the chemicals used by beekeepers inside the hives are frequently found in the apicultural matrices [30,38240]. Amitraz residues (amitraz I and amitraz II) were mainly detected in bees at the beginning of autumn (periods SO8 and SO9), which corresponds to periods of treatments against Varroa destructor. In the pollen matrix, this acaricide was detected during the periods AM8, SO8, AM9 and SO9, which correspond to the end of the beekeeping season with anti-Varroa treatments and the beginning of the next beekeeping season. The presence of amitraz in the pollen matrix might be the result of transfer from contaminated bees because its use as a plant-protective acaricide is no longer authorized in France. Surprisingly, amitraz residues were identified in honey samples for all the eight periods. In contrast, Maver and Poklukar  and Martel et al.  did not detect any amitraz residue in honey after treatment with this compound, which may be explained by their LOD and LOQ being at least ten-fold higher than ours. Coumaphos, another acaricide extensively used against Table 3. Summary of contaminant residues detections in honey samples from westernFrance honey bee colonies.
Annual-scale adaptation of a soil heterotrophic respiration model to three agricultural sites in Belgium and South-WesternFrance.
P. Buysse 1 , V. Le Dantec 2 , P. Mordelet 2 , A. Debacq 1 , M. Aubinet 1
1 University of Liège – Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unit of Biosystem Physics, Gembloux, Belgium. 2 Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère (CESBIO), Toulouse, France.
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reconstructions of the temperature variability, pointing out time analysis rather than spatial analysis. Masson-Delmotte et al. (2005) analysed long-time (400 years) tree- ring data series from timber woods and oaks of the area of Rennes (Brittany, westernFrance), to show the precipitation seasonality and the drought frequency in a detailed climatic reconstruction for all western Europe. The aim of this present paper is to pro-
The historical background
It is currently accepted that scientific research on the islands of WesternFrance arose from the expeditions of archaeologists and naturalists (Brigand, 2002). From the early 19th Century, several ‘antiquarians’ started to explore these islands, including clergymen, doctors and teachers who were mainly interested in the monumental remains (megalithic monuments). They began their exploration on the larger islands of Brittany (such as Belle-Île-en-Mer, Groix, Ushant, etc.), since these were populated and were more easily reached thanks to the help of the local population providing transport by boat. However, the antiquarians quickly turned their attention to small islands, especially those grouped in archipelagos (such as Molène or in the Morbihan Gulf). Between 1865 and 1920, these pioneer archaeologists discovered and described sites on 26 islands in Brittany. This first period corresponds to the predominance of the general interest for Neolithic monumental remains, both on islands as well as on the Continent. The doctor G. de Closmadeuc (1828-1918) bought Gavrinis island in the Morbihan Gulf so he could explore and repair (or rebuild) the famous Neolithic passage grave. Close to this island, he discovered the stone circles of Er Lannic, partly submerged (Figure 3), and went on to raise the question of landscape evolution and sea-level changes. In 1901, P. Du Chatellier published an inventory of island monuments in the department of Finistère (Ushant, Molène archipelago and several small islands) and carried out some excavations (eg on the Neolithic monuments of Melon island). During the period 1897-1918, the Captain L. Le Pontois compiled an inventory of the megalithic monuments of Groix Island, sometimes assisted by P. du Chatellier, and explored some of the sites, while the Abbot Lavenot spent several years exploring the heritage of the Houat and Hoedic islands.
Disentangling the relative contribution of the various factors underlying Middle Palaeolithic industrial variability remains one of the foremost problems for researchers interested in Neandertal technological and behavioural adaptations. The site of Combe-Grenal (Dordogne) has ﬁgured prominently in these discussions given its long stratigraphic sequence and rich archaeological record that extends from MIS 6 to MIS 3 and contains all of F. Bordes' Mousterian facies. Departing from a strict typological approach, we provide a revised vision of the site's sequence focused on individualising lithic production systems. We investigate to what extent typologically different industries, beyond their separation imposed by the very idea of discrete Mousterian facies, nevertheless portray comparable production systems. By eschewing a chronology of the traditional Mousterian facies, our technological approach to the Combe-Grenal as- semblages succeeded in identifying a clear stratigraphic succession where strictly typological approaches had previously failed. Moreover, comparison with other regional sequences shows the succession of Mousterian technological systems identiﬁed at Combe-Grenal not to be an exception in south-westernFrance. We propose a revised chronology for the site's sequence based on a correlation of changes in the structure of regional faunal communities with independent palaeo-environmental data. Finally, comparing technological data with raw material provisioning strategies and elements of faunal exploi- tation, such as prey availability, provides insights concerning the interpretation of Mousterian variability and the investigation of changing patterns of Neandertal landscape use.
For some time, the dead were still deposited in the sepulchral ar- eas of monuments, some of which were built over a millennium ear- lier. Sometimes, over a hundred dead were deposited in chambers that only contained a dozen burials during the course of the pre- ceding period. In central westernFrance, considerable Artenacian pottery deposits in the facade suggest a revival of commemorative rites, although it is impossible to determine whether members of the community were celebrated in this way or whether this was a way of making a claim to the construction of prestigious predecessors. The conceptual links built up in different ways during the preceding millennia began to come undone (Laporte et al. 2011, 323). Certain alignments of standing stones undoubtedly date to the beginning of the Bronze Age, as was clearly demonstrated for the monument of Château‐Bu at Saint‐Just in Ille‐et‐Vilaine. Individual graves under the mounds of the “little princes of Armorica” are large stone cists. After that, the tapered silhouettes of carefully made Iron Age stelae were only erected more than a thousand years later.
Model Save river
a b s t r a c t
Pesticides applied on crops are leached with rainfall to groundwater and surface water. They threat the aquatic environment and may render water unfit for human consumption. Pesticide partitioning is one of the pesticide fate processes in the environment that should be properly formalised in pesticide fate mod- els. Based on the analysis of 7 pesticide molecules (alachlor, atrazine, atrazine’s transformation product deethylatrazine or DEA, isoproturon, tebuconazole and trifluralin) sampled from July 2009 to October 2010 at the outlet of the river Save (south-westernFrance), the objectives of this study were (1) to check which of the environmental factors (discharge, pH, concentrations of total suspended matter (TSM), dis- solved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) could control the pesticide sorption dynamic, and (2) to establish a relationship between environmental factors, the partition coefficient K d
genera and proposed that the “sole distinction of Pagiophyllum from Brachyphyllum is its longer free leaf ”. He speciﬁed in the emended diagnoses of Brachyphyllum and Pagiophyllum “leaf composed of a basal cushion tapering into a small free part, length of free part (upper surface beyond leaf cushion) or total height of leaf and cushion (outward from shoot) less than width of leaf cushion” for the ﬁrst, whereas “leaf about as broad as its basal cushion, length exceeding width of cushion” for the second. Brachyphyllum was reported from many Cretaceous palaeobotanical sites of westernFrance (e.g. Coquand, 1860 ;
INRA, UMR1201 Dynafor, Chemin de Borde Rouge, CS 52627, F-31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
!"#$"%&#$'"()&#*$+)$(&,+'%-.%,(-$('.+/+.+#*0$1"+'"$2(3$4#$(25-+6#7$43$."#$89,."'92+)&$:9229)$;&,+'%-.%,#$<9-+'3$ reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-westernFrance. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation 5,('.+'#*0$(29)&$9."#,*0$1#,#$,#/#(-#7$(*$7+88#,#).+(.+)&$8('.9,*$98$8(,2*=$>+?$8(,2+)&$.35#*$1#,#$+7#).+6#7$@AB$"+--*+7#$ mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large ‘corporate’ farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) ‘hobby’ farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings.
We very much thank Guillaume Robin and the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research for inviting us to such a stimulating and productive conference. This article is a version of an unpublished lecture ( “The question of interpretation in the analysis of parietal art. The example of the Morbihan megaliths ”), given by one of us (SC) in September 2013 at the Eyzies Museum in Dordogne, France, as part of the programme Rencontres eur- opéennes du patrimoine. This paper was translated from French into English by Adriana Alexander, BA, PGCert, DPSI, with refer- ence to Dr. Alison Sheridan's translation of our presentation at the conference.
Vend´ ee 3 (15) 15 (11) 4 (1) 5 (1) 2 (1) 37(10) Total 6 (57) 56 (61) 29 (3) 21 (4) 16 (3) 51(7) Total 9 (140) 158 (195) 81 (15) 74 (14) 48(6) 54(9)
Our second main result is therefore the following: the max-min index for the simulation data clearly demons- trates that the law of 2010 generates a priori higher inequalities of voting power among Western municipalities of France. These inequalities have different explanations: First, the number of delegates of small municipa- lities very often decreases, while the number of delegates of the largest municipality remains the same or also decreases but not in the same proportion. For example, Caen (the major municipality of CA Caen La Mer ) holds 49 % of delegates according to the new law’s criteria, while the same municipality had only 36% of delegates before the new law. Looking at Table 23, we can easily see that the law gives to the largest municipality higher power compared to the previous situation. 24
The geochemical background can be well modelled by multiple lin- ear regression using elements (especially Fe and Al) constitutive of soil minerals, showing that natural TM concentrations mostly derive from mineral weathering. However, the most mobile elements were poorly modelled and alternatively, basic descriptive statistics can be used to estimate the natural levels of such elements in soils. Following both methods of TM background determination, several TMs were found to be naturally more abundant in calcareous than in non- calcareous soils, maybe because of a lower TM mobility at alkaline pH. The low mobility of TMs in calcareous soils may also favour the accumulation of contaminants in soils because more cases of TM con- tamination were detected in calcareous than in non-calcareous soils. The sources of contamination were multiple and dependent of the land-use history. However, none of the four methods used to estimate the fraction of exogenous TMs in the soils of the studied region was perfect and universal. Thus, our study emphasises the need to use sev- eral methods in order to be able to draw the best conclusion regarding the contamination status of a site. A combination of the decision tools used in this study showed that 24% of the agricultural soils of the Midi-Pyrénées region of France were contaminated by at least one TM. However, relatively low levels of contamination were measured and this predominantly concerned Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn. Copper contam- ination was mainly found in vineyards and orchards because of the long-term application of fungicides (the “Bordeaux mixture”), while livestock breeding was the major cause of multi-contamination by Cd, Pb and Zn in grasslands.
The authors would like to thank the directors of the NHs who authorized the survey and all their staff who took time to answer questionnaires. We warmly thank the participants to the 2016 applied epidemiology IDEA training for their involvement in all aspects of the study, and their teachers, particularly Delphine Antoine, Lisa King of Santé Publique France (ANSP). The authors also thank Dominique Le Goff and Pierre Guillaumot from Agence Régionale de Santé Bretagne (ARS) for fruitful discussions, Yann Le Strat from Santé Publique France for statistical support, and Narimane Nekkab from French School of Public Health (EHESP) for technical support. Finally, EHESP, ARS, ANSP, and the Centre d ’épidémiologie et de santé publique des armées (CESPA) have to be acknowledged for their logistical support.
2 G E O L O G I C A L S E T T I N G
West-central France is a slowly deforming intraplate region. It is composed of two Hercynian massifs, the Massif Central and the
Armorican Massif, separated by two great Mesozoic sedimentary basins, the Paris basin and the Aquitaine basin (Fig. 1). In the east, the Alps are separated from the Massif Central by the Rhˆene val- ley, which is part of the European Cenozoic rift system (as well as the Limagne graben). In the west, are the passive margins of the Atlantic ocean and the Bay of Biscay. The opening of the Bay of Biscay, beginning 114 Ma (Montardet et al. 1979; Olivet 1996), and now its closure by early stage subduction (Ayarza et al. 2004), together with the Pyrennean range separates the Iberian microplate from the European Plate. Synchronous to the development of the Cenozoic Limagne graben, volcanism occurred in the Massif Cen- tral but no volcanism has occurred west of the Sillon Houiller fault (SHF). This area is still potentially active as the youngest volca- noes are 7000 yr old (Nehlig et al. 2001). Several studies show a hot thermal anomaly beneath the Massif Central (Froidevaux et al. 1974; Vasseur 1982; Granet et al. 1995a; Sobolev et al. 1996), as- sociated with a mantle plume, whose origin is still debated (Merle & Michon 2001). The major faults of the Massif Central and the Armorican Massif are the SHF and the South Armorican shear zone (SASZ). The French Hercynian massifs are mainly composed of granitic and metamorphic rocks. The Paris and Aquitaine basins are composed of quasi-undeformed, unmetamorphosed sedimen- tary rocks. They have a maximum thickness of 3000 and 10 000 m
Strangely, the presence of tiger mosquitoes in different departments in the south and southwest of France was not retained as an explanatory variable in minimal models, in most cases. Indeed, the perception of arboviral disease risk was, on average, no higher among respondents work- ing in a hospital located in a department colonized by tiger mosquitoes than among those working in the north of France, where this vector species is absent. The variable “presence of tiger mosquitoes” was significant for the ana- lysis of risk perception only at the departmental level and for CHIK, particularly when studying the difference in risk perception between physicians working in the Hérault de- partment where CHIK cases occurred in 2014 [ 58 ] and those from all the other departments. The presence of human autochthonous cases of DEN and CHIK during the previous years in different French departments (see Additional file 1 : Appendix III) was an explanatory vari- able for disease risk perception at the department level, but only for Zika (see below). Moreover, like for the pres- ence of tiger mosquitoes, latitude was never an explana- tory variable in regression models, thus indicating that disease risk perception by this category of health profes- sionals is not sensitive to a north-south gradient. Conversely, the perception of the risk of DEN, CHIK and ZIKA epidemic spread was higher among respondents working in departments located on or close to the Mediterranean or Gulf of Biscay coasts than among those working in departments close to Germany or Switzerland.