Haut PDF Measurement and Control of the Beam Energy for the SPIRAL2 Accelerator

Measurement and Control of the Beam Energy for the SPIRAL2 Accelerator

Measurement and Control of the Beam Energy for the SPIRAL2 Accelerator

Abstract The first part of the SPIRAL2 facility, which entered in the construction phase at GANIL in France, will be composed of an ion source, a deuteron/proton source, an RFQ and a superconducting linear accelerator delivering high intensities, up to 5mA and 40MeV for the deuteron beams. As part of the MEBT commissioning, the beam energy will be measured on the BTI (Bench of Intermediate Test) at the exit of the RFQ. At the exit of the LINAC, the system has to measure but also to control the beam energy. The control consists in ensuring that the beam energy is under a limit by taking account of the measurement uncertainty. The energy is measured by a method of time of flight; the signal is captured by non- intercepting capacitive pick-ups. This paper presents also the results obtained in terms of uncertainties and dynamics of measures.
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Measurement and Control of the Beam Intensity for the SPIRAL2 Accelerator

Measurement and Control of the Beam Intensity for the SPIRAL2 Accelerator

Abstract The phase 1 of the SPIRAL2 facility is under construction at the national heavy ion accelerator (GANIL, Caen, France). The accelerator including an RFQ and a superconducting LINAC will produce deuteron, proton and heavy ion beams in a wide range of intensities and energies (beam power range: a few 100W to 200kW). The measurements of the beam intensities are ensured by means of several AC and DC Current Transformers (ACCT/DCCT).

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Beam Diagnostics for SPIRAL2 RNB

Beam Diagnostics for SPIRAL2 RNB

Secondary Emission Foil Profiler. Profilers with emissive foil and micro-channel plates will also allow measurement of the transverse profile after CIME, with no lower energy limit. This is a low intensity beam profile monitor. The principle is a collection of the secondary electrons in a drift space which are amplified with an MCP stage and collected on an x-y grid for a required resolution of 1 mm. They are currently under development at GANIL (Fig. 8).

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Preliminary implementation for the new SPIRAL2 project control system

Preliminary implementation for the new SPIRAL2 project control system

Figure 2: Accelerator schematic layout. The RIB Facility The RIB production process will be achieved through target ion/source systems using different techniques. A first way is based on the use of a carbon converter generating neutrons from the deuterons beam impinging on a uranium carbide target; the neutron flux therefore generates fission reactions so producing a large variety of rare isotopes. An other alternative consists in sending other types of beams on targets/sources assemblies so producing rare ions by different reaction types. So, a 1+ ions beam is produced and sent either to an identification system, a new low energy experimental area or a 1+/N+ charge booster. Lastly the N+ rare ion beam will be transported to the existing CIME cyclotron accelerating
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Survey and alignment concept for the SPIRAL2 accelerator (status report)

Survey and alignment concept for the SPIRAL2 accelerator (status report)

Figure 2: Model of the RFQ Network for metrological control of the vanes and the fiducial points The network measurement will be made with a laser tracker. The reference network (see Fig. 3) will consist of approximately 6 pillars (green), 6 floor monuments (blue) and 4 laser tracker stations. Two sets of angles and 8 interferometer distances will be observed from each tracker station to all fiducials points (see Fig.4). The estimated global error is 60 μm (RMS at 2σ).
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The alignment strategy for the SPIRAL2 superconducting LINAC cryomodules

The alignment strategy for the SPIRAL2 superconducting LINAC cryomodules

INTRODUCTION SPIRAL2 is the project of a facility intended for the production of new beams of stable and radioactive ions at GANIL. The SPIRAL2 facility is based on a high-power superconducting driver linac which delivers a high- intensity, 40-MeV deuteron beam, as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass-to-charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/u. The driver accelerator will send stable beams to a new experimental area and to a cave for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The commissioning of the driver should start in 2011 at GANIL.
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Effect of fluctuations in the down ramp plasma source profile on the emittance and current profile of the self-injected beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator

Effect of fluctuations in the down ramp plasma source profile on the emittance and current profile of the self-injected beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator

in Figs. 8(d) –8(f) . As expected, the bunch has a positive chirp (the front of the bunch has a higher energy), because the electrons in the front of the bunch are injected earlier and, thus, have been accelerated for a longer time. As the bunch is being accelerated, it rotates in the longitudinal phase space (LPS), since the back of the bunch feels a larger accelerating gradient as long as the wake is not overloaded. At the end of the flat region, the front part of the bunch (which contains most of the charge) has been flattened in the LPS, which leads to a narrow spike in the energy spectrum. In Figs. 8(d)–8(f) , the blue lines show the current profile of the injected beam in arbitrary units. Results from 3D simulations using similar down ramp parameters (see Fig. 5 ) show that the peak current of the injected beam is ∼10 kA. The peak energy of this spike is 0.2 GeV with a rms energy spread of ∼3%. The bunch has a large negative chirp, which increases the projected energy spread; however, the slice energy spread remains as low as ∼0.5% throughout the whole bunch, and it has been demonstrated that the negative chirp of the bunch can be removed by a plasma dechirper [46 –48] so that the projected energy spread of the bunch can be reduced to be comparable to the slice energy spread. In another simulation where the length of the plasma is 2 cm, the peak energy of the beam exceeds 1 GeV.
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First step towards the new SPIRAL2 project control system

First step towards the new SPIRAL2 project control system

the neutrons therefore produced initiate a fission process on a Uranium carbide target, with a fission rate from 5.10 13 to 10 14 fissions/second. The fission products are transferred to an ion source from which they are extracted (1+ beam) and transported to a 1+/N+ charge booster. The second production cave, (a "yellow" production module cave being a medium radioactive zone), mainly dedicated to other types of reactions (ion beams on different targets, fusion- evaporation, transfer reactions) will allow to generate a 1+ rare ions beam also sent to the charge booster. The N+ rare ions are therefore transported either to the new low energy cave named DESIR or to the existing so-called CIME cyclotron post accelerating the beam finally sent to the Ganil experimental area. This last point clearly shows that the existing Ganil machine will be tightly coupled with the new Spiral2 project and this point has to be taken into account for the control system design and implementation.
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SPIRAL2 accelerator construction progress

SPIRAL2 accelerator construction progress

During the last years, our strategy for the accelerator itself was the following: We decided a few years ago to install the low energy heavy ion transfer line and ECR source at LPSC laboratory (Grenoble), and the Deuteron/proton ones at IFRFU/Saclay, in order to operate a maximum of technical and beam tests, to check the validity of our design, and to improve with all partner laboratories our knowledge and collaboration. This will also gain time for the definitive installation and tests at GANIL.
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Survey and alignment concept for installation of the SPIRAL2 accelerator devices at GANIL

Survey and alignment concept for installation of the SPIRAL2 accelerator devices at GANIL

10th International Workshop on Accelerator Alignment, February 11-15, 2008 INTRODUCTION SPIRAL2 is the project of a facility intended for the production of new beams of stable and radioactive ions at GANIL. The SPIRAL2 facility is based on a high-power superconducting driver LINAC which delivers a high- intensity, 40-MeV deuteron beam, as well as a variety of heavy-ion beams with mass-to-charge ratio equal to 3 and energy up to 14.5 MeV/u. The driver accelerator will send stable beams to a new experimental area and to a cave for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB). The commissioning of the driver should start in 2011 at GANIL.
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Phase and amplitude measurement for the SPIRAL2 accelerator

Phase and amplitude measurement for the SPIRAL2 accelerator

β=0.12). Table 1: Beam Intensity and Power BEAM ENERGY MEASUREMENT During the RFQ and the MEBT commissioning, an Injector Test Bench (BTI) will be used to qualify beam characteristics. Beam energy will be measured at the exit of the RFQ by the “time of flight” method. Another beam energy measurement by TOF is foreseen in the HEBT at the exit of the superconducting LINAC.

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Modelling and parameter identification for energy beam footprints

Modelling and parameter identification for energy beam footprints

E ∗ represents the result of calibration. two trenches becomes too big. The comparison between simulated experiments and trenches modelled with {k ∗ , a ∗ , E ∗ } are presented in Figure 4.5 . Such a non-uniqueness of the solution does not come as a total surprise. The simultaneous change of the parameters of the model k, a and E can lead to the same profile of the trench. When trench becomes deeper the local incident angles of the waterjet impact increases. Because of the cosine dependence in the direct problem, the erosion power of the jet decreases. Moreover, the bigger is parameter k, the bigger is the loss of erosion power. The same considerations are valid for parameter a. It is introduced in the direct model to take into account the influence of the stand-off distance of the jet. When the trench gets deeper, the local distance from the surface to the jet increases, and this results in the loss of erosion power. The bigger is parameter a the less erosive is the impact of the jet. In the example considered above the calibrated value of k, k ∗ is smaller than the real values ˜k,
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Modeling and on-line measurement of the surface potential of electrospun membranes for the control of the fiber diameter and the pore size

Modeling and on-line measurement of the surface potential of electrospun membranes for the control of the fiber diameter and the pore size

Effect of Polymer concentration during electrospinning As shown in Fig. 6a, the polymer concentration in the solution does not impact significantly the current, the values varying from 0.09 µA to 0.13 µA when changing the concentration from 7% to 13%. Actually, the current is the consequence of complex mechanisms. Indeed, regarding the polymer alone, at constant solution feeding rate (i.e. 1 mL/h), an increase of the polymer concentration results in the increase of the fiber flow rate increasing thus the rate of charges landing on the collector and consequently the current. Concurrently, increasing the concentration induces the enlargement of the solution viscosity decreasing thus the efficient production of fiber and consequently, the current. In our case, these two phenomena being in competition resulted in a current which is almost constant with the concentration. However, as shown in Fig. 6b and Fig. S2b of Supp. Data, τ increases gradually and significantly from 8 s to 200 s when the concentration increases from 7% to 13% whereas the slope 𝑖𝑅̇ 𝑚 is almost
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Power indices and the measurement of control in corporate structures

Power indices and the measurement of control in corporate structures

4.5. Additional topics We conclude this paper with a brief mention of two additional topics for future research. Dynamic games. Many authors have underlined the usefulness of power in- dices for the investigation of takeovers. Roughly speaking, the trading price of a block of shares is frequently higher than what would be predicted from the price of individual shares. In the corporate governance literature this premium is usually linked to the existence of private benefits derived from control. Gambarelli [1982, 1983, 1996], Leech [1987b], Zwiebel [1995], Gambarelli and Pesce [2004], Nicodano and Sembenelli [2004], among many others, have looked into such issues, which bring the attention to the evolution of power indices subject to modifications of the underlying games. Becht, Bolton and R¨oell [2003] point out that: “From a theo- retical point of view static measures of concentration are not always satisfactory. (...) Dynamic measures of power based on power indices can address some of these issues.” Research along these lines remains scarce.
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The Super Separator Spectrometer (S$^3$) for the SPIRAL2 facility

The Super Separator Spectrometer (S$^3$) for the SPIRAL2 facility

Acknowledgments S 3 has been funded by the French Research Ministry, National Research Agency (ANR), through the EQUIPEX (EQUIPment of EXcellence) reference ANR-10EQPX- 46, the FEDER (Fonds Européen de Développement Economique et Régional), the CPER (Contrat Plan Etat Région), and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and by the E.C.FP7-INFRASTRUCTURES 2007, SPIRAL2 Preparatory Phase, Grant agreement No.: 212692. S3 LEB has been funded by the French Research Ministry through the ANR-13-B505- 0013, and the Flemish Research Fund (FWO) under the Big science program and a grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-AdG-291561-HELIOS).
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Fairness Measurement Procedure for the Evaluation of Congestion Control Algorithms

Fairness Measurement Procedure for the Evaluation of Congestion Control Algorithms

II. B ACKGROUND AND R ELATED W ORK A. On Fairness Fairness has strong importance for network operators, who aim at ensuring that each user receives a fair share of network resources, in particular a fair share of the bandwidth. In an unfair flows, one application in particular gets more data to the detriment of other applications. This detrimental behavior can result in unsatisfaction for the users. While being a key requirement to meet, fairness has also been a complex object of research for years. Thus, multiple definitions have been proposed by researchers to capture a different characteristic of the problem [13]. The max-min fairness in particular compares multiple competing flows sharing a bottleneck in the network under three principles: (i) increasing the data-rate of one flow results in a decrease in the data-rate of another flow; (ii) each
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Status of the low beta 0.07 cryomodules for SPIRAL2

Status of the low beta 0.07 cryomodules for SPIRAL2

helium bath pressure, and is about 1 Hz. The tuning sensitivity is 0.12 Hz/motor step. The RFconditioning of the power coupler could only be performed up to 5 kW because of redundant problems with the RF solid state amplifier. The maximum accelerating field before the quench of the cavitywas limited by field emission at5.9 MV/m(lower than the specification of 6.5 MV/m). At E ac c = 4 MV/m, no field

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Development of Test Methods for the Qualification of Electronic Components and Systems Adapted to High-Energy Accelerator Radiation Environments

Development of Test Methods for the Qualification of Electronic Components and Systems Adapted to High-Energy Accelerator Radiation Environments

Jean-Luc Autran, Professeur, Université Aix-Marseille Lucas Sterpone, Professeur, École polytechnique de Turin Frédéric Saigné Professeur, Université de Montpellier Lionel Torres, Pr[r]

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Analyzing the Wien filters for the DANTE ion accelerator

Analyzing the Wien filters for the DANTE ion accelerator

Figure 1-1: DANTE Tandem Accelerator [4] 1.2 Analyzing Wien Filters for DANTE In the region of the accelerator labeled ’Beam Steering’ in Figure 1-1, there are elec- tromagnetic particle filters, known as Wien filters, designed to isolate an ion species within the beam. Wien filters use static electric and magnetic fields to filter ions by both their masses and energies. At the low energy end of the accelerator, all ions are accelerated to the same energy, therefore the Wien filters can select ions based on their masses. However, after the ions have been accelerated to the terminal voltage and pass through the stripping foil, they can have a variety of different charge states, and thus a variety of different energies. Therefore, the ions at the target end of the accelerator vary in both mass and energy making it difficult to filter ions.
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Designing the engaging Energy-Box    Bridging the gap between energy control systems and users' energy awareness

Designing the engaging Energy-Box Bridging the gap between energy control systems and users' energy awareness

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