( 6 ) Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit` a di Napoli “Federico II” - Complesso Universitario di
Monte S. Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli, Italy
received 10 January 2017
Summary. — In this conference proceeding we introduce the last results obtained by theINDRACollaboration. Those results will be better explained and more detailed in the following report presentations of this issue and just a brief overview will be mentionned here, with only the main conclusions addressed. This summary is divided into two parts. The ﬁrst one is devoted to systematic studies on heavy-ion collisions around Fermi energy with theINDRA multidetector array. Analyses of nuclear reactions in term of dissipation, reaction mechanisms, decay modes, isospin diﬀusion, excitation energy and calorimetry will be discussed. This has been done thanks to the large INDRA data base, collected over most than twenty years now. The second part of this proceeding concerns analyses of data with a speciﬁc set-up: INDRA coupled with the VAMOS spectrometer. Complementary studies with full determination of all the particles event by event (Z, A, E, θ, φ) has been performed to access important parameters like symmetry energy, level density parameters, full decay channels (partitions), E ∗ , temperature wich are the main ingredients in the decay of hot heavy ions.
Origins of volatile elements (H, C, N, noble gases) on Earth and Mars in light of recentresultsfromthe
ROSETTA cometary mission
Bernard Marty, Guillaume Avice, Yuji Sano, Kathrin Altwegg, Hans Balsiger, Myrtha Hässig, Alessandro Morbidelli, Olivier Mousis, Martin Rubin
The last layer excavated so far represents at least two different occupational sequences, as suggested by the overlapping living structures. This older Gravettian (Gravettian layer 2) belongs to the sandy-loess deposit at the bottom of the stratigraphic col- umn (unit 5). A radiocarbon date of 26,070 ± 340 uncal. BP (Beta 206707) has recently become available for this layer. We have only exposed a small part of a larger habitat structure, ap- parently delimited by large pebbles around a simple shallow excavated hearth (Fig. 9), still ﬁlled with charcoal, ashes, burnt lithics and bone fragments. While the fauna (also reindeer) is de- graded, the density of lithics is important, rising to 3,225 pieces. The assemblage is largely made of siliceous sandstone (48.77%) and black schist (12.80%); the tools, cores and few by-products typical for the ﬁnal stages of the debitage sequence are mostly of Cretaceous ﬂint (17.15%).
Indeed on all currently operating radio detection arrays, only the horizontal polarizations are measured, either directly along NS and EW directions or later projected on these axes. This allows reconstructing the vertical electric ﬁeld component provided that the far-ﬁeld as- sumption is valid, but although strong hints based on the theories of air shower radio emission tend to sup- port this hypothesis (the main component should be the transverse current due to the separation of charges in the geomagnetic ﬁeld), the latter has never been experimen- tally veriﬁed. Several attempts for measuring directly the vertical component of the E-ﬁeld have been made but no convincing results have been shown, probably due to the low performances of the antennas used by now. We chose to reconsider the problem and to use 3 regular Butterﬂy antennas equipped with the LON- AMOS LNA, rotated twice around the NS and vertical axes (Fig. 3). Triggered by the particle de- tector, the 3 signals are recorded with the same type of electronics as for the standalone stations. We have now to properly deconvolve it together with the regular autonomous station signals recorded at the same time, to derive conclusions about the initial hypothesis.
measurements (~120 days/yr on average over the last 20 years)
• Remote operation of the Bruker instrument is operational since late 2008 [design and implementation by Ch. Servais, ULg] => opt. obs. statistics
• In addition, grating mid-resolution spectra recorded essentially from 1976 to 1989 are also available, they cover narrow IR intervals specifically selected to include lines of HCl, HF, CH 4 , N 2 O…
The experimental investigations in the 8 He+ 65 Cu system showed that it was not possible to obtain indi- vidual differential cross sections for 1n- and 2n- trans- fer not only due to the low beam intensity, but also due to the complex structure of 8 He, suggesting that al- ternative experimental approaches were required. The off-beam measurements in the 8 He+ 197 Au system un- expectedly revealed significant cross sections for the 2n transfer residue 199 Au in the 8 He+ 197 Au system (as compared to the non-observation of the 67 Cu residue in the 8 He+ 65 Cu system). This observation gave an unique opportunity to derive from these integral cross sections a lower limit on the ratio of two- and one- neutron transfer cross sections (σ 2n /σ 1n ) for 8 He . The difference of the survival probability between 2n transfer residues 67 Cu and 199 Au was qualitatively ex- plained using simple calculations of the density of 2n states populated in target-like nuclei in two neutrons transfer. A lower limit of σ 2n /σ 1n > 0.3 was obtained, representing a first constrain for reaction models in order to understand the role of pairing correlations between loosely bound nucleons in 8 He.
is a solution of the form m(x, t) = f (x/ √ T − t) for (x, t) ∈ R N × (−∞, T ), for certain profile
f : R N −→ S 2 . Expanders evolve from a singular value at time T , while shrinkers evolve towards
a singular value at time T .
Self-similar solutions have brought a lot of attention in the study on nonlinear PDEs because they can provide some important information about the dynamics of the equation. While expanders are related to nonuniqueness phenomena, resolution of singularities and long time description of solutions, shrinkers are often related to phenomena of singularity formation (see e.g. [52, 42]). On the other hand, the construction and understanding of the dynamics and properties of self-similar solutions also provide an idea of which are the natural spaces to develop a well-posedness theory, that captures these very often physically relevant structures. Examples of equations for which self-similar solutions have been considered, and a substantial work around these types of solutions has been done, include among others the Navier–Stokes equation, semilinear parabolic equations, and geometric flows such as Yang-Mills, mean curvature flow and harmonic map flow. We refer to [66, 96] and the references therein for more details.
To this end, the commission is creatively using EU state aid rules to maintain a level playing field among member states. Since 2015 it has ordered Ireland to recover €13 billion of state aid from Apple and issued decisions against the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the United Kingdom, ordering the recovery of an additional €2 billion. There are ongoing investigations against the Netherlands and Luxembourg. These cases have concerned companies such as ENGIE, Amazon, IKEA, and Nike.
Weak Consistency. Let (N, C, x) be a cost-sharing problem such that C (z) = c( P iMN z i ) for all z. Then ) i (N, C, x) = (x i / P jMN x j )C(x) for all
i 5 N.
Weak Consistency is intuitive from an ethical viewpoint. Perhaps more importantly, it is necessary and su!cient to rule out certain natural strate- gic maneuvers. In a context where demands cannot easily be traced to their actual consumers, a coalition of agents may contemplate merging into a sin- gle large consumer whose demand is the sum of the individual demands; dually, a single agent may split his demand between a number of “virtual” consumers. It is well known that when all goods are perfect substitutes, the only cost-sharing method for which such merging or splitting tactics are never proﬁtable is the proportional method: see for instance Moulin (2002) or, for a more comprehensive treatment, Ju, Miyagawa, and Sakai (2005).
The B A B AR detector is described in detail elsewhere 6 . The tracking system is composed of a
cylindrical drift chamber (DCH) and a silicon vertex tracker (SVT), both operating in a 1.5- T solenoidal magnetic field. Charged particle identification is performed using a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector (DIRC) and dE/dx information from tracking detectors. Electrons and photons are identified and their energy measured with a CsI electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC). Muons and neutral hadrons are identified in the instrumented flux return (IFR).
3 3D Track Reconstruction
The CCD cameras image a 2D projection (in the x-y plane) of a 3D track. In principle, however, the extent of the track in the z-direction (referred to as ∆z) is correlated with the temporal duration of an event as the ionized electrons arrive at the amplification region. This idea has been pursued previously (see e.g. Fetal et al. 2007 for a demonstration of PMT-based 3D tracking of ∼5 MeV alpha particles from a 241 Am source). Here, the ∆z reconstruction was performed in two ways:
Engraved plaques have also been found in Belgian Magdalenian contexts, often figurative and sometimes with abstract incised lines (possibly due to butchery rather than representing art), and including Trou Da Somme. Engraved plaques at Chaleux depict aurochs and reindeer, a plaque from Frontal depicts a bison, and an engraved reindeer antler from Nutons also depicts a bison, among other motifs (see Lejeune 1987). Two refitted fragments of an engraved plaquette were recovered from Trou Da Somme (Fig. 10). The dra- wing shows the left side of an animal with the front and back limbs and a series of curved lines represen- ting the hair coat hanging fromthe belly. A series of four rectilinear lines is directed toward the rear limb, one of which is in contact with the limb and another which crosses it. Initial interpretation considered the engraving to represent a rhinoceros or bison rather than aurochs, a caprid, equid or mammoth (Lejeune 1993). However, a more recent interpretation takes into account zooarchaeological criteria and rejects interpretation as rhinoceros or bison: rhinoceros because this species has three digits on the fore- and hind limbs and a marked convex ventral line and bison because it has shorter hair and the ratio between bison limb and body length is disproportionate with that depicted (López Bayón et al. 1997, 74). Other taxa - gra- cile herbivores, carnivores and aurochs – are also rejected based on limb length and other biomorphologi- cal traits. Instead, a series of traits, including short limb length, a long hair coat that entirely covers the ani- mal, hair that begins at the stifle and continues to the thigh, so that only the lower half of the limb lacks hair making details of the fetlock and dew-claw clearly visible, supports the hypothesis that the animal represented is musk ox (Ovibos moschatus), a species regularly found at Late Glacial sites in the region, Trou Da Somme included. At Goyet, a date of 12 620 ± 90 BP (GrA-3238) was obtained on musk ox bone.
where λ is a proportional gain that has to be tuned to minimize the time-to-convergrence, c L s +
is the pseudo-inverse of a model or an approximation of the interaction matrix, and c ∂s ∂t an estimation of the target velocity. The analytical form of the interaction matrix has been determined for many possible visual features, such as image point coordinates, 2D straight lines, 2D ellipses, image moments, 3D coordinates of points, etc. Fromthe selected visual features, the behavior of the system will have particular properties as for stability, robustness with respect to noise or to calibration errors, robot 3D trajectory, etc. It is thus extremely important to choose adequate visual features for each robot task or application. Promising results have been obtained recently using image moments . The first interest of using image moments is that they provide a generic and geometrically intuitive representation of any object, with simple or complex shapes that can be segmented in an image. They can also be extracted from a set of image points tracked along an image sequence by simple summation of polynomials that depend on the points position.
There are already some successful implementations of co-opetition in Europe. Graham (2011) introduces that the Culina Group has crafted a successful collaborative solution that has been embraced by both competing and non-competing dairy goods manufacturers in the UK. Originally formed in 1994 to provide 0-5 ◦ C temperature controlled supply chain services, the Culina Group now markets its services to a broad range of dairy producers, including such brands as Muller, Danone and Kraft. Each customer fills a truck with its own dairy products, and Culina then picks up the truckload and delivers it to its own regional distribution center. There, the customers’ dairy products are stored until they are combined with products from other manufacturers, and the combined truckloads are then delivered to a supermarket chain’s regional distribution center. Institute of Grocery Distribution (2011) introduces the cooperation relationship between two competitors: Nestlé and United Biscuits. Obstacles such as cultural, brand protection, safeguarding product integrity are resolved by a series of meetings. Successful transport sharing realized by detailed planning of the internal stock movement, the customer delivery and the invoicing procedure. Cruijssen et al. (2007b) present the case of 8 Dutch producers of sweets and candy. They consolidate and delivery their goods by 3PL on a daily basis to improve the efficiency of their delivery processes. The primary objective is reducing the delivery cost, but at the same time, the customer service is also improved since that the reduced delivery number results in reduction of unloading and handling costs.
Fromthe pharmacokinetic point of view, levosimendan has a fast onset of action and a half-life of 1 h. The drug undergoes hepatic metabolism (acetylation) followed by renal excretion. Quite uniquely, it has an active metabolite with a very long half-life (70–80 h) responsible for a pro- longed effect [ 22 , 23 ]. All these characteristics offer oppor- tunities to provide an ideal therapeutic response to specific situations. Nevertheless, the longer half-life, as compared to catecholamines, may change the way clinicians manage side effects (e.g., arterial hypotension) and may sometimes prove inconvenient when quick reversibility is desirable. The most frequent adverse event associated with levosimendan ad- ministration is hypotension requiring norepinephrine infu- sion, although its prevalence was not significantly greater with respect to placebo [ 7 – 9 ] or dobutamine [ 3 ] in the lar- gest RCTs published. In patients with septic shock, how- ever, the cardiovascular dysfunction (reflected using the SOFA score) was more profound in patients receiving levo- simendan [ 24 ]. These trials also found a greater proportion of patients receiving levosimendan developing atrial fibrilla- tion, but the difference with the comparator group reached statistical significance only in medical heart failure and septic shock patients [ 3 , 24 ].
Bruker instrument (IFS120HR), routine operation started in 1993 • For each transition (grating ↔ homemade ↔ Bruker), there
was a significant overlap (several years) between the
observational data sets, allowing robust intercalibration of the derived geophysical parameters ⇒ consistent time series
The radio spectrum is a combination of thermal
(optically thick) emission fromthe stellar winds,
and synchrotron emission produced in the colliding wind region ( composite spectrum! ) → spectral index can be neither typical of pure NT
• What are the natural hypothesis allowing to consider games with many instantaneous jumps (which are forbidden here by assumption 1)?
In this section we illustrate the different results presented in the previous section through several examples taken fromrecent studies in ecology, in economics and in finance. The first one deals with the management of renewable resources in the case when we don’t really know what are the precise dynamic which governs the evolution of the resource. The second one is related to the evaluation of a call in the presence of barriers. Such problem can be formalized in the frame of hybrid differential games theory.
θ := θ 1 + θ 2 .
2 Motivations and examples
The main motivation for studying the functionals E p comes fromthe study of pattern
formation in some variational models involving competition between a perimeter term and a non-local repulsive one. We refer the reader to [GR19, DR19] where energies related to E p are used to show that some sets are union of stripes. These functionals may also be
minimal divisor D such that ( f ) + D > 0 for every f E M . It follows directly fromthe definitions that for 0 we have: x(tM) = (l ) -
(t). Moreover, if 1 E then 7r( .Af) > 0 and if in addition Il is infinite
then there exists f E such that (/)00 == 7r(M), [Ma], Hilfsatz, S. 599. If F has a va,lua.tion v defined on it so that is a val- ued function field this method of associating a divisor with a finite di-