is deeply bound which is an experimental advantage. **The** magnetic moment **in** **the** Ω = 1 component of this term is approximately zero which helps reduce **the** vulnerability of **the** experiment to decoherence and systematic errors [LBL + 11].
HfF + and ThF + exhibit a considerably large EDM effective electric field **in** **the** relevant “science” state [PMIT07, FN13, MB08] and, at **the** same time, a small Λ (or Ω) doublet splitting. This latter property is an asset for efficient mixing of rotational parity eigenstates through **the** external electric laboratory field. While HfF + , already employed **in** an eEDM experiment [LBL + 11], has been characterized **in** detail [AHT04, BABH11, PMIT07, PMT09, SMPT08, FN13] considerably less is known for ThF + [MB08, BAHP12, Iri12]. **The** joint experimental and theoretical work of Barker et al. [BAHP12] left some uncertainty as to whether **the** Ω = 1 state is **the** ground-state or **the** first excited state, as there is an Ω = 0 + state ( 1 Σ + 0 ) separated from it by only 315 cm −1 . **The** experimental resolution was not sufficient to unequivocally assign those states and, unlike HfF + , **the** Ω = 1 and 0 + states of ThF + possess similar vibrational frequencies at around 658 cm −1 . Accompanying theoretical calculations were also inconclusive, but from **the** best estimate **the** Ω = 0 + state was proposed as ground state with **the** Ω = 1 state higher by 65 cm −1 **in** Reference [BAHP12] and 202 cm −1 **in** Reference [HBA14a], respectively.

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Fig. 10 Correlations between **the** background predictions **in** **the** 15 exclusive regions
luminosity of 35.9 fb −1 , has been studied to search for mani- festations of **physics** **beyond** **the** **standard** **model**. **The** data are found to be consistent with **the** **standard** **model** expectations, and no excess event yield is observed. **The** results are inter- preted as limits at 95% confidence level on cross sections for **the** production of new particles **in** simplified supersymmetric models. Using calculations for these cross sections as func- tions of particle masses, **the** limits are turned into lower mass limits that are as high as 1500 GeV for gluinos and 830 GeV for bottom squarks, depending on **the** details of **the** **model**. Limits are also provided on **the** production of heavy scalar (excluding **the** mass range 350–360 GeV) and pseudoscalar (350–410 GeV) bosons decaying to top quarks **in** **the** context of two Higgs doublet models, as well as on same-sign top quark pair production, and **the** **standard** **model** production of four top quarks. Finally, to facilitate further interpreta- tions of **the** search, **model**-independent limits are provided as a function of H T and E T miss , together with **the** background prediction and data yields **in** a smaller set of signal regions. Acknowledgements We congratulate our colleagues **in** **the** CERN

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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.241801
Primary motivations for building **the** CERN LHC [1] were to determine **the** source of electroweak symmetry breaking and to search for **physics** **beyond** **the** **standard** **model** (SM). **In** 2012, **the** first goal was achieved with **the** discovery of **the** Higgs boson H by **the** ATLAS and CMS Collaborations [2 – 4] . **In** this Letter, we exploit that discovery **in** a search for events containing high-momentum Higgs bosons **in** con- junction with hadronic jets and missing momentum trans- verse to **the** beam, ⃗p miss T . Large p miss T ≡ j⃗p miss T j can arise from **the** production of energetic weakly interacting particles that escape detection. A new particle of this type would be a candidate for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter [5–7] . High-momentum Higgs bosons appear rarely **in** SM processes, and would provide a unique signature of new **physics**. Such a signature can arise **in** a variety of models for **physics** **beyond** **the** SM, including extended electroweak sectors [8,9] , extended Higgs sectors [10] , and supersymmetry (SUSY) [11,12] .

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[4] V. M. Abazov et al. A precision measurement of **the** mass of **the** top quark. Nature, 429:638–642, 2004.
[5] J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, P. Arce, M. Asai, T. Aso, E. Bagli, A. Bagulya, S. Banerjee, G. Barrand, B. Beck, A. Bogdanov, D. Brandt, J. Brown, H. Burkhardt, P. Canal, D. Cano-Ott, S. Chauvie, K. Cho, G. Cirrone, G. Cooperman, M. Cortés-Giraldo, G. Cosmo, G. Cuttone, G. Depaola, L. Desorgher, X. Dong, A. Dotti, V. Elvira, G. Folger, Z. Francis, A. Galoyan, L. Garnier, M. Gayer, K. Genser, V. Grichine, S. Guatelli, P. Guèye, P. Gumplinger, A. Howard, I. Hˇrivnáˇcová, S. Hwang, S. Incerti, A. Ivanchenko, V. Ivanchenko, F. Jones, S. Jun, P. Kai- taniemi, N. Karakatsanis, M. Karamitros, M. Kelsey, A. Kimura, T. Koi, H. Kurashige, A. Lech- ner, S. Lee, F. Longo, M. Maire, D. Mancusi, A. Mantero, E. Mendoza, B. Morgan, K. Mu- rakami, T. Nikitina, L. Pandola, P. Paprocki, J. Perl, I. Petrovi´c, M. Pia, W. Pokorski, J. Quesada, M. Raine, M. Reis, A. Ribon, A. R. Fira, F. Romano, G. Russo, G. Santin, T. Sasaki, D. Sawkey, J. Shin, I. Strakovsky, A. Taborda, S. Tanaka, B. Tomé, T. Toshito, H. Tran, P. Truscott, L. Urban, V. Uzhinsky, J. Verbeke, M. Verderi, B. Wendt, H. Wenzel, D. Wright, D. Wright, T. Yamashita, J. Yarba, and H. Yoshida. Recent developments **in** GEANT4. Nuclear Instruments and Meth- ods **in** **Physics** Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 835(Supplement C):186 – 225, 2016.

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2.1.4. Using COLTRIMS. A preliminary study of multiple capture processes **in** low energy (105 keV)
N 7+ + Ne collision was also attempted using **the** COLTRIMS technique [71]. **The** resolution **in** Q-
value that can be achieved with this technique cannot compete with high resolution electron spectroscopy or photon spectroscopy, but **the** measurement **in** coincidence of **the** charge states of both **the** projectile and **the** recoil ion gives direct access to capture multiplicity and to **the** stabilization ratios of **the** captured electrons. **In** this experiment, **the** branching ratios for configurations populated by **the** single and double capture processes could be clearly resolved and quantified. For **the** capture of three, four and five electrons, **the** populated configurations could be identified but **the** associated branching ratios could not be accurately determined. However, it was clearly shown that triple-, quadruple-, and quintuple-electron capture populate double Rydberg states and prefer to be doubly stabilized, with two electrons remaining on **the** scattered projectile while **the** others are ejected by Auger emission. With more than two active electrons, **the** number of channels leading to multiple capture becomes too large to be treated theoretically within **the** quasimolecular description and using close coupling **standard** calculations. Only **the** COBM [63] and a semi empirical **model** [72] could be used to describe these processes and be compared with **the** experimental results. These models predict a triple-electron capture stronger than **the** quadruple-electron capture, what was found to be **in** complete disagreement with **the** experimental results. This implies that electon-electron interaction, not included **in** these oversimplified calculations, may play an important role **in** multiple capture.

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cisely (1 + y s ) = 1.07 discussed **in** refs. [31–33].
III. RESULTS OF **THE** SM GLOBAL FIT
A. CKM parameters and Unitarity Triangles
**The** current situation of **the** global fit **in** **the** ( ¯ ρ, ¯ η) plane is indicated **in** Fig. 4. Some comments are **in** order be- fore discussing **the** metrology of **the** parameters. There exists a unique preferred region defined by **the** entire set of observables under consideration **in** **the** global fit. This region is represented by **the** yellow surface inscribed by **the** red contour line for which **the** values of ¯ ρ and ¯ η with a p-value such that 1 − p < 95.45 %. **The** goodness of **the** fit can be addressed **in** **the** simplified case where all **the** inputs uncertainties are taken as Gaussian, with a p-value found to be 66% (i.e., 0.4 σ; a more rigorous derivation of **the** p-value **in** **the** general case is **beyond** **the** scope of this article [34]). One obtains **the** following values (at 1σ) for **the** 4 parameters describing **the** CKM matrix:

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Abstract: To explore quantum and classical connection from a new perspective, a Quantum Population Dynamics (QPoD) **model** based on **the** logistic relation common to several sciences is investigated from a very broad perspective to explore **the** numerous links to current **physics**. From postulates of causality and finiteness a classical quantum entity, a quanta of spacetime, is defined with unitary extension and intensity. Applying **the** logistic equation to a quantum population of non-local two-state oscillators results **in** a quantum-classical equation linking wave and particle dynamics with an explicit account of decoherence. Varying over 124 orders of magnitude, **the** coupling constant acts like a delta Dirac function between regimes. **The** quantum regime is conform to Schr¨odinger and Dirac equations according to respective Hamiltonian while **the** classical mode suppresses **the** quantum wave function and follows **the** Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Besides **the** quantum wave solutions, **in** **the** classical range, **the** general equation admits Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein solutions, relating to thermodynamics. Inertial mass is found **in** terms of **the** quantum entropy gradient. **The** most compact quantum cluster forming a crystal produces a unique flat space filling lattice cells of one simple tetrahedron and one composite truncated tetrahedron corresponding respectively to a fermionic cell and a bosonic cell. From this lattice geometry alone, **the** mass ratios of all fermions are expressed uniquely **in** terms of vertices and faces, matching charges properties of three generations and three families. Except for a minor degeneracy correction, **the** solution is shown to follow **the** logistic dynamics. **The** resulting mass equation is a function of dimensionless natural numbers. Many properties of **the** **Standard** **Model** are recovered from geometry at **the** Planck scale, respecting naturalness, uniqueness and minimality. QPoD may help addressing questions about **the** nature of spacetime and **the** physical microstructure of particles. **The** **model** predicts a single spinless matter particle of a 4th generation as a WIMP particle close to Higgs mass.

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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.162001 PACS numbers: 13.60.Hb, 13.40.Gp, 24.85.+p
High precision measurements of beta decay observables play an important role **in** **beyond** **the** **standard** **model** (BSM) **physics** searches, as they allow us to probe couplings other than of **the** V − A type, which could appear at **the** low energy scale. Experiments using cold and ultracold neutrons [1 –4] , nuclei [5 –8] , and meson rare decays [9] are being performed, or have been planned, that can reach **the** per-mil level or even higher precision. Effective field theory (EFT) allows one to connect these measurements and BSM effects generated at TeV scales. **In** this approach that complements collider searches, **the** new interactions are introduced **in** an effective Lagrangian describing semileptonic transitions at **the** GeV scale including four-fermion terms, or operators up to dimension six for **the** scalar, tensor, pseudoscalar, and V þ A interactions (for a review of **the** various EFT approaches, see Ref. [10] ). Because **the** strength of **the** new interactions is defined with respect to **the** strength of **the** known SM interaction, **the** coefficients of **the** various terms, ϵ i ,

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GeV. **The** unification will continue to work if we include additional complete SO(10) multiplets with intermediate masses, though **the** scale will be modified.
**In** this way, by addressing **the** first shortcoming of **the** **standard** **model**, we are led to a won- derful expectation, that superpartners should be accessible to **the** LHC. As a bonus, we find that several other shortcomings have also been addressed. Small but non-zero neutrino masses are gen- erated naturally, by **the** seesaw mechanism. SO(10) gives us **the** SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) singlet “right-handed neutrino” we need, and **the** unification scale motivates its required large mass. **The** enormous energy scale for unification, which emerges from **the** phenomenology of particle **physics**, is close to **the** Planck scale of gravity. This means that **the** powers of all four basic interactions approach equality. This is a most remarkable result, since at practically accessible energies and distances gravity is absurdly weak compared to **the** other basic interactions among fundamental particles. Low-energy supersymmetry also, **in** many implementations, produces promising candi- dates to provide **the** astronomers’ dark matter. So by relieving **the** first shortcoming of **the** **standard** **model** on our list we seem to make progress on **the** subsequent three, as well.

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formation about **the** scalar form factor [27]. Since then, a number of studies appeared trying to ex- plain that discrepancy by interpreting it as a po- tential signal of New **Physics** (NP) [28, 29]. **In** **the** models with two Higgs doublets (2HDM), **the** charged Higgs boson can mediate **the** tree level pro- cesses, including B → D`ν, and considerably en- hance **the** coefficient multiplying **the** scalar form factor **in** **the** decay amplitude. For that reason it becomes important to get a lattice QCD estimate of f 0 (q 2 ). Furthermore, **the** **model** independent con-

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2. Case Studies
Numerous case studies exist which illustrate **the** synergy between experimental and computational/theoretical research. Consider **the** course of research into **the** role of ITG (Ion Thermal Gradient) turbulence and transport **in** tokamak plasmas. Earlier work on **the** Alcator experiments showed a clear decrease **in** transport as **the** plasma density was raised [4]. However, subsequent studies on Alcator-C found that this effect saturated at a relatively low density. During **the** same period, theoretical and computation studies suggested that important instabilities were excited when η i , **the** ratio of density profile scale length, to temperature profile scale length exceeded a critical value on **the** order of 1 [5]. It was predicted that plasmas with steeper density profiles would be immune to this instability and thus might have lower levels of transport. Experiments to test this prediction were carried out using injection of high-speed deuterium pellets to fuel **the** plasma core and peak **the** density. **The** result was a dramatic drop **in** energy and particle transport consistent with predictions[6]. These experiments, among other results, spurred interest and activity **in** a class of instabilities and turbulence which are now believed to be **the** principle cause of anomalous transport **in** tokamaks. Experimental observation of transport “barriers” **in** **the** core and edge [7-10] motivated theoretical research into stabilization mechanisms. Out of this work, a new paradigm arose **in** which sheared plasma flows were seen as **the** principle agent of ITG turbulence regulation and suppression [11]. While far from complete, this theory is now **the** “**standard** **model**” for anomalous ion transport.

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3.1.2 Monojet Signatures from Heavy Coloured Particles at HL- and HE-LHC Contributors: A. Chakraborty, S. Kuttimalai, S. H. Lim, M. M. Nojiri, and R. Ruiz
Search strategies for hypothetical coloured particles Q that can decay to dark matter candidates usually involve jets and leptons produced **in** association with large missing transverse energy E T miss . **In** compressed mass spectrum scenarios **the** visible decay products **in** **the** Q →DM+SM process do not have sufficient momenta to be readily distinguished from SM backgrounds and monojet-like topologies arise. Were evidence for a new particle Q established at **the** LHC, or a successor experiment such as **the** HE-LHC, it would be crucial to determine **the** properties of Q, especially its mass, spin, and colour rep- resentation, **in** order to help understand **the** nature of DM. Such a program would typically include inves- tigating various collider observables that can discriminate against possible candidates for Q, and hence requires that observables are known to sufficiently high precision. It is **the** case though that leading order (LO) calculations are poor approximations for QCD processes, even when using sensible scale choices. **The** situation, however, is more hopeful with **the** advent of general-purpose precision Monte Carlo event generators H ERWIG [ 194 ], M AD G RAPH 5_ A MC@NLO+P YTHIA 8 [ 67 , 68 ], and SHERPA [ 195 ]. With automated event generation up to NLO **in** QCD with parton shower (PS) matching and multijet merg- ing, even for BSM processes [ 196 ], one can now systematically investigate **the** impact of crucial O(α s ) corrections on **the** inclusive monojet process.

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3 **The** spectra shown here is unrealistic and chosen only to demon-
strate **the** effect of **standard** oscilaltions on even such widely differing flavour fluxes.
[43]. Additionally, if quantum gravity demands a funda- mental length scale, leading to a breakdown of special rel- ativity, or loop quantum gravity [44–49] leads to discrete space-time , one expects tiny LV effects to percolate to lower energies. For a recent discussion see [50] and ref- erences therein. UHE neutrinos, with their high energies and long oscillation baselines present a unique opportu- nity for testing these theories. Their effects **in** **the** context of flavour flux ratios have been discussed **in** [22]. Here we demonstrate their effects on diffuse UHE fluxes (or equiva- lently, on **the** bounds thereon) by a representative calcula- tion. For specificity we pick **the** low energy limit of string theory represented by **the** **Standard** **model** Extension [42] and **the** corresponding modified dispersion relation im- plied by it. We consider, for simplicity, **the** two-flavour case with ν µ − ν τ oscillations and a single real off-diagonal Lorentz and CPT violating parameter a with dimensions of mass, which modifies **the** effective hamiltonian (**in** **the** mass eigenstate basis) to

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5 Conclusions 21
A Loop functions 22
1 Motivation
**The** experimental bounds on lepton flavor violating processes will be greatly improved **in** **the** near future [ 1 ]. For lepton flavor violating τ decays, such as τ → `γ and τ → 3 `, **the** ex- pected future sensitivity is about one order of magnitude below their present limits, which already exclude branching ratios larger than about 10 −8 . **In** **the** µ-e sector, current limits are more stringent and **the** expected improvements are more significant. For µ → 3 e a sen- sitivity four orders of magnitude below **the** present bound is foreseen, while **the** limit on µ-e conversion **in** nuclei could be increased by up to six orders of magnitude. Even for µ → eγ, which currently provides **the** strongest bound, a one order of magnitude improvement is expected **in** **the** near future. Given that **the** present limits on some of these processes are already very impressive and can restrict **the** parameter space of new **physics** models **in** an important way, one can only wonder about **the** impact that these future experimental im- provements might have on such models. Could they exclude some scenarios? How will they affect their viable parameter space? **In** this paper, we address precisely these issues within a specific and well-motivated extension of **the** **Standard** **Model**: **the** scotogenic **model**.

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. Numerous encod- ings have been proposed **in** ER, taking inspiration from nat- ural developmental processes, **in** particular, to evolve con- trol systems for robots (e.g., Gruau (1994); Kodjabachian and Meyer (1998); Clune et al. (2009a); Cheney et al. (2013); Lee et al. (2013); Lewis et al. (1992); Morse et al. (2013)). Given **the** multitude of available encodings, it is crucial to compare them and understand their differences, so that **the** ER com- munity can focus on **the** most promising ones. **In** **the** selec- tion of encodings investigated **in** our study, both direct and generative schemes are considered. Direct encodings encom- pass a one-to-one mapping between genes and phenotypic traits, and are **the** simplest form of encoding thus serving as a reference for comparison (e.g., Koos et al. (2013)). We also evaluate **the** more complex generative encodings character- ized by a one-to-many mapping between genes and pheno- typic traits, i.e., a single gene describes several phenotypic traits (Stanley and Miikkulainen, 2002; Stanley, 2007). These state of **the** art encodings are expected to exploit geomet- ric information of **the** robot morphology to generate regular and modular phenotypic patterns (e.g., (Stanley et al., 2009; Clune et al., 2011; Morse et al., 2013)).

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investigations of **the** effects of pseudo-Dirac neutrinos and decoherence **in** **the** last two sections.
2 **The** diffuse neutrino flux from Active Galactic Nuclei
Active galactic nuclei are extremely distant galactic cores having very high densities and temperatures. Due to **the** high temperatures and **the** presence of strong electromagnetic fields, AGN’s act as accelerators of fundamental particles, driving them to ultra-high en- ergies (> 1000 GeV). **The** acceleration of electrons as well as protons (or ions) by strong magnetic fields **in** cosmic accelerators like AGN’s leads to neutrino production. Specifically, accelerated electrons lose their energy via synchrotron radiation **in** **the** magnetic field leading to emission of photons that act as targets for **the** accelerated protons to undergo photo- hadronic interactions. This leads to **the** production of mesons which are unstable and decay. **In** **the** **standard** case **the** charged pions decay primarily contributing to neutrino production

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Case 4: Radiation Case
Results of this case are drawn at Figure 7. **The** agreement is still quite good; **the** mean error is indeed less than 0.2°C for each turbulence models. One more time, there is no big differences between different turbulence models. It is interesting to see **the** impact of **the** near-wall treatment. Indeed, k-ε **model** is here based on wall functions. It is not **the** case for k-ω **model**, thanks to a low-Reynolds correction. So, it can be concluded that wall functions implemented **in** Fluent works correctly. This aspect is very important and has been discussed for years (Chen and Jiang, 1992).

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Neutrinos being electrically neutral can be either Dirac or Majorana particles. Ex- perimentally determining their nature requires measuring lepton number violating ob- servables, of which neutrinoless double-β (0νββ) decay provides—certainly—**the** most sensitive probe. Observing a 0νββ decay signal constitutes a demonstration that lepton number is not conserved **in** nature and, according to **the** Schechter-Valle black-box theo- rem [ 15 ], that neutrinos are Majorana particles. **The** non-observation, however, does not prove otherwise. **The** 0νββ decay rate is highly sensitive to **the** neutrino mass spectrum: for an inverted mass spectrum (m ν 3 < m ν 1 < m ν 2 ) there is sizeable lower limit for this rate whereas for a normal mass spectrum (m ν 1 < m ν 2 < m ν 3 ) **the** leptonic CP phases can conspire leading to a vanishing rate [ 129 ]. Thus, only **in** **the** case of neutrinos having an inverted spectrum definitive conclusions can be drawn from **the** non-observation of 0νββ. Given **the** absence of a 0νββ signal **the** two possibilities are viable. If neutrinos are assumed to be Dirac particles, **the** addition of fermion EW singlets to **the** SM content allows **the** construction of new renormalizable Yukawa operators. After EWSB, neutrinos as any other SM fermion acquire mass. If instead neutrinos are assumed to be of Majorana

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