HAL Id: hal-01593901
Submitted on 26 Sep 2017
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0 , ±1, . . . , ±J sublevels.
Using linearly polarized pump and seed pulses, M is con- served throughout the dynamics due to cylindrical symmetry about the laser polarization direction. We therefore build a set of (J , J )-dependent density matrices, with one matrix for each group of initial rotational states with common quantum number |M|. The quantum dynamics is then computed sepa- rately for each |M| subset of states. Inthe following, we omit the M dependence of the density matrices, but wherever the summation over M is required, we will make it explicit inthe equations.
The second difficulty, “the learning process”, is linked to the first. The learning process for a country can be either a positive one or a negative one. When it is a positive learning process, then the country uses past events or events in other countries as an inspiration for decisions they take and they see those events/countries as examples to replicate. The learning process is to be considered a negative one when an example is used as something to avoid at all costs. Let's compare two examples, Japan and Canada. Japan has a foreign population below 2% and its immigration policy is one of the strictest inthe world with the country essentially closed to outsiders. The effect the Japanese immigration policy is having is an ageing of the country’s population as well as extreme labour shortage. Japan’s population is set to be reduced by more than 30 million (from 127 million to 90 million) by 2050. 39 One solution – that is highly controversial in Japan – would be to have an open-border policy and invite immigrants to come in. Canada on the other hand has a very different view on the question of immigration. Canada has a low birth rate, and needs immigration both for demographic and economic growth. Canada uses a points system to decide who it authorises to enter, live and work inthe country. Unlike Australia, a sponsor, job or employer is not required, only proof of certain skills. Applicants are awarded points for proficiency in education, languages and job experience. Canada 's population is expected to increase from 36,5 million in 2016 to over 60 million by 2060 with two-thirds of that increase due to immigration. 40 Any country studying their immigration policy can use the examples of Japan and Canada as examples for their own policy learning from the mistakes of one and the success of the other. Both of these difficulties, – Galton's problem and the learning process – must be overcome as much as possible by avoiding too naive a research line that ignores these inevitable aspects of transfusion and interdependence.
Oral anticoagulation has been established as a cornerstone of the management of patients with NVAF and has been shown to reduce the incidence of stroke and mortality . Oral anticoagulation treatments include vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), classified as direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran etexilate) and fac- tor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) [11–14]. During their respective National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) evaluations, all the NOACs were found to be cost-effective vs VKA [11–14]. The present analysis is an update of the model submitted to NICE for rivaroxaban vs VKA , considering RWE for all inputs. The same analysis is replicated for apixaban vs VKA as an additional comparison. This RWE economic analysis may provide valuable information because although VKA is known to work well in clinical trial set- tings, it is likely that the numerous food and drug inter- actions and associated monitoring burden impact the real-life effectiveness compared with NOACs.
“This was the beginning of a campaign, the like of which was never known in England, or for that matter in any other country….we interrupted a great many
meetings violently thrown out and insulted Often we were painfully bruised and hurt” (Kingsley Kent,268) . The Suffragettes refused to bow to violence; they began destroying property in all parts of Great Britain.From1909 onwards, the violence of their attacks grew progressively until serious attacks on property: they torched churches and cricket pavilions, set letter-boxes ablaze, slashed works of art and detonated bombs. In 1912, Emmeline Pankhurst declared and urged her followers: “Those of you, who can break windows, break them. Those of you who can still furtherattack property so as to make the government realize that property is as greatly endangered by Women Suffrage as it was by the Chartists of old, do so. And my last words to the government: I incite this meeting to rebellion” (Pugh, 217)
At the same time, the fear of losing the clients and revenues generated from the various assurance activities may compromise the auditor’s independence. This is called the switch threat case. The undesirable effects, such as ‘low-balling’ and ‘opinion shopping’, are also well known. The phenomenon of ‘low-balling’ is a particular aspect of price competition and according to DeAngelo (1981) it concerns a contemplated change of auditors and that may easily cause a loss of audit quality. In many instances, this is known to lead to price erosion, which may easily entail quality erosion. ‘Low-balling’ is when audit firms quote audit fees that are below their start-up costs with new clients believing that future fees will exceed future marginal audit costs. The auditor is said to practice low-balling when the audit fees for initial audit engagements are set below total current cost (DeAngelo 1981). Critics of the audit industry say this creates an incentive for audit firms to remain with their clients for multiple periods which in turn could lead, to auditors compromising their independence to be retained for future engagements 1
Modeling both marriage and consumption allows to endogenize the sharing rule, i.e. how resources are split between spouses. As in collective models, spouses’ labour supplies are chosen eﬃciently along the Pareto frontier of the achievable set. The outside option is the value of remaining single, which is equal to the instantaneous utility of the wage plus the option value of a potential future marriage. Couples are formed if an excess of public good is produced inthe association. The resulting surplus is split between spouses by Nash bargaining. Divorce is endogenous and occurs when the idiosyncratic, match-specific public good quality becomes too low for the match to remain mutually beneficial. As a result, the model generalizes both the collective labour supply literature, to which we add an explicit mechanism for the sharing rule, and marriage market models, to which we add search frictions.
and declination for Vesta obtained by Russell et al. (2012), Li et al. (2011), and Thomas et al. (1997). The data from Thomas et al. (1997) comes from images obtained during a campaign with the HST in December 1996, whereas Li et al. (2011) used combined ground data and HST data from 1986 to 2003.
Figure 1 shows the projection of Vesta’s spin axis on the ICRF XY plane reported by the different authors. We plot the ellipses of uncertainties related to each set of observations, including the five degrees uncertainties obtained by Thomas et al. (1997) and Li et al. (2011), whereas the uncertainty ellipse obtained by Dawn is 0.01 degree. The ellipse for the Dawn data is therefore too small to be visible on the scale of the figure. The figure also shows the projection of the orbital axis inthe XY plane located at the coordinates 0.124, -0.375. The determination of the orbital axis comes from the Horizons ephemerides (Acton et al. 1996). In this figure, the position of the spin axis with respect to the orbital axis can be described by two spherical angles, the projected obliquity ρ and longitude angle λ represented inthe figure. The values of ρ for each set of observation are in very good agreement, whereas the longitude angles present a larger error than the ellipse of uncertainties. The longitude angle uncertainty may be related to the angle of illumination at the surface of Vesta by the Sun. Thus, the uncertainty inthe shape modeling could be the origin of the shift inthe longitude angle.
No doubt at all that the constitutional change is often likely to be politically motivated. Here, the manner in which the legislative process was commenced made it much more difficult than it would otherwise have been for the proposals to be considered on their merits. Inthe event, the details of the proposals were considered by the House, some more than once. The process in its earlier stages put considerable pressure on the relationship between the Government and the judiciary institution inthe person of the Lord Chief Justice. The preparation of the “concordat” between the Lord Chancellor and the Lord Chief Justice in January 2004 did much to alleviate this pressure. One of the most important points made inthe concordat (prepared on the assumption that the office of Lord Chancellor was to be removed) was: “The key respective responsibilities of the Secretary of State and the Lord Chief Justice should be set out in statute, so as to provide clarity and transparency in their relationship”. This aim remained equally valid when at a later date the Government accepted that the office of Lord Chancellor should remain in place. A rather different approach by the Government from the outset would have enabled the concordat process tobe implemented in a calmer and transparent atmosphere (House of Lords, 2005).
are shown in fig. 2 (full lines). Several shoulders are detectible inthe peaks. The corresponding average kinetic energy e d values are listed in
table 1. The described convolution method (see section 2.2) has been applied to a set of discrete kinetic energy values involved in processes of equal cross section. The real theoretical values listed in column 1 of table 1 (dashed arrows in fig. 2) give rise to a convoluted peak shown in fig. 2 by dashed lines. The position of the shoulders are given in table 1, column 2, and have to be compared with the measured values (full line arrows) listed in column 3 of table 1.
Leaving aside this new dynamic, some have argued that theUK could exploit the ‘classic’ Swiss example, that is to say without foreign judges. According to the Institute for the Study of Civil Society, Civitas:
“Switzerland has a much smaller market to offer than Britain but has been able to secure advantageous terms in trade deals with economies much larger than its own. This is borne out well by close examination of its 2009 trade deal with Japan, from which Swiss exports have benefited significantly. Swiss exports of chocolate, cereal, cheese and watches to Japan all face lower tariffs now. UK trade would have much to gain if Britain took a similar approach to Switzerland, whose achievement has been considerable given Japan’s historically protectionist approach, especially over food”. 76 While on paper it provides a high level of sovereignty and legal autonomy for Switzerland, and so could be privileged by the United Kingdom during the Brexit negotiations, experience over the last few years suggests that this “Swiss model” does not provide efficient mechanisms to resolve disputes. This view seems to be supported by the United Kingdom 77 . TheUK Government itself noted that both the EU and Switzerland have called the viability of this model into question and that such arrangements were unlikely to be appropriate or desirable for theUK. According to one expert cited in a report presented by the House of Lords in December 2016, the practice over the last ten years has shown that it was almost impossible for Swiss officials to talk their EU counterparts into changing their position 78 , because the EU officials felt legally bound by any definitive judgment of the ECJ. Sectoral bilateral agreements are not just more static in nature than the EEA Agreement, but can also create never-ending political deadlock.
The CoRoT  and Kepler  spacecrafts have dramatically improved the quality of the available asteroseismic data. Several recent studies reported the detection of mixed modes that are split by rotation in a subgiant  and in several red giants [5–7] observed with Kepler. A large number of these stars exhibit frequency spectra that show a quite simple structure where symmetric patterns around axisymmetric modes are easily identified. They are interpreted as multiplets of modes split by rotation. Therotational splitting, i.e. the frequency spacing related to the lift of degeneracy caused by rotation, is then used to determine the core rotation. The values of the corresponding splittings are quite small and the use of the lowest order approximation to derive the splittings from stellar models for comparison can be justified. Such studies led to the determination of unexpectedly low central rotation frequencies (of a few hundreds of nHz). These results are in strong disagreement with the core rotation frequencies predicted by evolutionary models, which are of the order of a few dozens of Hz [8, 9]. They show that the transport processes induced by rotation currently included in stellar models are not able to sufficiently spin down the core of slowly core rotating red giants. On the other hand, a large set of red giant stars show complex frequency spectra, in particular with non symmetric multiplets and therefore these stars are likely fast rotators. Their rotation must then be investigated with non- perturbative methods.
example shows that companies which emit CO 2 have an incentive to reduce their emissions
through technological innovation. In Denmark and Sweden, a widespread technology shift occurred with a move to wind and hydro electricity generation (Abboud (2008)).
IntheUK, the government has been promoting the shift to a low-carbon economy through various policy measures, such as theNon-Fossil Fuel Purchasing Agreement (NFFPA) and Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) 9 . These mandatory schemes set a minimum amount of power purchased from renewable sources, banded so that 1MW from an immature technology (such as offshore wind) is worth more than 1MW from a mature technology. However, there are currently no policy incentives to increase the financial payback to adopt carbon and capture technologies. For carbon capture to compete with renewable sources, it should be entitled to ROCs for each amount of CO 2 saved. TheUK government has recently set up a competition to
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4.3.1 Chemical input demand and intensity elasticities
The impact on the environment of a set-aside policy will depend on changes to land use and cropping practices, and the farm level environmental conditions. Inthe absence of detailed environmental data, indicators of environmental pressure based on production and land use data can be used as proxies for environmental impact. Because the purpose here is to examine farmers’ reactions to set-aside policies in terms of agricultural production intensification, we consider two different elasticities as indicators. The first is elasticity of chemical input demand (fertilizer, pesticide) at farm level with respect to theset-aside subsidy, irrespective of land use and, in particular, crop distribution. This indicator is useful for environmental policies targeting input sales when there is no or limited information on crop dis- tribution and farm land area. It is therefore less costly for the environmental regulator to implement, and presumably is less distorting for cropping decisions since it does not account for set-aside land. The second indicator is defined as the elasticity of chemical input quantity per unit of cultivated land with respect to theset-aside subsidy. This indicator accounts explicitly for land setaside by considering chemical input use intensity by unit of cultivated land. It accounts for farmers’ decisions about land set-aside following a change to the subsidy but is not dependent on crop distribution (only on total cultivated area). The second indicator, namely elasticity of chemical input intensity with respect to theset-aside subsidy, is calculated as follows:
In polluted, urban environments, high levels of anthropogenic VOCs cause OH to
be rapidly cycled to hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) and organic peroxy (RO 2 ) radicals, which in turn can react with NO to reform OH. The reaction of HO 2 with NO also forms NO 2 , which can be photolysed, leading to the creation of O 3 . A single OH radical can initiate the degradation of many molecules of trace gases leading to not only their eventual removal from the atmosphere but also the formation of tropospheric O 3 . Clearly the
6 Under the mechanical engineering category, are firms that assemble aircraft as well
as firms manufacturing wings and fuselage. These essential parts of aircraft have been separated from the parts manufacturers category simply because of the small number of these parts required per aircraft (only one airframe and two wings are required per aircraft). The electrical engineering group of companies deal with all the parts of the aircraft that require electronic systems. Nowadays, with flight control heavily depending on on-board computers and communication with ground stations, avionics represent an important part of flight instrumentation. We distinguish engine designers from the general category of mechanical engineering as aerodynamics and the manufacturing of airframes are different disciplines from propulsion. Last but not least inthe manufacturing of aeroplanes is the cabin. Without it, international air travel would be very uncomfortable indeed. Repair and maintenance firms were kept separate from mechanical engineering firms even though many manufacturers repair their own aircraft and their parts. For this reason, companies that both produced and repaired aircraft were included inthe mechanical engineering category. Two more sub-sectors were added to account for companies that do not produce or repair parts of aircraft, but are nevertheless essential to the running of the industry for the
aided by unidentified processes that transport energy outward from the Sun before depositing it inthe wind. Alfv ´enic fluctuations are a promising candidate for such a process because they are seen inthe corona and solar wind and contain significant energy 5 – 7 . Magnetic tension forces the corona to co-rotate with the Sun, but to date any residual rotation reported far from the Sun has been much smaller than the amplitude of waves and deflections from interacting wind streams 8 . Here we report observations of solar-wind plasma at r ' 35R S 9 – 11 , well inside the radius at which stream interactions become important. We
Some comments on the first phase (2)
● Unbalanced reaction by Member States: (92 decisions as at 29.4.2020 - 9:15 am)
Article 107(2) b) Article 107(3) b) Article 107(3) c) under TF
8 decisions 77 decisions under TF – 3 107(3 b) 4 decisions (Covid-19 products)
What will journals do, as their subscription revenues shrink? They will do what all businesses do under those conditions: They will cut unnecessary costs. If the Green OA version is adequate for users, that means both the print edition and the online edition of the journal (and their costs) can be phased out, as there is no longer a market for them. Nor do journals have to do the access-provision or archiving of peer-reviewed drafts: that’s offloaded onto the distributed global network of Green OA institutional repositories. What’s left for peer-reviewed journals to do?