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The advantage of most tropical timber is that it has a good natural durability

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A. F. El Sheikha1,3*, C. Chalier2, D. Montet3, A. Zaremski2

1 Department of Food Science and Technology (Minufiya University, Faculty of Agriculture),

32511 Shibin El Kom, Egypt.

2 UPR 39 Forest Genetics (CIRAD, Campus

Baillarguet), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

3 UMR 95 Qualisud (CIRAD, Montpellier University II), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

* Corresponding author: E-mail address:

elsheikha_aly@yahoo.com IMBER is an important source of income for many tropical countries. The

tropical forests are also the lifeblood of local and indigenous people, and contain a unique biodiversity. The advantage of most tropical timber is that it has a good natural durability; it is thus environmental friendly for the outdoor environment by avoiding impregnation with preservatives, etc. In addition, a lot of tropical timber has number of aesthetic qualities and great strength (1).

Traceability is defined according to the standard ISO 9000/2005 "the ability for the

retrieval of the history and use or origin of an article or an activity through a registered

method" (2). Their implementation in the timber industry is delayed because of the limits of classical identification systems in regard to the nature of timber and the features of the manufacturing processes.

For the first time, the method of fungi ecology, PCR-DGGE was used as a new traceability analytical tool to identify the geographical origin of tropical timber from four countries (Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Polynesia) by using the diversity of fungal communities present in

timber samples.

Methodology

Results

DNA extraction from fungi, we created a new protocol which takes into account the method of El Sheikha et al. (3).

The efficiency of this protocol is suitable to extract the genomic DNA from all fungal species in a unique step without using purification kits and it is perform on a large number of samples in one analysis. Physical, chemical and enzymatic cell wall disruption and optimal extraction was achieved by incorporating acid washed glass beads, lysis buffer and enzymatic digestion step. DNA quality was confirmed by the successful PCR amplification which used for the first time a universal primer to amplify all fungal species in a unique PCR. The PCR products were analyzed by DGGE by using a Bio-Rad DcodeTM universal mutation detection system (Bio-Rad Lab., USA) using the procedure described by El Sheikha et al. (4).

Determination of the geographical origin of tropical

timber by using an innovative traceability tool "PCR-DGGE"

Polynesia Ivory Coast

Cameroon

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5

-3 -2 -1 -0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Fact. 2 : 21.21%

Fact. 1: 67.74%

Central African Repubic

Efficiency of the new protocol for the extraction of fungi DNA from tropical timber, DNA extraction of the fungi community was done on the tropical timber samples using our new protocol which achieved admirable success (Fig 1).

Verification of the PCR amplification of the extracted DNA, fungal DNA was amplified by our novel PCR conditions. All of the bands were clearly observed (Fig 2).

DGGE pattern, the observed bands had sufficient intensities to analyze samples of fungal DNA extracted from tropical timbers from four various geographical areas (Fig 3).

Clusters and factorial correspondence analysis, we can observe clearly that the differences between the geographical locations depend on the diversity of the fungal communities of timber samples (Fig 4, 5).

Design and production: CIRAD,Martine Duportal, October 2009 — photo © Michel Vernay

Polynesia Limbali 5473

Central A. Rep.

Limbali 18865

Cameroon Teck 34090

Ivory Coast Teck 16476

Polynesia Limbali 5473

Central A. Rep.

Limbali 18865

Cameroon Teck 34090

Ivory Coast Teck 16476

Figure 1.

Total DNA.

Figure 5.

Cluster Analysis.

Figure 2.

PCR.

Centre

de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le

développement

Conclusion

We created a new molecular tool to assure the determination of geographical origin of timbers.

The analysis of tropical timber fungal communities by PCR-DGGE could be applied to differentiate geographical locations and provide a unique biological bar code for timbers which make it possible to trace back the timbers to their original locations.

References

1. PURCHASING TROPICAL TIMBER, ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES. Available at:

http://www.sns.dk/udgivelser/2003/tropical/16022004_UK.pdf

2. ISO 9000/2005. Organisation Internationale de Normalisation. Systèmes de management de la qualité "Principes essentiels et vocabulaire". 3.5.4.

Traceability.

3. EL SHEIKHA, A., CONDUR, A., MÉTAYER, I., LE NGUYEN, D. D., LOISEAU, G.

MONTET, D. (2009). "DETERMINATION OF FRUIT ORIGIN BY USING 26S RDNA

FINGERPRINTING OF YEAST COMMUNITIES BY PCR-DGGE: PRELIMINARY APPLICATION TO

PHYSALIS FRUITS FROM EGYPT". YEAST, 26 (10): 567-573. AVAILABLE AT:

HTTP://WWW3.INTERSCIENCE.WILEY.COM/CGI-BIN/FULLTEXT/122607231/PDFSTART 4. EL SHEIKHA, A., MONTET, D. (2009). "An Improved molecular method to analyze the global fungal communities: The PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis". Journal of Microbiological Methods. (Submitted).

Figure 3. PCR-DGGE Profile.

Polynesia Limbali 5473

Ref. Central A. Rep. Ref.

Limbali 18865

Cameroon Teck 34090

Ivory Coast Teck 16476

Ivory C1 Ivory C2 Cam 1 Cam 2 CAR 1 CAR 2 Pol 1 Pol 2

80 85 90 95 100

Similarity

Ivory Coast

Cameroon

Central

African Republic Polynesia

Figure 4.

Factorial Analysis.

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