) is then quasibarrelled but not barrelled.

The spaces X and Y were constructed in answer to questions posed by

H. BUCHWALTER during the Summer School on topological vector spaces, Brussels, September 1972. The last paragraph is devoted to a question posed by BUCHWALTER in (B) concerning the bidual T" of the completely regular space T.

For notations and terminology I follow (B) and (BS). In particular, I say that a locally convex space is quasibarrelled (not infrabarrelled) if every bornivorous barrel is a neighbourhood of zero. The bornological space E asso-

ciated with the lcs E has the same underlying vector space as E and, as neighbourhoods of zero, all discs that are bornivorous in E.

Two of constructions that follow involve the use of ordinals. When is an ordinal, (o,fi) is the (compact) space of all ordinals £¡^£2, endowed with the order topology. I denote by co=u)o the first infinite ordinal, and by the first ordinal of greater cardinality than u) . . A n ordinal £ is called isolated if


£ = D+1 for some n (£ is then an isolated point of ( o , £ ) ) ; otherwise £ is a limit ordinal. A limit ordinal £ is said to be cofinal with u) if there is an (*) Research supported by SRC B/70/666.


Three examples in the theory of spaces of continuous functions

increasing sequence (Ç ) with Ç <£ for all n and Ç + £.

w n n n


Let W be the product space (o,U)2) x (o,U)) and define the subspace X to consist of all (£,n) with n<co and Ç an ordinal < U )2, not cofinal with u), together with the additional point ( ( 02, a ) ) . Every point x of X, other than (oa2,U)) is a P-point (that is, every containing x is a neighbourhood of x ) . If B is a

bounded subset of X, then, for every Ç « A )2, BO((O,Ç( X (O,CO() is a bounded subset of the open and closed subspace X O( ( o , Ç ( x ( o , u > ( ) . This is a P-space and so every bounded subset of it is finite ((Gj), 4K.3). It is an immediate deduction that every bounded subset of X is finite,

I shall now show that the repletion UX is equal to the subspace

Z « X U ( { ^ } x (o,o>() of W. Z is replete since it is the intersection of a family of subsets of the compact space W. Moreover, X is dense in Z. So it is enough

to prove that every f in C(X) has an extension g that is continuous on Z. By a standard argument, there exists, for each n<u), an ordinal s u c t l that

f(n,n) * f(£n,n) whenever (n,n)GX and n ^ Çn• Let us put £ « Sup £n< w2 and define g(o)2,n) « f(Ç+I,n) for all n<u>. It remains only to prove that g(oo2,n) •> f(u>2,u)) as n co. Given e>0, there are no and mc such that |f(d)2,0)) - f(n,n)| ^ e whenever (n,n)eX, T)>r\0 and n^me. But this means that |f(u)2,u)) - g ( c o2, n ) | < e whenever n*m0.

Let us put E « Cc( X ) , which is barrelled because X is a y-space (corollaire 8 of (B)). N O W C (X) * C (X) and, by théorème 5 of (BS), we know that

^_ i c s

C (X) • C (UX)• We now see, however, that, since uX contains an infinite compact subset { o o0} x (0,0)), C (v)X) ^ C (UX) and E « C (uX) is not barrelled (théorème 3

z. s c s

of (BS)).


This example resulted from a conversation between the author and Jim SIMONS.

Let us choose, for each infinite subset A of the set IN of natural numbers, one element of 6lN\(N that is adherent to A. Call this element u^ and form the space Y » ( N U ^A ; A C N , A infinite}, topologised as a subspace of B K Then the


cardinality of Y is c = card BR, since there are c infinite subsets of IN. Every infinite compact subset of g(Nf on the other hand, has cardinality 2 (p. 133 of (GJ)) so that the compact subsets of Y are finite.

To show that Y is pseudocompact, suppose, if possible, that f€.C(Y) is unbounded. Since IN is dense in Y, there is a sequence (n^) in IN with

| f ( nk) | > k. Put A = {n^ ; k€iN} and note that uA is in the closure of {n^ \ k^m} for every m, which implies that |f(u^)| > m for every m, and this is absurd.

Since the compact sets of Y are finite, C (Y) • C (Y), which is quasi- c s

barrelled (théorème 2 of (BS) ) , while C (Y) is not barrelled since Y is not a y-space.


Recall that the bidual of the completely regular space T is defined in (B) to be the space of continuous characters of the algebra C^(T), topologised as a subspace T" of $T. The space yT is obtained by a transfini te iteration of the bidual operation, and the following problem occurs ((B), problème 2) :

Find a space T such that Tn is not a y-space.

Again in (B)a subset P of a space R is said to be distinguished in R if every bounded subset of R is contained in the R-closure of some bounded subset

of P. Proposition 4 of (B) shows that if T is distinguished in T" then Tl !=yT, but the question of the converse implication has remained open. The following construction, reminiscent in some ways of that of §2, settles both the above questions.

Let us define some subspaces of the product

Q - (0,0),) x (0fu>) :

R = Q N { ( Ç , 0 ) ) ; Ç is a countable limit ordinal},

S - R \ {(u), , U ) ) } ,

T - R \ ({IO.} x (0,0))),

U - R \ ({(*>,} x (o,u>().

Let B denote the collection of all subsets of T which are of the form


Three examples in the theory of spaces of continuous functions

(1) B « ((O,c0j( x {rij ,. • . ,nk})U({5 ] > • • • » Ck} x (0,0))), where t i j , . . , ^ ^ and C j , . . . , ? ^ are isolated ordinals <a> j •

I assert that B is a base for the bounded subsets of T.

Certainly each B e 8 is bounded ; indeed each B is a pseudocompact topological space. Suppose now that C is a subset of T not contained in any member of B . I shall show C is not bounded.

There are sequences (m^) and that increase (not necessarily both strictly) to 0) and to some countable limit ordinal £ , respectively, and such that is in C for each integer k. Choose sequences (n^), (n^) increasing strictly too) and £ , respectively, and such that n^rn^, C ^ k for all k. Then the sets - T O^ n ^ , ? )x (n^,0))) form a locally finite family of open and closed subsets of T. So f XD is in C(T). But f C C ^ n ^ ) ^ k for each k, so

that f is not bounded on C.

By an argument similar to one used in §2, we see that uT=R. Now the bidual T is equal to CJ{B J B e 8 > where B denotes the closure of B taken in uT

( (B), proposition 2 ) . Now for each B of the form (1),

B° - ( ( o , W j ) * { nJ f. . .tnk} ) U( { C ,l. . .fk} x (O,co)), so that T" can be identi­

fied as the space S. But S is not a y-space, since {ojj} x (o,u( is a non-compact bounded subset of S. Indeed S" = R • yT.

Finally we can show in just the same way that {Bu{ j ,u>)} ; B € B } is a base for the bounded subsets of U and that U, r = R = pU. The compact subset {u)j} x (o,to) of Uf l is not contained in the U! f closure of any bounded subset of U. So U is not distinguished in UM.



(B) H. BUCHWALTER, Parties bornées d'un espace topologique complètement régu- lier, Séminaire Choquet, 9e année, 1969-1970, n° 14, 15 pages.

(BS) H. BUCHWALTER - J. SCHMETS, Comptes rendus, 274, série A, 1972, p. 1300-1303.

(GJ) L. GILLMAN - M. JERISON, Rings of continuous functions, Princeton, 1960.

(H) R. HAYD0N, Comptes rendus, 276, série A, 1973, p. 685-687.

Manuscrit remis le 1er février 1973. Richard H A Y D O N

Selwyn College C A M B R I D G E England


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