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Aurorae at Jupiter: Recent Findings

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AURORAE AT JUPITER: RECENT FINDINGS

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What is a satellite footprint?  The Io footprint is formed of  several spots  a trail Gérard et al. , 2006 3

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The Europa tail

 The Io footprint is not the only footprint to have a tail

4

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The multiple spots of the Ganymede footprint

Bonfond et al., MOP meeting, Boston, 2011

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Spots multiplicity evolution Bonfond et al., 2008 6 M AW TEB RA W

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Electron beam on Io

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Jacobsen et al., 2010 Williams et al., 2003

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System III spots brightness variations Sur fa ce m a g netic f ield (G a uss )

Io System III longitude (°)

 Influence of the magnetic field:

 Transmission through the torus boundary

 Electron acceleration process

 Altitude of the mirror point

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Ganymede footprint brightness variations

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Grodent et al., 2009  5 hours – System III

 Flapping of the current sheet  10-40 minutes

 Related ton injections?  100-seconds

 Bursty reconnections at Ganymede?  Double layer generation

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The whole story

 Heavy flux tubes

go out

Cowley and Bunce, 2001

 Emptied flux tubes go in

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Equatorial diffuse emissions

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Equatorial diffuse emissions

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Dawn storms

Clarke et al., 1998

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Dawn storms

 No apparent solar

wind trigger for them

Nichols et al., 2009 Compressed

magnetosphere

Expanded

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Dawn storms

 Color ratios up to 62

 E- energy above 400 keV

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Discontinuity

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Discontinuity

 Maps to the

pre-noon sector

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Brightness variations

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Brightness variations

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Magnetic field models Magnetic anomaly New model: 4th order multipole + dipole Grodent et al., 2008 22

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Magnetic field models

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Local time variations

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Main emission and GFP motion

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Main oval expansion

+250GWb according to VIPAL

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The usual case February 27th 2007

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An unusual case May 31th 2007

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Solar wind driven changes?

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Internally driven changes

 Tvashtar:

 Quiet since 2001

 Some signs of activity in 2006

 Giant plume in late February 2007

 Masubi:

 active in March 2007

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Sodium “Mendillosphere”

Yoneda et al., 2009

 Variability of the

plasma torus

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HOM emissions

Yoneda et al., 2013

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M and the main oval .

Nichols and Cowley,

2003

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M and the main oval

Nichols, 2011

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The polar dawn spots

 Duration: from 10 min to 1 hour

 Spatial dimensions: ~ 3000x1000 km

 Power: 1 Giga Watt

 Magnetically maps to the night and

predawn sectors

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The polar dawn spots

(Woch et al. 1998, Kronberg et al., 2007)

• 2-3 days re occurrence rate • Observed location (pre-dawn)

Radioti et al. 2008

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Quasi-periodic polar flares

Origin?

 Pulsed reconnections at the dayside magnetopause  Related to the high energy electron beams

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Polar auroral filaments

 Long-lived, quasi-sun-aligned polar auroral filaments

 Brightness of 100 kR

 Presumably map to the tail region, implying a relation to the tail dynamics.

Nichols et al., 2009

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UV-IR comparison

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