TheSPIRAL2MachineProtectionSystem is currently under design. PLCs and fast electronic cards are under preliminary design, for a realization scheduled in 2013. The technical complexity of theSPIRAL2system is directly linked to the large variety of accelerated beams, in terms of intensities (several orders of magnitude) and energies, and to the beam time structure, which may vary in a very large bandwidth. The MPS will have to be in operation forthe second semester of 2013, forthe commissioning of theSPIRAL2 injector.
Figure 2: Accelerator schematic layout. The RIB FacilityThe RIB production process will be achieved through target ion/source systems using different techniques. A first way is based on the use of a carbon converter generating neutrons from the deuterons beam impinging on a uranium carbide target; the neutron flux therefore generates fission reactions so producing a large variety of rare isotopes. An other alternative consists in sending other types of beams on targets/sources assemblies so producing rare ions by different reaction types. So, a 1+ ions beam is produced and sent either to an identification system, a new low energy experimental area or a 1+/N+ charge booster. Lastly the N+ rare ion beam will be transported to the existing CIME cyclotron accelerating
A B S T R A C T
The WEST platform aims at testing ITER like W divertor targets in an integrated tokamak environment. To operate long plasma discharges, IR thermography is required to monitor the main plasma facing components by means of real time surface temperature measurements, while providing essential data for various physics studies. To monitor the new divertor targets, the WEST IR thermography protectionsystem has been deeply renewed, to match the new tokamak con ﬁguration. It consists of 7 endoscopes located in upper ports viewing the whole lower divertor and the 5 heating devices. Electronic devices and computers allow data storage of ≈3 Gb/s IR images and real time video frames processing at 50 Hz rate, to ensure theprotection of the main plasma facing components during plasma discharges by a feedback control of the power injected by the heating systems.
4 Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele, Romania
Abstract. The proton, deuteron and alpha induced reactions are of a great interest forthe assessment of induced radioactivity of accelerator components, targets and beam stoppers as well as isotope production for medicine and also to nuclear astrophysics. We present a new irradiation chamber for activation measurements, that forms a prolongation of long-term experimental activities using stacked-foil activation technique in NPI CAS, ˇRež. The chamber is based on an airlock system and is coupled to a pneumatic transfer system delivered by KIT Karlsruhe. This system is installed in GANIL/SPIRAL2-NFS and will be used for proton, deuteron and alpha particle activation measurements with long- and short-lived isotopes.
All procedures were performed by clinically well experienced vitreoretinal surgeons. General anesthesia was provided with a combination of ketamine (35 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg) intramuscularly. The right eye was instilled with cyclopentolate (1%) and phenylephrine (10%) 30 minutes before surgery. Topical tetracaine (0.5%) was applied just before surgery. The conjunctiva was incised limbally 270° from 9 to 6 o’clock with a vertical incision at 12 o’clock, creating two flaps. A 20G infusion cannula was sutured to the sclera in the 4 o’clock position 1 mm posterior to the limbus and a balanced salt solution (BSS, Endosol, Allergan Medical Optics) was started. Two 20G sclerotomies were made in the 10 and 2 o’clock positions. A BIOM 90-D lens (Oculus) was used to visualize the fundus, and an Accurus surgical systemmachine (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) was used for surgery. A standard endo-illuminating light probe (Alcon) was introduced through the 10 o’clock sclerotomy (illumination level 80%), and a vitreous cutter (Innovit, Alcon) was inserted through the 2 o’clock sclerotomy. Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) was created by positioning the vitrectomy probe at the margin of the disk and applying suction (100 mmHg) while pulling on the probe. PVD was confirmed visually as the posterior vitreous cortex separated from the posterior pole. All vitreous in the central fundus
Today’s IoT includes overly-permissive or excessively-inhibited systems, a problem that grows as we put increasingly sensitive and valuable devices on the Internet. The resulting complexity makes IoT difficult to use, while exposing Internet infrastructure to unnecessary risks ranging from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks 3 to power generation and distribution threats. 4,5 Yet, we welcome helpful IoT devices into our homes and workplaces – the same devices that compromise the integrity of critical systems. This paper considers common IoT security threats and presents the concept of a “Cognitive ProtectionSystem” comprising “Cognitive Firewalls” and “Cognitive Supervisors” using system models in conjunction with machine learning and artificial intelligence to identify anomalous behaviors and proactively test the impact of commands to improve the resilience and safety of the IoT. We explore the concept of a Supervisor in the context of a fictional home heating system, and develop a functioning Cognitive Firewall securing a real voice activated robotic arm.
the neutrons therefore produced initiate a fission process on a Uranium carbide target, with a fission rate from 5.10 13 to 10 14 fissions/second. The fission
products are transferred to an ion source from which they are extracted (1+ beam) and transported to a 1+/N+ charge booster. The second production cave, (a "yellow" production module cave being a medium radioactive zone), mainly dedicated to other types of reactions (ion beams on different targets, fusion- evaporation, transfer reactions) will allow to generate a 1+ rare ions beam also sent to the charge booster. The N+ rare ions are therefore transported either to the new low energy cave named DESIR or to the existing so-called CIME cyclotron post accelerating the beam finally sent to the Ganil experimental area. This last point clearly shows that the existing Ganil machine will be tightly coupled with the new Spiral2 project and this point has to be taken into account forthe control system design and implementation.
Figure 7: General layout forthe RIB part.
TIS Production SystemForthe production of the RIBs at the future ISOL facility SPIRAL 2 different production methods are being foreseen. The primary beams (d, p or heavy ions) will impinge on different target materials and produce the RNBs. The targets are heated above 2000°C to decrease the diffusion time of the products that will then effuse toward an ion source for transformation to 1+ ions. In order to be able to reach so far unexplored regions of the
The ACCTs are faster with rise times about 1µs and with minimum levels less than 10µA.
The measurements of intensities and transmissions are required forthe accelerator tuning (command-control) and the beam controls for safety (MachineProtectionSystem: MPS). The difference of the measured intensities gives the transmission of the MEBT, Linac and HEBT lines.
Figure 2: General view of BEM installed at diagnostic box of LINAC.
The first part is systemfor wire insertion which allows inserting the wire into the beam and making their positioning with precision less than 100 µm. Tungsten wires 150 microns diameter are fixed on stainless steel frame inside of three holders. Each holder has dimensions 50 mm × 50 mm where tungsten wire is fixed at diagonally across. Wires of the next BEM are fixed in their holders at perpendicular direction to the wires of previous BEM for minimization of influence one detector to another and on LINAC beam. The three positions of wires allow replacing on wire to another in case of damaging one without disassembling all mechanism. The frame with wire holders is connected thru isolator with rod of linear actuator which has a length of the moving 178mm. The rod is moved by brushless motor thru thesystem of screw-nut. The brushless motor is a part of the Siemens SIMATIC 110 which also includes power supply and control module. Motor and mechanical parts of actuator are mounted on air side of flange CF100.
a major experimental system developed forSPIRAL2. It is designed for very low cross section experiments at low (<15MeV/u) energy. It will receive the very high intensity (more than 1pµA) stable ion beams accelerated by the superconducting LINAG accelerator of SPIRAL2. S 3 will be notably used forthe study of rare nuclei produced by fusion evaporation reactions, such as superheavy elements and neutron-deficient isotopes. Such experiments require a high transmission of the products of interest but also a separation of these nuclei from unwanted species. Hence S 3 must have a large acceptance but also a high selection power including physical mass resolution. These properties are reached with the use of seven large aperture superconducting quadrupole triplets which include sextupolar and octupolar corrections in a two- stage separator (momentum achromat followed by a mass spectrometer) that can be coupled to the SIRIUS implantation-decay spectroscopy station or to the REGLIS 3 gas cell with laser ionization to provide very pure beams for low energy experiments. S 3 is now in the construction phase. We will present the scientific objectives of S 3 as well as the current status of thefacility and its different elements.
The first part of theSPIRAL2facility, which entered in the construction phase at GANIL in France, will be composed of an ion source, a deuteron/proton source, an RFQ and a superconducting linear accelerator delivering high intensities, up to 5mA and 40MeV forthe deuteron beams. As part of the MEBT commissioning, the beam energy will be measured on the BTI (Bench of Intermediate Test) at the exit of the RFQ. At the exit of the LINAC, thesystem has to measure but also to control the beam energy. The control consists in ensuring that the beam energy is under a limit by taking account of the measurement uncertainty. The energy is measured by a method of time of flight; the signal is captured by non- intercepting capacitive pick-ups. This paper presents also the results obtained in terms of uncertainties and dynamics of measures.
- The slow chopper, developed by INFN Catania, could be tested on line and gave excellent results : Transition times below 30 ns were confirmed as well as the duty cycle range from 0.1‰ to 99.99%. The device can operate up to 10 kV, up to 1 kHz. The chopper will be used to manage the beam duty cycle. It is also a MachineProtectionSystem device which stops the beam when an unwanted event occurs (lost beam, internal failure, etc…) - Finally, we had also the opportunity to discover some technical weak points like the response delay of the magnet power supplies, and test successfully on line the corrections proposed by the constructors.
suction in order to increase the accuracy of the release rate (see fig. 1 and fig. 2 for detailed plans of the machines used to release fruit flies (MSRM1) and tsetse flies respectively (MSRM2)). All the components are made of stainless steel. Unlike other machines, such as rotating conveyor or auger machines (previously used in Mexico), the smart machine has no longitudinal moving surface which is a great mechanical advantage that prevents physical damage to the insects. The material moves through micro vibration on a flat horizontal stainless steel tray that vibrates thanks to a powerful electromagnet moving horizontally 0.9 to 1.1 mm at 100 to 300 Hz. The release rate is controlled electronically by varying the frequency, power (acceleration) and displacement (amplitude) of this surface. These variables are operated by a digital controller and a program adapted to the different needs of the project (see Text S1), in this case the calibration of flies per hectare. Themachine self-calibrates during the flight without the intervention of the pilot or other operator, thus avoiding human error. The gates are opened and closed automatically when entering or exiting the release area or when conditions are not appropriate forthe material to be released.
To simulate these potential fires, a pool fire and a spray fire were used in the tests. The engine fire scenarios consisted of a pan fire located between the cross members of the engine compartment floor and a spray fire located centrally on top of the engine pack. The pan, measuring 280 mm by 440 mm, was fitted with a resistive coil of 20 gauge Nichrome wire on the side of the pan for ignition, and a thermocouple was attached to monitor the ignition and extinguishment of the fire. The flame under the engine was also monitored using a photodiode flame sensor mounted near the fuel tank.
THE RADIO FREQUENCY QUADRUPOLE (RFQ)
The localization of the RFQ requires fiducial points transferred on the top of the vacuum vessel by adjustable plates equipped with a conical centering-surface for a Taylor-Hobson-Sphere (see Fig. 2). These spheres are the only reference points which will be accessible. Their spatial coordinates will be given in the reference system of the object.
Most power devices have been characterised before their installation on the accelerator.
A small mismatching of the circulator port, can quickly affect the amplifier response. This can be a problem when maximum power is required but can be counteracted by a proper tuning of the T-line length (L1) in between the two devices. The phase angle of direct and forward powers corresponding to the optimum L1 has been identified for each kind of amplifier and will be used as control parameter.