this use case the VPP concept is used in order to achieve active customer participation, by allowing the participation of DER and active loads in the market. The VPP is assumed to aggregate various types of DERs, both controllable (μCHPs, Diesel Generators, etc) and not-controllable (PVs, Wind Turbines etc), as well as storage (batteries, fuel cells etc) and flexible loads. Various VPPs are assumed to co-exist in the same market environment. The VPP Operator first requires forecasted values for energy consumption/production and for market prices. Using this information together with the VPP asset’s flexibility information it is possible to calculate the optimal bid to be placed in the wholesale market. After market closure the VPP Operator receives a day-ahead schedule to be implemented. After receiving the schedule the VPP Operator needs to schedule its operation and next optimally dispatch its units in real time. The dispatch takes place either by sending incentive signals to the participants or by exploiting specific flexibility contracts signed between DG Owners and the VPP Owner. It is possible though, because of the stochastic nature of consumption and RES production, for the VPP Operator (and other market players) not to be able to implement their contracted day-ahead energy output. To resolve this problem the intraday market initiates its operation right after the closure of the wholesale market. Actors place bids on excess and lack of energy. The VPP Operator computes the optimal intraday market bid and places it on the market platform. The market operator computes the new schedules and sends them back to the market participants. The VPP Operator optimally dispatches this new schedule.
2.2 Trusted sources prediction
This approach, already used by , is conceptually the simplest but rely on external (static) knowledge. As for the previous run, prediction is made at the image level, and an image is represented as the concatenation of every tweet (translated in English if needed) in which it appears. The prediction is made by detecting trustworthy sources in the image description. Two types of sources are searched: 1) a known news-related organism; 2) an explicit citation of the source of the image. For the first types, we gathered lists of press agencies in the world, newspapers (mostly French and English ones), news TV networks (French and English ones). For the second types, we manually defined some pat- terns, like photographed by + Name, captured by + Name, etc. Finally, an image is classified as fake by default, unless a trustworthy source is found in its text description.
In this Section, we present numerical validations made with ADAMS showing that the balancing system is able to compensate a variable payload. We will consider in the following of the Section that the robot is self-balanced by using one of the techniques of Section II. This assumption is made because the paper does not focus on the balancing of the robot itself (which is achieved trough the use of very common techniques which have already been validated in the past) but on the gravity-compensation obtained by the use of the adaptive module.
1. Context and objectives
For the fourth time this year, the University of Liège (BE) and the National school of architecture of Nancy (FR) have organized a distant collaborative architectural workshop, gathering students in architecture and engineering architecture from the two institutions. This workshop consists for teams of 3 to 5 students (composed of students of the two locations) in designing a particular building (given a set of specification) during 3 months, by collaborating remotely. The distant collaboration is supported by several tools: e-mails for asynchronous exchanges, videoconferencing, chat and phone for synchronous collaboration and two original settings : the Virtual Desktop, a collaborative multimodal environment and the CRTI-Web, a document management system specifically dedicated to architecture
tain the fractional heat equation in a unique space-time scaling limit bypassing the mesoscopic Boltzmann equation. The aim of this paper is to present a general method permitting, precisely, to solve this problem.
The model we consider in this paper has been introduced in  and presents strong analogies with the models described above. We believe, in fact, that with some extra work, the proof can be carried out also for the models of . The sys- tems of  can be described as follows. Let V and U be two non-negative poten- tials on R and consider the Hamiltonian system ( r ( t ) , p ( t ) ) t ≥0 , whose equations
Index Terms: speech synthesis, unit selection 1. Introduction
In recent years, research in text-to-speech synthesis essentially focused on two major approaches. The first one is the para- metric approach, for which HTS  and DNN-based systems  are now dominating the academic research in recent years. This method offers advanced control on the signal and produces very intelligible speech but with a low naturalness. The second approach, unit selection, is a refinement of concatenative syn- thesis [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Speech synthesized with this method features high naturalness and its prosodic quality is unmatched by other methods, as it basically concatenates speech actually produced by a human being.
As shown in Fig. 1, a test system based on the real time digital simulator is established in the study, which consists of the RTDS embed with the ODAC and GTDI cards , the analogue and thedigital interfacing module and the DSP (TMS320F28335). A microgrid system with the renewable generation is established and simulated in the RTDS. The analogue output is achieved through the on-board RTDS ODAC cards, which is responsible for converting thedigital values from the RTDS to the analogue outputs. The analogue and thedigital interfaces are used to connect the two hardware systems (the RTDS and the DSP). The function of the interfacing module is to process the output signals of the RTDS and the DSP and to make sure the input signals to each system are at the desired levels. The power management strategy and the HESS controller are implemented in the DSP. The DSP captures the analogue output signals from the ODAC card in RTDS and converts them to thedigital signal by using the embedded ADC module. Then, based on the measurement data from the RTDS, the DSP generates the control signals. The control algorithms are also debugged in the DSP board. The PWM pulses generated by the DSP are read by the RTDS through its GTDI card.
the hamiltonian nature of the equations these ODEs are integrable by quadrature. If g is not monotone (for example with a Van der Waals pressure law) all three types of interesting solu- tions exist (homoclinic, heteroclinic and periodic). In dimension one, the stability/unstability of such solutions is related to the notion of moment of instability from the seminal paper  of Grillakis-Shatah-Strauss. In the absence of global well-posedness result, only conditional stability was derived for the corresponding traveling waves. On this topic, we offer a small con- tribution with theorem B.4 which states that failure of the stability criterion from  implies nonlinear instability. For more details on planar traveling waves we refer to the rich review article .
Simulation techniques are also used to evaluate the consumption. For example,  proposed a flexible and modular simulation framework in which they model the whole production system with all the interdependencies and dynamics of involved technical equipment. In addition to the total amount of energy consumed, the authors were inter- ested in the load profile. This result is an important element to be considered when analysing energy costs, as energy is the only product which price increases when bought in big quantity. This is partly due to theenergy supply contract (e.g. pick surcharge and time-sensitive prices of electricity). Swedish Iron foundry used simulation in this way in order to cope with the rapidly increasing energy prices in Sweden  and plan the production in a more efficient way.
ographic area allowed public providers to set their own prices.
The price of healthcare (consultations, treatment, and medication) sky- rocketed. This disruption to the treatment supply was paired with an in-
21. John S. Akin, William H. Dow, Peter M. Lance and Chung-Ping A Loh, “Changes in Access to Health Care in China, 1989-1997,” Health Policy and Planning , Vol. 20, No. 2, 2005, pp. 80-89; Sarah L. Barber and Lan Yao, “Development and Status of Health Insurance Systems in China,” The Inter- national Journal of Health Planning and Management , Vol. 26, No. 4, 2011, pp. 339-356; Meng Qingyue and Tang Shenglan, “Universal Health Care Coverage in China: Challenges and Opportu- nities,” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences , Vol. 77, 2013, pp. 330-340; Hufeng Wang, “A Dilemma of Chinese Healthcare Reform: How to Re-define Government Roles?”, China Economic Review , Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 598-604; Hufeng Wang, Michael K. Gusmano, and Qi Cao, “An Evaluation of the Policy on Community Health Organizations in China: Will the Priority of New Healthcare Reform in China be a Success?”, Health Policy , Vol. 99, No. 1, 2011, pp. 37-43; Hong Liu, Song Gao, and John A. Rizzo, “The Expansion of Public Health Insurance and the Demand for Private Health Insurance in Rural China,” China Economic Review , Vol. 22, No. 1, 2011, pp. 28-41. 22. Xinqing Zhang and Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner, “Tensions between Medical Professionals and
detailed the environmental impact sector is. The limits for any fossil or renewable energy sources (i.e., questions 4 and 5) are not explicitly mentioned in the model’s documentation. Threshold 21 is particularly focused on the trade-offs and controversies between achieving different SDGs, looking for the best national sustainable development paths. The most valuable insights from the model’s simulation relate to identifying the best policy mixes for sustainable development by finding leverages for synergetic policy interventions for an integrated approach. Many of the leverages of this kind relate to energysystem development. However, since Threshold 21 is not an energysystem model, it does not answer specific energy-system-related questions. In particular, there are neither energy security aspects (i.e., question 6) nor short-term versus long-term energysystem developments (i.e., question 8) explicitly addressed in the model’s structure. In terms of policy impact, the model is widely used in developing countries as a tool for supporting sustainable development. Since the model has a strong national focus, it does not give insights on the connections between the national and international sustainable development (i.e., questions 10 and 11). In general, the structure of Threshold 21 is adaptable and customizable to a particular country’s needs and priorities additional questions related to the current energy paradigm can be addressed.
ring appropriate taxation of high-income house- holds. Although the politics are a major barrier to reform, the next president’s legacy may well be de- termined by how well he or she handles tax policy. A good tax system raises the revenues needed to finance government spending in a manner that is as simple, equitable, and growth-friendly as pos- sible. The United States does not have a good tax system. Long considered an outrageous affront by many observers, the U.S. tax system has gene- rated perennial calls for everything from minor tune-ups to comprehensive reform. There is mas- sive disagreement, however, about which issues are the most important and how they should be addressed.
most attractive place for entrepreneurship and business growth. Therefore, the Budget includes a detailed set of business tax reform proposals that form the basis of a broad reform that would achieve the following five goals: (1) cut the corpo- rate tax rate and pay for it by making structural reforms and eliminating loopholes and subsidies; (2) strengthen American manufacturing and in- novation; (3) strengthen the international tax system; (4) simplify and cut taxes for small busi- nesses; and (5) avoid adding to deficits in the short-term or the long-term. In addition to the elements of tax reform, the Budget includes other business tax proposals that close loopholes, im- prove compliance, and simplify the tax system. The Administration’s receipt proposals begin the process of reforming the Code to help address the challenges faced by working families. These pro- posals: (1) help make work pay by expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for workers without qualifying children and creating a new second earner credit; (2) reform and simplify tax incen- tives that help families save for retirement and pay for college and child care; and (3) reform capital gains taxation to eliminate a loophole that lets substantial capital gains income escape tax forever. They also reduce the deficit and make the tax system fairer by eliminating a number of tax loopholes and reducing tax bene- fits for higher-income taxpayers.
These results can now be compared with literature val- ues. Bakulin et al. [ 22 ] also studied oxygen solubility in the TiAl system using first-principles calculations. How- ever, they only considered five sites in their paper, labeled O1, O2, O3, O4 and T. Here is the site notation equiv- alence: O1=1c, O2=1b, O3=2e, O4=2f and T=4i. The 2h site was not taken into account, nor were the 4m and 4n sites. By analyzing their NEB calculations (see Fig. 1, Ref. [ 22 ]), a minimum can be identified in the path along O1-T, which should be the 2h site. Bakulin et al. explain that the O atom should occupy the O1 (1c) site and that the 1b and 2f sites are stable. This is in contra- diction with the present phonon results. However, from an energy standpoint, the insertion energy of their con- figurations are in agreement with our results. Wei et al. [ 23 ] briefly studied the insertion of oxygen into octahe- dral/tetrahedral sites, but they didn’t check whether the sites were stable or not, nor did they accurately describe the sites considered. They gave two energies for “octahe- dral sites”, -4.20 and -3.20 eV, which should correspond to 1c and 1b sites (or maybe the 2e and 2f sites).
While the impact of replication on performance might seem substantial, since the normal replication factor at which thesystem should run with is at least 3 or 4, the explanation lies on the replication scheme itself. In RAMCloud for each update request, a server will generate as many requests as its replication factor, e.g., if the replication factor is set to 4, upon receiving a request a server will generate 4 replication requests to other servers that have available backup service up and running. For every replication request a server sends, it has to wait for the acknowledgements from the backups before answering the client that issued the original request. This is crucial for providing strong consistency guarantees. Indeed, suppose a server can answer a client’s request as soon as it has processed it internally and sent the replication requests without waiting for acknowledgements, then in case of a failure of that specific server, the RAMCloud cluster can end up with different values of the same data.
Another way to find learner’s profile to organize and recommend course content is to exploit semantic net  or content ontology [21, 22]. Concerning the technological aspect, Web service technology may constitute an operational solution for implementing personalized learning approach and for the interoperability with other e-learning personalization systems . Bousbahi and Chorfia  propose a web-based application that provides suitable learning resources among M OOCs providers based on the learner’s expressed interests. Thesystem is similar to the generic Case-Based Reasoning problem solving system including the four steps: retrieve, reuse, adapt and retain . The process starts with a problem and tries to find similar cases from the case base to suggest relevant solutions or adapt solutions to better solve the new problem and terminates by retaining the new case. In Verbert and al. , authors discuss the importance of contextual information that refers to the learner’s environment. They construct a classification of context information in technology enhanced learning (TEL) by combining existing context definitions and adapting them to TEL. They outline 8 dimensions: computing, location, time, physical conditions, activity, resource, user, social relations. In Draschsler and al. , authors propose a complete classification of recommender systems supporting technology -enhanced learning (TEL RecSys). They suggest 7 exclusive clusters: (i) TEL RecSys following collaborative filtering approaches; (ii) TEL RecSys that propose improvements to collaborative filtering approaches to consider particularities of the TEL domain; (iii) TEL RecSys that consider explicitly educational constraints as a source of information for the recommendation process; (iv) TEL RecSys that explore other alternatives to collaborative filtering approaches; (v) T EL RecSys that consider contextual information within TEL scenarios to improve the recommendation process; (vi) TEL RecSys that assess the educational impact of the recommendations delivered; and (vii) TEL RecSys that focus on recommending courses. To the best of our knowledge, there does not exist an agent -based recommender system following collaborative filtering approaches and supporting technology -enhanced learning (first cluster of the  ’s classification). Thus, in this paper, we introduce such a
system of cultural expression was, however, concerned only with the relation of art to technology and science, but not to the social sciences such as economics.
Mel Chin’s work in early 1990’s exemplified new developments of art’s more comprehensive relation to broader systems such as ecology and economics. Chin’s work, directly considering the environmental, political, and economic aspects of site, is effective not only as social commentary but also in producing direct change for the communities he works with. In the project Revival Field, working with scientists, Chin brings together sculpture and environmental technology to create a cleaning system— through “hyperaccumulators”--for areas contaminated by dangerous levels of heavy metals. Although such works are powerful at the moment of action, as long-term solutions they can easily become merely suggestive as subordinated by the prevalence of the very forces they resist.
Stockage d’énergie sous forme d’énergie potentielle de l’air comprimé
Le stockage d’énergie sous forme d’énergie potentielle de l’air comprimé (CAES, d’après le nom anglais : Compressed-Air Energy Storage) constitue une autre alternative, apparue un peu plus tard. Cette technologie de stockage comporte un grand réservoir souterrain, bien étanche, où l’on peut stocker de l’air comprimé. En fonction de la demande, l’air comprimé est délivré à une turbine à gaz entraînant un générateur électrique. Ainsi, l’énergie potentielle de l’air comprimé est transformée en énergie électrique. Le premier CAES commercial a été réalisé en Allemagne à Hundorf, en 1978, et peut fournir 290 MW. Comme pour le stockage hydraulique, la construction des CAES est conditionnée aux contraintes géographiques et géologiques. Toutefois, il y a déjà plusieurs CAES construits en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, en utilisant d’anciennes mines de charbon ou de sel, de vieux puits de pétrole et des cavernes souterraines étanches.
• Objective : filter the information contained in the full connected graph • All the nodes of the graph are spanned, with no loops
• Result: links of the MST are a subset of the initial graph • The information space is reduced from (N(N-1)/2) to (N-1) • In this study : shortest path linking all nodes