9 So how should we use the term?
From all this, it seems clear that “**effect** **size**” can be used both in **a** broad sense and in **a** narrow sense , provided that the author **is** consistent and clarifies what they are talking about. In my opinion, the broad sense **is** more useful in general methodological discussions. The terms “unstandardized (or simple) **effect** **size**” and “standardized **effect** **size**” are widely used and perfectly capable of resolving any ambiguity. Using “**effect** **size**” in **a** broad sense doesn’t commit anyone to any particular statistical reporting practice. Anyone **is** free to point out limitations and possible dangers of reporting unstandardized **effect** sizes or standardized **effect** sizes. When the truth of **a** statement depends on whether it refers to standardized or unstandardized **effect** sizes, the term “**effect** **size**” without **a** qualifier should simply be avoided. Using “**effect** **size**” to **mean** only “standardized **effect** **size**” **is** problematic because it requires finding another term for unstandardized **effect** sizes. I don’t recall any user of the narrow definition proposing such **a** term, and even if they did, **a** different term could give the wrong impression that unstandardized and standardized **effect** sizes have nothing in common. Cohen and others were clear about the analogies between the two.

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or not. Majumder et al. [5] have provided **a** mechanistic argument
supporting the occurrence of ﬁsh-hook in all centrifugal separators while treating ﬁne and ultra ﬁne particles. The basis of their argument **is** that in **a** centrifugal force ﬁeld, there **is** **a** sudden drop in relatively coarser particles settling velocities due to Reynolds number restrictions. As scientists and practitioners alike share different opinions about this phenomenon, **an** attempt has been made here to assess whether measurement errors could possibly be responsible, on their own ac- count, for the ﬁsh-hook **effect**. For the sake of clarity, it **is** emphasized that the ﬁsh-hook **effect** that **is** being investigated in this work **is** that caused by particle **size** only. This work **is** not concerned with other factors that can also affect classiﬁcation, such as density variations

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The intuition regarding this result **is** best understood when considering **a** country’s total labor endowment L as the product of the **size** of the labor force N and **an** individual labor productivity parameter h: L = hN . In both our endogenous growth frameworks, the knowledge spillovers (i.e. increasing returns of the knowledge-creation function) lead to the traditional scale **effect**: **a** larger labor supply L leads to **a** higher growth rate. Whether this increase in L stems from **an** increase in h or in N however matters for the direction of the market-**size** **effect**, which operates on the demand side and stems from the use of variable elasticity preference classes. **A** larger population **size** N entails **a** decrease in firms’ endogenous mark-ups, which automatically leads to **an** more-than-proportional increase in the number of consumption good units being produced, finally ending up in **a** proportionally lower share of labor being devoted to R&D: the market **size** **effect** on growth **is** negative, dampening the positive scale **effect**. On the other hand, **a** higher level of qualification h (hence **a** higher income per capita) leads to higher mark-ups and **a** proportionally higher share of labor devoted to R&D: the market **size** **effect** on growth **is** positive, strenghtening the scale **effect**.

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3.2.2. **Size** **effect** on fatigue life
The fatigue life of each specimen **is** ﬁxed to the number of loading cycles leading to **a** 50% decrease of the sample stiffness.
**Size** effects are classically explored as the variation of **a** resistance parameter such as material failure stress. Concerning fatigue on notched specimen, the crack propaga- tion speed **is** studied in terms of Paris law parameters (Carpinteri et al., 2004; Ba˘zant et al., 1991). In our case dealing with the growth of **a** damaged zone from **a** smooth surface, **size** effects exist but no models are available in the literature. As **a** ﬁrst ap- proach for fatigue of asphalt mixture, we can explore the **size** **effect** on the number of cycles to failure (fatigue life) of each specimen. The fatigue life **is** **a** relevant indicator of the material resistance to fatigue but dependant on the loading level, so we will consider each loading level as **an** independent specimen set.

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In meta-analyses or in multicenter clinical trials, there **is** **a** need to take into account the trial or center **effect** to avoid the Simpson’s paradox that may lead to biased estimates [11–13]. Different authors have discussed the use of Cox models with either stratification or fixed **effect**, or random effects to account for the center **effect** in **a** multicenter clinical trial [14–16] or the trial **effect** in **a** meta-analysis [17–20] in presence of baseline haz- ard heterogeneity and/or treatment **effect** heterogeneity between centers or trials. Several papers have also com- pared one-stage or two-stage methods to estimate the hazard ratio in individual patient data (IPD) meta- analyses [20–22]. All these studies focused on the esti- mation of the treatment **effect** through the use of the hazard ratio, but so far only one has focused on the use of the rmstD t ð Þ in IPD meta-analyses [6]. In this latter study, Wei and colleagues investigated three two-stage methods to estimate the rmstD t ð Þ from **an** IPD meta- analysis: two non-parametric methods – one based on pseudo-values [23] and one based on the Kaplan-Meier estimate – and **a** flexible parametric survival model [24]. In their study, the rmstD t ð Þ was estimated as **an** aggre- gation of the rmstD t ð Þ estimated in each trial using **a** fixed **effect** meta-analysis model. The authors showed via simulations and two case studies that the three methods produced similar results in terms of bias and coverage probability of the confidence intervals.

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scrutiny on moral grounds. Millo has shown how these financial products were gradually disentangled from such moral issues and dissociated from gambling (Millo 2003). MacKenzie notes that with the Black-Scholes-Merton model this
disentanglement **is** complete. The Black-Scholes formula defends the legitimacy of the very idea of **an** options market, on which rational calculations can be made. It imposes the market that it describes, by transforming options and derivatives into economic goods whose prices can be calculated objectively. The accusation of gambling and immorality automatically falls away. MacKenzie adds – and this point **is** strategic – that **a** **difference** **is** thus created: the new market **is** different from the preceding one. Economists do not simply legitimize, reveal or express practices and existing models: "The Black-Scholes-Merton model did more than simply express price patterns that were already there. The use of models altered price patterns […]." Of interest from the point of view of convergence, under consideration here, **is** the fact that **a** competing economics, born before and outside academia (**an** economics in the wild), helped to lay the ground by furthering this disentanglement. The economics in question was chartism, the history of which has been studied in detail by Preda. Apart from competition between the two forms of economics (Chartism assumes the existence of significant regularities in the forms of price variations, whereas the Black-Scholes-Merton model posits **a** random walk), there **is** profound agreement on the economic nature of options (which no longer risk being likened to gambling). This might explain why chartist practices are still being used in the field, in parallel with or as **a** complement to the Black-Scholes-Merton model.

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provide evidence supporting this mechanism.
By simply changing the solvent from one glycol ether to another, the Si NP **size** distribution **is** significantly altered. Fig. 1 shows representative TEM images and histograms of the **size** distribution of Si NPs synthesized in four different glycol ethers. The results are not immediately logical, the trend in **size** **is** not linearly connected to the number of ether units, and oddly THF produces particles where its linear analogue, diethyl ether, does not. The smallest Si NPs were obtained in diglyme, having **an** average diameter of 6 ± 2 nm. Si NPs synthesized in THF have **a** **size** centred around 8 ± 8 nm. The synthesis in glyme offers **a** large range of Si NP sizes: from 5 to 60 nm; however half of the NPs have **a** diameter between 5 and 10 nm. In tetraglyme, **a** **size** maximum distribution occurs at 15 nm, with **a** substantial quantity of particles being larger than 20 nm. Perhaps the substantially larger **size** observed in tetraglyme **is** due to its viscosity, slowing NP diffusion away from the reactive surface. Pure, crystalline Si NPs are produced by this room temperature method, as confirmed with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy (Fig. 2). The Si NPs contain diffraction planes, visible using HRTEM (Fig. 2a). The d-spacing for the planes in this orientation were 0.19 nm, which correspond to the {220} hkl plane for the diamond cubic structure. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indexes to the [-111] zone axis of cubic silicon, the expected crystallographic structure. Si nanoparticles with **a** chlorinated surface become charged by observation under the electron beam and thus leave the TEM grid after ~6 s of exposure time. This short window of observation did not allow us to do EDX spectra of the silicon nanoparticles. However, we performed electron diffraction on particles of all sizes and

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are associated with **an** increase of corticosteroid
blood levels in cattle. These support the hypothesis that glucocorticoids act as inducers of reactivation of BHV-1 (Sheffy and Davies 1972, Thiry et al 1985 c, 19871. Other stimuli of reactivation, ie supe- rinfection with parainfluenza 3 (PI-3) (Mensik et al 1976) and infestation with Dictyocaulus viviparus (Msolla et al 1983, Thiry et al 1985 b), do not directly produce **an** increase of corticosteroid blood levels. They may represent stressful conditions for cattle, but other mechanisms may be proposed in these two cases. The possible implication of pros- taglandins in the appearance of recurrent lesions

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PRELIMINARY AND INCOMPLETE: PLEASE DO NOT QUOTE
Abstract:
This paper explores intergenerational educational mobility for three groups of individuals: Christian natives, Christian immigrants and Muslim immigrants. We develop **an** econometric specification for educational attainment which shows that **a** higher level of parent education increases differently the child education among the three groups with **a** special advantage for daughters. We find higher intergenerational correlation for Christian natives than for Muslims immigrants, but **an** intermediate level for Christian immigrants. For the three communities, we show **an** advantage for mother education; however this advantage differs between daughters and sons. Furthermore, we find significant effects of family variables such as birth order, family **size** or sibling composition which vary among the three groups. The gap between Christian and Muslim immigrants remains approximately low and **a** possible convergence of education levels **is** possible given **an** educational system mainly public and free.

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2. Accounting for particle **size** distribution measurement error in estimation of the partition function of the hydrocyclone 2.1. Mass balance solution with particle **size** distribution error
Mass balancing **is** **an** important topic in extractive metallurgy. This section recaps on the set of equations that can be used to reconcile the measured particle **size** distributions around **a** hydrocyclone. The purpose **is** to give utter transparency to the approach that **is** used in this paper for propagating the experimental particle **size** distributions' measurement errors right through to the estimation of the error associated with the partition function of the hydrocyclone. One side value of this section **is** to give the practitioner **a** summarized account of results that can be readily used to estimate the partition function from measurements. The results that are presented hereafter are largely based on the two-product mass balancing solution published by Bazin and Hodouin [10] . Notations follow closely those of these authors also so the reader can refer back to their original work without obfuscating change in notation.

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slackening screws and changing the depth of **a** resonance. One may conclude from such data that while floor **size** **is** **an** issue, there are other factors that cause results for nominally identical floors to be significantly different.
The results for the tire and the walker are similar from the point of view of frequency; the smaller floors show peaks in the response at 50 Hz while the larger floor has **a** peak around 25 Hz. The peak levels for the tire (although at different frequencies) have about the same amplitude while the levels from the walker are about 10 dB different. **A** **difference** of around 20 dB **is** expected from the simple treatment given above which evidently does not work well with these kinds of floors.

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Muscle oxygenation in the VL was continuously recorded 5 min before and during the entire intermittent fatigue protocol by means of **a** three-channel, portable continuous-wave NIRS device (PORTAMON, peak wavelengths of 750 nm and 850 nm, Artinis Medical System, Zetten, The Netherlands). Oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentration, expressed in micromolars, were calculated from changes in optical density by using **a** modified Lambert-Beer law for which **a** differential path length factor **is** used to correct photon scattering within the tissue (31). The tissue saturation index (TSI), expressed in percent, was also calculated. The TSI corresponds to the oxygenated hemoglobin proportion of total hemoglobin and **is** derived from the relative absorption coefficients obtained from the slopes of light attenuation at three interoptode distances and by taking the diffusion scattering law into account (32). The NIRS probe was positioned on the VL midway between the lateral epicondyle and the great trochanter of the femur. It was securely strapped to ensure that the probe did not move during the experimental session. **An** opaque black fabric was placed and fixed over the probe to prevent signal interference by ambient light. The subcutaneous fat layer thicknesses, where the probe was placed, were measured using **a** B-mode ultrasound (Echo Blaster 128 CEXT-1Z; Telemed, Vilnius, Lithuania) with **a** 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. Adipose tissue thicknesses over the VL muscle were 6.6 ± 2.5 and 5.8 ± 2.3 mm in boys and men, respectively (P < 0.31). Considering that the adipose tissue thickness was relatively low and the penetration depth of the NIRS signal **is** more or less half of the emitter-detector distance (4 cm), the changes in signals reflected the muscle hemodynamic changes. NIRS signals were recorded and sampled at 10 Hz using the Oxysoft software (Artinis Medical System, Zetten, The Netherlands).

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addressed and it has been shown that both electro-migration and diffusion result in **a** decrease
of the angular velocity of the cylinder and **an** increase of the threshold field. **A** modified
Quincke model has been proposed to calculate analytically the rotor spin rate. This model
accounts for the electro-migration inside the charge layer which **is** present around the rotor

Summary
Pediatric chronic pain **is** **an** important health concern worldwide. Intensive interdisciplinary pain (IIPT) and multimodal treatment (MMT) are the two main service models. Unfortunately, descriptions of these published interventions lack the details necessary to reproduce them in different contexts, and comparison studies between the models are rare. This study had two main objectives: 1) analyse the theoretical foundation of the IIPT program, and 2) analyse the effects of **a** day-hospital donor funded IIPT compared to those of **an** outpatient MMT. To evaluate the IIPT theoretical foundation, **a** 13-member stakeholder advisory group was recruited, and **a** logic analysis process was used. To evaluate the effects of the IIPT, six outcome domains were prioritized by the same advisory group using **a** nominal group technique. **An** **effect** analysis was then conducted, using **a** pre-post study design, collecting data on youth participating in **an** IIPT and those enrolled in **an** MMT at the same facility. Interviews using **a** narrative timeline then followed with **a** subset of youth and parent participants. The results highlighted the sound theoretical foundation of the IIPT. Furthermore, positive effects were demonstrated in youth participating in both the IIPT and MMT, with each treatment revealing advantages and disadvantages. Merging findings and comparing the results provided **an** opportunity to gain **a** deeper understanding of what treatments work, and for whom. Some insight into why these treatment options work and suggestions for intervention improvements also emerged. Not only did this study generate the knowledge pivotal to alleviating the suffering and improving the lives of youth with chronic pain and their families in Alberta, in Canada, and beyond, it set **a** new standard of patient engagement for evaluation research of complex rehabilitation intervention.

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2. Results and discussion Ising Model
As **a** first two-states model, Wajnflasz and Pick [7] introduced the Ising model to describe the spin transition behavior in which only “short-range interaction” between the spin-crossover sites **is** considered, which means, for **a** 1D system, the four nearest neighbours. Boussekou et al. [11] made **a** thorough analysis of this model in the **mean** field approximation and they reproduce, with **a** negative short-range interaction, **a** double step spin transition. Furthermore, Linares et al. [10] introduced **a** long range interaction in the Hamiltonian besides the short range interaction in order to reproduce hysteresis in 2D compounds. With these contributions, the Hamiltonian include now the short and long range interactions to which we added **an** energetic contribution “L” [18-20] , « to the ligand-field of edge molecules of **a** SC nanoparticle ». This term allows us to explicitly take in account the interactions between molecules on the edge and the environment in contact, which weakens the molecules’ field. In this case we can now define the Hamiltonian with the following equation:

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Abstract
In response to the growing concern about concussions, experts have stated **a** need to educate athletes and members of the sport environment about the injury. Although the type of
information that should be included in concussion education has generally been agreed upon (e.g., signs and symptoms, management strategies, long-term sequelae), it **is** not clear at this point the best way to disseminate this information. Most initiatives have used printed educational materials and web-based platforms such as websites and social networking sites to deliver concussion education. Evidence about the effectiveness of these modalities **is** currently either inconclusive or has suggested that they are not effective when used as **a** standalone strategy. There have also been some concussion education interventions published in the literature. Results of the interventions suggests there are short-term improvements in knowledge, but limited **effect** on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors beyond three months. This chapter provides **an** overview of contemporary concussion education efforts and discusses implications for future research and practice.

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well distributed queue takes place from the entrance to the exit, by contrast with Figure 10 where we see that the agent rush and accumulate in the right part of the domain. Similarly, the deceleration **is** much stiffer in the latter case. It **is** not surprising that the interactions through controls have the **effect** of smoothing the distribution of states and the optimal feedback law. On the bottom of Figure 10, we see that when t **is** close to the horizon, the distribution **is** mainly concentrated near the middle of the domain but slightly on the right: this corresponds to the agents that have reached the zone where f 0 has the smaller value, i.e. 1, but for which reaching the exit before T becomes too costly.

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In this paper, we study crack propagation and **size** **effect** in concrete specimens combining some of the above experimen- tal and numerical tools. More speciﬁcally, three point bending tests performed at Ecole Centrale Nantes are presented and crack openings are estimated with the DIC technique [10] . **An** isotropic non-local damage model **is** used for the numerical simulations and **an** optimization algorithm **is** used for the calibration of the material parameters, as suggested in [13] . In addition however, not only global but also local variables (damage distribution and crack opening proﬁles) are confronted to the experimental results. Parametrical studies are presented and important interesting conclusions are drawn about the ability and limitations of the chosen non-local model to reproduce crack propagation and **size** **effect** in concrete specimens.

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very beginning of the process) and when the algorithm faces sudden reconfiguration (i.e., when the time-varying channel to be estimated **is** affected by **a** sudden change in its model).
To improve the efficiency of the transient behavior of the LMS algorithm, many solutions have exploited self-adaptive step **size**, where the constant step **size** of the steepest descent **is** replaced by **a** variable step **size** that **is** tuned according to some criterion that provides **a** measure of the adaptation process state. The objective **is** to have **a** large step **size** value during the convergence mode, and **a** small but well-suited value after convergence (i.e closed to the optimal step-**size**) [16]. The step-**size** update can be additive or sometimes multiplicative, and the criteria can be based on counting passages through zero (i.e., on sign changes) [17], [18], on square instantaneous error measures [19], [20], or on other statistics that are based on the filtering of the output of the algorithm [21], [7], [22], [23], [24]. Most of these algorithms also limit the step-**size** evolution, with **a** maximal value to ensure convergence, and **a** minimal value (which **is** strictly positive in the case of multiplicative updates) to conserve reactivity [25], [26]. These methods often offer very good initial convergence speed, but can suffer from **a** trade-off between **a** desired reactivity (in the case of reconfigurations) and obtained MSE after convergence. This trade-off can be embodied by introducing the False Alarm Probability (FAP), defined as the probability for the step to quit its minimal value in asymptotic mode. Monitoring the FAP **is** matter of importance as false alarms lead to excess MSE, and thus loss of performance. This **is** particularly the case with additive updates such that the return time (i.e., the time for the step to re-converge after **a** reconfiguration to its minimal value, which **is** regarded as **an** equilibrium) **is** longer than with multiplicative updates [27].

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Uzawa’s algorithm was introduced to solve minimization problems with con- straints. The main idea of this algorithm **is** to use **a** projected gradient descent on the dual problem. Because of its simplicity and efficiency, Uzawa’s algorithm **is** often used in practical problems. We recall that the output of this algorithm **is** **a** sequence which converges toward the solution of the primal minimization problem. In the first part of this paper we prove that we can use the same algorithm to find solutions of **a** wider class of systems than the ones which characterize saddle points of lagrangians.

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