Haut PDF First step towards the new SPIRAL2 project control system

First step towards the new SPIRAL2 project control system

First step towards the new SPIRAL2 project control system

the neutrons therefore produced initiate a fission process on a Uranium carbide target, with a fission rate from 5.10 13 to 10 14 fissions/second. The fission products are transferred to an ion source from which they are extracted (1+ beam) and transported to a 1+/N+ charge booster. The second production cave, (a "yellow" production module cave being a medium radioactive zone), mainly dedicated to other types of reactions (ion beams on different targets, fusion- evaporation, transfer reactions) will allow to generate a 1+ rare ions beam also sent to the charge booster. The N+ rare ions are therefore transported either to the new low energy cave named DESIR or to the existing so-called CIME cyclotron post accelerating the beam finally sent to the Ganil experimental area. This last point clearly shows that the existing Ganil machine will be tightly coupled with the new Spiral2 project and this point has to be taken into account for the control system design and implementation.
En savoir plus

4 En savoir plus

Preliminary implementation for the new SPIRAL2 project control system

Preliminary implementation for the new SPIRAL2 project control system

P. Graehling, J. Hosselet, C. Maazouzi, C. Olivetto (CNRS-IPHC / Strasbourg, France) Abstract The Spiral2 project consists of a new facility to provide high intensity rare ions beams. It is based on a primary beam driver accelerator (RFQ followed by a superconducting linac) and a rare ion production process delivering the beam either to a low energy experimental area or to the existing Ganil facility. From October this year, one ion source coupled with a first beam line section will be in test; then, the injector (ion and deuteron sources, RFQ) will be tested by the end of 2010 so the whole accelerator should be commissioned by the end of 2011; the first exotic beams being planned one year later. The accelerator control system design results from the collaboration between several institutes and Epics has been chosen as the basic framework. The paper therefore presents the main choices: MVME5500 CPUs, VME I/O boards, VxWorks, Siemens PLCs, Modbus field buses, EDM screens and Java applications, Linux PCs, use of a LabView/Epics gateway… Specific topics are the evaluation of the XAL environment, an Epics design to address the power supplies, an emittance measurement system, the development of a beam profiler interface and the investigation for a triggered acquisition system.
En savoir plus

4 En savoir plus

Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

A recent statement by the DemocratizingWork initiative, signed by over 3000 researchers from 650 universities, calls for the strengthening of work councils and the different forms of codetermination (“mitbestimmung”) put in place after World War II [ 138 ]. Further, a recent poll found strong support for work councils and codetermination among workers who also expressed a significant power imbalance in relation to their employers [ 139 ]. This aligns with the fact that U.S. workers wish to have an actual say on core business strategies (such as the quality of goods and services provided by a firm, employer values, and the adoption, and potential impact, that new technologies can have on jobs) and not only on wages, working conditions, and benefits [ 140 ]. This shared-governance system is attractive because it does not have a high price tag and it is free-market-esque in nature, as no government officials are involved [ 141 ]. Also, giving workers a seat on the board can be viewed as a vehicle for wealth redistribution and it represents a shift from shareholder to stakeholder capitalism. This commitment to stakeholders was supported in August 2019 by a statement issued by the Business Roundtable redefining the purpose of a corporation. When adopting codetermination, a few key details need to be considered. For instance, work councils should be mandated rather than being voluntary because these committees are likely to stop operating in times of hardship [ 142 ]. Work councils should also not be viewed as a replacement for unions and collective bargaining, but rather a complement that allows firm-level matters to be addressed [ 142 ].
En savoir plus

37 En savoir plus

Objectives and first results of the CECOFAD project

Objectives and first results of the CECOFAD project

For the Indian Ocean, Chassot et al., (2014) combined 3 three data sources with the aim to describe the use of DFADs and buoys by the French purse seiners over the last decade. First, archives of buoy purchase orders during 2002-2014 were provided by fishing companies so as to give insight into the historical use of DFADs. Second, information derived from satellite transmission data was made available for the period 2010-2013 based on quarterly reports that are produced by buoy supplier companies on a vessel basis. Third, activities related to DFAD and buoys have been included into purse seiner logbooks since 2013. With the aim to have some elements of comparison with the Atlantic Ocean only the purchase orders information was considered. The number of buoys available by French purse seiner increased by an average rate of about 10 units per year over the last decade (i.e., the median number of buoys per vessel increased from 60 in 2002 to 200 in 2014; Figure 4). With regards to technological changes, as mentioned for the Atlantic Ocean for the French fleet (no information on this aspect has been provided yet for the Spanish fleet) there was a quick change from a combination of HF radio and GPS to a single GPS system in 2007-2008 (Figure 5). In addition to this evolution towards modern buoys, due to the lack of potential independent control the use of HF buoys was definitively prohibited by the French tuna association Orthongel in 2012. Echo-sounder buoys have started to be used by the French fleet in the Indian Ocean since 2011.
En savoir plus

16 En savoir plus

The ELEKTRA project: Towards a new learning experience

The ELEKTRA project: Towards a new learning experience

Figure 11. A proposal for the design process for educational games. The ELEKTRA project aims for addressing these problems and to establish a methodology for state-of-the-art educational game design and to provide the related technology. Figure 11 summarizes ELEKTRA’s methodological approach to design educational games. To align an educational game with curricula and contents, in a first step existing national curricula for a given learning topic must be identified and analyzed. On this basis learning objects can be defined in detailed referring to pedagogical models and taxonomies (e.g., 8LEM or Bloom’s taxonomy). Moreover, learning topic and curriculum determine the game genre and, subsequently, the background story which covers the educational aim. As Van Eck [79] pointed out, not all types of games are suitable for each educational aim and it is an important question to clarify which game types are suitable for which learning topic. In a next step an ontology of the knowledge domain must be established, including skills in a sufficiently fine granularity and prerequisite relations among these skills. Third, learning and assessment situations must be developed according to the learning objectives and the game genre. This task might be the most difficult one since it requires creativity and fantasy. Finally, story telling and game design must meld these components into a immersive and motivating game.
En savoir plus

29 En savoir plus

The ALASKA Steganalysis Challenge: A First Step Towards Steganalysis "Into The Wild"

The ALASKA Steganalysis Challenge: A First Step Towards Steganalysis "Into The Wild"

The first challenge in Steganalysis occurred in 2010 with Break Our Steganographic System (BOSS) [1] and the goal of this chal- lenge was to minimize the probability of error (the sum of false positives and false negatives) on a testing base of 1000 images bal- anced with Cover and Stego contents. All images came from RAW images after the same development pipeline, they were downscaled to 512 × 512 and eventually converted to gray-scale to end-up with uncompressed PGM files. Steganographic images were generated using a single embedding scheme, namely HUGO [28], with a fixed embedding rate of 0.4 Bits per Pixel (bpp). The BOSS contest enabled to benchmark the security of one of the first scheme using adaptive costs, and, above all, allow the development of new discrimina- tive features sets [10, 17] and specific classifiers that can deal very high dimensional feature sets [27] (up to 34.671 for SRM). Note that this challenge was designed to benchmark HUGO in a worst case scenario, since the participants, following the Kerckhoffs’ prin- ciple, knew everything about the image generation process, the embedding rate, as well as the steganographic scheme.
En savoir plus

14 En savoir plus

Analysing web data-bases.
Towards new AI inquiries.
First results of the Webstand ANR project on W3C

Analysing web data-bases. Towards new AI inquiries. First results of the Webstand ANR project on W3C

1.2. Bypassing common sociological uses of data bases When using databases, sociologists usually face two ranges of problems: the lack of control of their tool, and the technical limits which slow down the evolution of their work. The first range of problems is the lack of control, ranging from usual difficulties in the learning process to legal and intellectual problems which affect databases already constructed and filled. In this last case, working with available databases is of course time-consuming: Quite often, researchers are not allowed to enrich the data, and are seriously constrained by predefined categories (such as the schema of the database) they might not need or like. For example, studying childcare arrangements in France could lead to deal with lone parents as a category even though this category is not well defined by homogeneous criteria, and despite the fact that this category will not exist in older databases; therefore longitudinal approaches of childcare arrangements are difficult (Martin, Vion, 2001). Indeed, the main reason sociologists use such databases is the need to share time and their inability to construct a database from scratch. Of course, since database management has become a disciplinary field by itself, one should not ask sociologists to become experts in this field. But the main result is that few of them are able to elaborate a database that would be more sophisticated than a simple
En savoir plus

28 En savoir plus

Validation of a new fluidic device for mechanical stimulation and characterization of microspheres: A first step towards cartilage characterization

Validation of a new fluidic device for mechanical stimulation and characterization of microspheres: A first step towards cartilage characterization

5 characterization of cartilage micropellets has been poorly investigated. We recently showed that compression of micropellets between two planar surfaces allowed to measure their global mechanical properties at different time points during differentiation (Dusfour et al., 2020). The increase of stiffness was correlated to the production of cartilage ECM components as measured at the molecular level. Similar data were previously obtained using the same micropellet culture model and hydrostatic pressure stimulation during 14 days (Miyanishi et al., 2006). Two other studies reported the zonal variation of elastic modulus in cartilage micropellets obtained after 14 day culture of expanded human nasal chondrocytes and after 21 day differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells using atomic force microscopy. However, one limitation of this technique is the need to use cryosections of micropellets and the inability to measure the mechanical properties overtime on the same micropellets. Finally, mechanical stimulation of chondrocytes embedded in collagen microspheres by compression between two planar surfaces has also been reported (Au-yeung et al., 2009). This method applies strain and stress that depend on the size of the microspheres and is not appropriate to determine the impact of stimulation amplitude on the mechanical properties of multiple spheres at a time. The reasons are that such cartilage microspheres are small, variable in size and exhibit an imperfect round shape. Therefore, compression of micropellets in a fluidic system would probably be the best method for the most accurate stimulation of multiple spheres at a time, which has never been reported to date, and the characterization of their mechanical properties.
En savoir plus

35 En savoir plus

Classification of adult cattle infectious diseases: A first step towards prioritization of biosecurity measures

Classification of adult cattle infectious diseases: A first step towards prioritization of biosecurity measures

abortions (Shaapan, 2016). Its inclusion in the list depends on the objectives and foreseen usage of the disease classification exercise. Out of the 48 diseases, 25 are nonnotifiable but of major impor- tance in Belgium due to their economic impact and /or high occur- rence. Nineteen of them were not considered as important by the previous prioritization exercises while relevant in Belgian adult cattle. This additional list could guide the decision makers for future control programs as these diseases are a major concern for cattle holders. The six diseases identified as important by the three data sources are covering the different diseases transmission pathways, therefore the proper implementation of their related BSM (Table 4) should improve the prevention and control of the majority of other cattle diseases. Based on the transtheoretical model of behaviour change, as well as other theories and existing models (Armitage, 2009; Mase, Gramig, & Prokopy, 2017; Morris, Marzano, Danady, & O 'Brien, 2012; Prochaska & Diclemente, 1983), the “possible personal bene- fits ” is a constant key factor motivating the adoption of new beha- viour. Therefore, identifying the risk factors and associated biosecurity measures related to the six diseases with a high or signif- icant disease index could be used to improve the technical guidance for farmers and better answer their main concerns. Once the farmer has engaged into a behaviour change and is convinced of the effi- ciency and relevance of biosecurity, the introduction of additional measures will be accepted easily. As the six most important diseases to consider cover all the possible transmission pathways, future researches should focus on the BSM prioritization based on their level of implementation and acceptation by the herders, their feasi- bility and their cost ‐effectiveness in terms of disease(s) prevention. In order to ensure the acceptability of the BSM to be prioritized by the farmers a participative approach in recommended in order to take into account the farmers opinions, perceptions, and expertise on the topic.
En savoir plus

15 En savoir plus

Detection System of the First Rapidly Relocatable Tagged Neutron Inspection System (RRTNIS), Developed in the Framework of the European H2020 C-BORD Project

Detection System of the First Rapidly Relocatable Tagged Neutron Inspection System (RRTNIS), Developed in the Framework of the European H2020 C-BORD Project

Abstract The European project entitled “effective Container inspection at BORDer control points” (C-BORD) focuses on the development and in-situ tests of a comprehensive cost-effective solution for the generalized Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) of containers and large-volume freight at the European Union (EU) border. It copes with a large range of targets, including explosives, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs, tobacco and Special Nuclear Materials. Within the C-BORD project, a new generation of Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) for cargo containers is foreseen. Unlike its predecessors, this system would be the first Rapidly Relocatable TNIS (RRTNIS). It will be a second-line defense system, to be used on sealed containers in order to detect explosives, illicit drugs and chemical agents in a suspect voxel (elementary volume unit). We report on the status of the RRTNIS system, in particular the overall design, the characterization of the large-volume NaI(Tl) gamma detectors, the digital analysis of the time measurements and the Data Acquisition System (DAQ).
En savoir plus

7 En savoir plus

Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and Towards Sustainability

A recent statement by the DemocratizingWork initiative, signed by over 3000 researchers from 650 universities, calls for the strengthening of work councils and the different forms of codetermination (“mitbestimmung”) put in place after World War II [ 138 ]. Further, a recent poll found strong support for work councils and codetermination among workers who also expressed a significant power imbalance in relation to their employers [ 139 ]. This aligns with the fact that U.S. workers wish to have an actual say on core business strategies (such as the quality of goods and services provided by a firm, employer values, and the adoption, and potential impact, that new technologies can have on jobs) and not only on wages, working conditions, and benefits [ 140 ]. This shared-governance system is attractive because it does not have a high price tag and it is free-market-esque in nature, as no government officials are involved [ 141 ]. Also, giving workers a seat on the board can be viewed as a vehicle for wealth redistribution and it represents a shift from shareholder to stakeholder capitalism. This commitment to stakeholders was supported in August 2019 by a statement issued by the Business Roundtable redefining the purpose of a corporation. When adopting codetermination, a few key details need to be considered. For instance, work councils should be mandated rather than being voluntary because these committees are likely to stop operating in times of hardship [ 142 ]. Work councils should also not be viewed as a replacement for unions and collective bargaining, but rather a complement that allows firm-level matters to be addressed [ 142 ].
En savoir plus

38 En savoir plus

First step towards a Devil's Staircase in Spin Crossover materials First step towards Devil's Staircase in Spin Crossover materials

First step towards a Devil's Staircase in Spin Crossover materials First step towards Devil's Staircase in Spin Crossover materials

Figure 1. Electronic states of the Fe ion (left) and crystal structure of the 2D metallothiocyanate Fe(II)-Hg(II) SCO coordination polymer. The ANNNI model, Anisotropic Next Nearest Neighbours Interactions, is an extension of the Ising model, which explains the formation of such modulated commensurate and incommensurate structures in crystals. [8] The concept of Devil's staircase was then theoretically introduced to explain the rich sequence of steps during the transformation of a system, as the on-site field h (or T) changes (Figure 2). [9] Each step corresponds to a long-period commensurate structure, whose spatial modulation of states (represented by + or  ) is associated with a wavevector Q locked onto a rational number n/m. Between any two steps there is an infinity of steps, since between any two rational numbers there is an infinity of rational numbers. That's the reason why this sequence of phases is called the Devil's staircase. It appears in a vast variety of systems with states + or  of different nature, including charge or spin density waves, atomic concentration waves in alloys, ferroelectric materials or spin-valve systems. Such nanostructures open the possibility to create completely new electronic functionalities for technological applications. [10] Here we report on the incomplete Devil's staircase during the SCO of the new metallothiocyanate Fe(II)-Hg(II) 2D coordination polymer {Fe[(Hg(SCN) 3 ) 2 ](4,4’bipy) 2 } n (1) as commensurate and
En savoir plus

7 En savoir plus

Towards a Performance Measurement System to Control Disaster Response

Towards a Performance Measurement System to Control Disaster Response

A crisis can be defined as a complex and dynamic phenomenon, which constitutes a threat for the survival of an organization and its members, which gives short time to react and which leads to an adaptation of the system [18]. This definition underlines the fact that it is necessary to make decisions in emergency. However, it introduces a new element: the dynamic aspect of a crisis. A crisis situation is rarely fixed, it changes all the time. Obviously, its management is made more difficult. This study is focused on sudden crises, i.e. we do not deal with pandemic or durable economic crises, for example.
En savoir plus

9 En savoir plus

Formalization of an Integrated System/Project Design Framework: First Models and Processes

Formalization of an Integrated System/Project Design Framework: First Models and Processes

The most important results of this benchmark can be summarized as follow: all the interviewed companies are confronted to this coupling problem but they have not implemented specific tools in order to support this process. Most of the time, the coupling is performed by means of non-formalized human interactions even some companies use procedures or make decisions based on human experience. However, only 18% of companies use softwares or collaborative tools. The major- ity of companies (50%) makes integrated decisions during meeting involving the different stakeholders. The use of standards or reference scenarios is also used by the most advanced of them. It concerns the use of generic models for designing different categories of systems or the reusing of capitalized design solutions into databases. Furthermore, complexity of systems and projects is increasing. Indeed, in a distributed multi-national context, the design of a system is often realized in several sites with several partners. So, the use of adapted and integrated tools to manage these complex design projects is becoming a requirement for them. These tools have to be adapted to multi-responsibilities projects.
En savoir plus

12 En savoir plus

A new low intensity beam profiler for SPIRAL2

A new low intensity beam profiler for SPIRAL2

signal of the electrons exited the MCPs is read using one X-Y matrix of 47 strips with 1 mm pitch. Figure 1: general view of the EFM head. The circular active detection area has a diameter of 42 mm. The matrix board is composed of 500 µm x 500 µm pixels connected alternatively to make X and Y strips (see figure 2). These strips are connected via a Flex Kapton cable to a digital electronic acquisition system developed at GANIL of 2 x 47 channels. Each channel integrates the charge of the associated strip in a capacitor and performs a current-voltage conversion
En savoir plus

4 En savoir plus

First steps towards a full integrated cad system for electrical machines

First steps towards a full integrated cad system for electrical machines

The first task which is generally run interactively by the user must be analysed carefully before developing an automatic procedure of the definition of magnetic problem. First the user defines the geometry of the device by means of a graphie interface. In this step the user enters the coordinates of some key points and from these points builds the lines that give shape to the studied magnetic structure. After defining the geometry, the materials chosen from a material library are introduced and linked with the appropriate part of the mode!. In a 2D fini te element code each part consists of a closed area delimited by lines defined themselves by key points. In the case of electrical machines, the parts can be made of: non magnetic materials (air gap, slots), magnetic materials (teeth) or magnetized materials (permanent magnets). Tuen the user enters the sources of magnetic fields by describing the winding of the machine. In the fourth step the boundary conditions are specified and the user must fix the cutting out of some Iines in order to define the meshing of some parts of the structure. Depending on the calculation to be run, specific meshing is necessary to improve the accuracy of the results. At the end of this task ail the data entered by the user are stored in a file that we can call a premesh file. In the finite element code EFCAD[3], which is available and developed in our laboratory, the data in this premesh file can be parametered by the key points on which ail the data are connected. The structure of these data can be seen on Figure 1.
En savoir plus

7 En savoir plus

Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) ? a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) ? a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

A second useful example for a box-model is the re-discretization tool NCREGRID. NCREGRID allows the transformation of 2D and 3D gridded geo-data between arbi- 20 trary resolutions. A more detailed description of NCREGRID will be published else- where (J ¨ockel, 2004, manuscript in preparation). The same code which is used for the box-model (i.e. the “o ffline” re-discretization tool NCREGRID) is used in the GCM/ESM as data import interface (which is coded as a generic submodel, see Appendix A) for the import of initial and boundary conditions in arbitrary resolutions.
En savoir plus

29 En savoir plus

Academic librarians and searchers: A new collaboration sets the path towards research project success

Academic librarians and searchers: A new collaboration sets the path towards research project success

Yet, it is not the same thing to describe a child’s drawing and audio visual records, or a youth album. Each material has its own specificity. In the case of child drawing description, the interpretation starts with a close attention paid to « manifest » signs. According to the Brauner’s, the reading of the drawing may also be helped by the commentaries or the speech inserted within them. Moreover, drawings reflect what children hear or see around them. « All these drawings show violence in action, different forms of war, the rise of fear, » but also plenty of details related to their everyday life. Looking at these drawings, we may ask: « How could children plunged in situations of emergency, of bombings, see so many details? » To dress a common framework of analysis of these drawings, we have chosen to use the nine main themes that the Brauner have selected in order to classify them.
En savoir plus

8 En savoir plus

The VORTEX project: first results and perspectives

The VORTEX project: first results and perspectives

ABSTRACT Vortex coronagraphs are among the most promising solutions to perform high contrast imaging at small angular separations from bright stars. They feature a very small inner working angle (down to the diffraction limit of the telescope), a clear 360 degree discovery space, have demonstrated very high contrast capabilities, are easy to implement on high-contrast imaging instruments, and have already been extensively tested on the sky. Since 2005, we have been designing, developing and testing an implementation of the charge-2 vector vortex phase mask based on concentric sub-wavelength gratings, referred to as the Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM). Science-grade mid-infrared AGPMs were produced in 2012 for the first time, using plasma etching on synthetic diamond substrates. They have been validated on a coronagraphic test bench, showing broadband peak rejection up to 500:1 in the L band, which translates into a raw contrast of about 6 × 10 −5 at 2λ/D. Three of them have now been installed on world-leading diffraction-limited infrared cameras, namely VLT/NACO, VLT/VISIR and LBT/LMIRCam. During the science verification observations with our L-band AGPM on NACO, we observed the beta Pictoris system and obtained unprecedented sensitivity limits to planetary companions down to the diffraction limit (0.1 00 ). More recently, we obtained new images of the HR 8799 system at L band during the AGPM first light on LMIRCam. After reviewing these first results obtained with mid-infrared AGPMs, we will discuss the short- and mid-term goals of the on-going VORTEX project, which aims to improve the performance of our vortex phase masks for future applications on second-generation high-contrast imager and on future extremely large telescopes (ELTs). In particular, we will briefly describe our current efforts to improve the manufacturing of mid-infrared AGPMs, to push their operation to shorter wavelengths, and to provide deeper starlight extinction by creating new designs for higher topological charge vortices. Within the VORTEX project, we also plan to develop new image processing techniques tailored to coronagraphic images, and to study some pre- and post-coronagraphic concepts adapted to the vortex coronagraph in order to reduce scattered starlight in the final images.
En savoir plus

9 En savoir plus

Full-waveform redatuming via a TRAC approach: a first step towards target oriented inverse problem

Full-waveform redatuming via a TRAC approach: a first step towards target oriented inverse problem

As it is well known, a large number of iterations in the least square prob- lem may decrease the quality of the approximate solution. It is the so-called semi-convergence of the iterative algorithm for solving ill-posed problems with noise in the data. Semi-convergence means that, initially, the iteration vectors approach the noiseless solution while continuing iterations lead to the solu- tion contaminated by noise, see the discussion in [18]. In Fig. 7, we plot the convergence history of the cost function (19) minimized by the conjugate gra- dient method for the Neumann-ls and TRAC-ls methods with different levels of noise: 0%, 2% and 20%. As expected the Neumann-ls method exhibits a semi- convergence behavior: the higher the noise level, the more problematic the behavior is. Interestingly enough, the TRAC-ls method does not suffer from this problem. In this case, the convergence curves for several levels of noise are almost on top of each other. This is true even not only for a low level of noise (2%) but also for a high level of noise (20%). This could be related to the robustness of the TRAC method with respect to noise in the data, see [1, 10].
En savoir plus

21 En savoir plus

Show all 10000 documents...