Adam Gouge, Erwan Bocher, Nicolas Fortin, and Gwendall Petit
Institut de Recherche en Sciences et Techniques de la Ville (FR CNRS 2488), Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Bˆatiment T, 44321 Nantes, France
Abstract: We examine the impact of UrbanMobility Plans (UMP), imposed by the LAuRE law of December 30, 1996, on spatial accessibility to principal destinations, such as hospitals or schools. We use the open-source Geographical Information Sys- tem OrbisGIS, paired with its Open Geospatial Consortium complaint spatial database H2 and its extensions H2GIS and H2Network, to produce accessibility indicators. We cross these indicators with demographical data to produce service area maps and nu- merical statistics. These indicators may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of UMPs.
The two metrics that represent variety and novelty are meant to fill the gap left in ideation outputs evaluation by quantity alone. Indeed, Briggs & Reinig (2010) show that value in idea-quantity is insufficient to establish gains in idea-quality. Therefore, in asking travellers to state the problems they experience using some urbanmobility solution, a support is needed so that they can generate problems that most reflect their experience. Classical design tools that are not tailored to the nature of the system to be diagnosed fail to produce problems that cover relevant dimensions of the user experience related to the system of study. For instance, Kremer et al.(2017), even with a user-centred approach, still lacks travel stages integration and considers a segmented evaluation of the experience without taking into account the destination as part of the experience nor the causality between subjective and technical problems. For these reasons, this experiment highlights that it is vital to involve users (of the system to be diagnosed) in the design of stimuli for problem identification, not just design concepts generation.
paralysie au péage ? = Urbanmobility from paralysis to pricing? Actes du Colloque La régulation des déplacements urbains par leurs prix, 4, 5 et 6 décembre 1991 dans le cadre des Entretiens Jacques Cartier, Lyon
(France). Lyon : PRARSH. 1992. 363 p.
b University of Thessaly, Department of Civil Engineering, The Transportation Engineering Laboratory (TEL) c Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
Available big data have proliferated rapidly in the last decade and continue to grow in popularity. The existing new data sources such as Online Social Networks (OSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) influence many digital aspects in-order to shape/reshape normal life of people and other related parties such as businesses, stockholders etc. Urbanmobility is one of the considerable impacted domains, where many applications and services have been provided by implicating user activities and other city information. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive view on the influence of various sources of data in the users’ trips. To this end, at first we review relevant studies and available services that are designed to facilitate travelers’ life as well as we identify the existing gaps in this domain. Next we propose a framework iTrip, which aims to utilize data from different data sources as input and then, recommend/provide advance services to various type of customers. The outcome of this framework will provide a set of summarized recommendations, predictions, decisions, and plans to be used in decision-making for long/short distance transportation mechanisms. In addition, as a future direction of this study a set of ideas and topics is provided.
The present work is constrained by several limitations. The ﬁrst limitation is inherent to the data in general. On the one hand, the scale of the mobile network is coarse and prevents the estimation of urbanmobility at ﬁne-grained resolutions. In other words, mobile network geolocation cannot compete with the precision of GPS tracking outdoor, hence should be used for other purposes such as large scale mobility patterns of population. As a consequence the estimates derived at the zipcode scale obtain highest performance (less than 10% errors) while the smallest census block scale (IRIS) suffers from important error rates, three to six times higher. On the other hand, unlabeled data and missing ground truth are a persistent problem limiting possibilities for model training, calibration, testing and validation. In addition, several open issues persist concerning the transport mode inference model. First, it is not possible to perform an individual validation because of user privacy issues (e.g., risk of de-anonymization, need for individual user consent etc.). Second, the model generates a binary classiﬁcation into road or rail mode meanwhile there exist additional modes. This choice is motivated by the possibility to extract a subset of bi-modal labels associated to mobile network sectors. For other modes (e.g., bus, tramway, bike etc.), label extraction is not possible. Indeed, as mobile network sectors remain coarse while the transport networks are dense, there are generally several rail modes (e.g., underground and overground) or several road modes (e.g., bus and car), or both, within each sector. Concerning non-motorized modes such as walkers, they are initially undetected because the movements of walkers are too microscopic compared to the coarse scale of the mobile network and cellphones are considered in a stay position. Similarly, the bike mode is not guaranteed to be detected, unless in case of long distance trips involving a change of location area at the network scale (i.e., several kilometers). Third, the model associates one main mode to each cellphone trajectory despite the possible existence of multi-modal trips. Although we propose a heuristic-based solution for multi-modal trips, additional validation tests and ground truth information are required.
4 Laboratoire Genie Industriel, CentraleSupélec, Université Paris-Saclay firstname.lastname@example.org
Travelers interact with a large number and variety of products and services during their journeys. The quality of a travel experience depends on a whole urbanmobility system considered in space and time. This paper outlines the relevant concepts to be considered in designing urbanmobility. The goal is to provide a language and insights for the early stages of a design process. A literature review sheds light on the complexity of urbanmobility from technical, socio-technical, and user experience (UX) perspectives. Observations of experiences in urban areas provide data for describing and understanding travel experience patterns and issues. The paper proposes a conceptual model to describe and analyze different facets of traveler experience, and categorizes problems that travelers face when they interact with an urbanmobility system. A case study is reported illustrating the use of the conceptual model in identifying travel problems for a demand-responsive transport (DRT) service.
Mobility is more and more studied in many research ar- eas which one interests us : urbanmobility. These works are often achieved by a software development. Up today, many simulation softwares of prospective evolution like Mobisim  have been created. They help the analysis of particular systems. Due to their mobility representation, they can be applied to describe specific kinds of motion. For example, Vanbergue in  focuses on migrations in Bogota.
The research program Eval-PDU was launched from the request by Nantes Métropole, the community of communes of the Nantes urban area, for a methodology allowing to assess jointly the various environmental impacts of the actual (2000-2010) urbanmobility plan (UMP) and of the future plan (2011-2020), taking into account their social and economic consequences. This situation is a good illustration of the need of local pub- lic authorities for rigourously based tools to assess a series of impacts (air quality, noise, ...) effectively associated with various actions (or groups of actions) they lead. Beyond the monitoring of objective indicators, it is a matter of understanding and quantifying a cascade of physical and social causalities and, further, its consequences for the quality of life and its per- ception by the inhabitants. The need concerns as much ex post evaluations of what has already been done, as ex ante evaluations of what is being planned. A first one-year research-action grant with Nantes Métropole al- lowed to imagine the main features of the methodology and to build up consequently the project research team. Since January 2009 the program is funded for 3 years by the French national research agency (ANR) within its "Sustainable cities" program.
Thus, when it comes to daily mobility, MaaS is not a national and even less so a global dimension market. It is a multi-local market and it will probably require public support for everyday mobility. The tariffs of mobility services and the categories of users (e.g. young or senior, single user or families, etc.) will differ from one service to another and from one region of the world to another. Nevertheless, standards can be organised to reduce deployment costs from one city to another. This multi-local dimension makes MaaS unmanageable for a global stakeholder alone. Global companies offering new mobility services tend to focus on occasional travellers (representing at most 25% of the public transportation user-base) in very large cities such as Paris or London. For now at least, they operate mainly for people who can afford to pay a relatively high price for a mobility service (tourists and business travellers). Even if such offering is useful, it represents only 2% of trips. If we draw a parallel, we observe that Booking.com and Airbnb are successful in the hotel business because the room pricing and classification system (stars) are uniform categories throughout the world, and because customers are well-off citizens with a strong time value (business travellers and tourists). This business model is not applicable to everyday mobility. Figure 9 above also shows that the scattered institutional field is a real barrier for long distance travels, which are for now mainly done by car. If the goal is to make people leave their car as far away as possible from city centres and use trains, PT or bicycles instead, more institutional cohesion is needed. MaaS certainly has a role to play here as well.
is applicable to many different geographical and institutional entities. Future research will focus on these other more advanced and more granular scientific mobility profiles.
Scientific mobility indicators opens the door for analysis of global mobility trends and study of the evolution of the global scholarly workforce. At the same time, these indicators can provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of international collaboration (Chinchilla-Rodriguez et al., 2017). Moreover, because they are built on bibliometric data, mobility indicators can easily be combined with citation impact indicators (Sugimoto et al., 2017), allowing the possibility for further developments and a more nuanced understanding of mobility. However, these indicators are not free of caveats and limitations, which must be considered both, when constructing and interpreting them. Our distinction between migrants and travelers can contribute to the ongoing discussion on mobility, as it reflects the complexity of the phenomenon. The distinction also goes beyond the common perception of scholarly mobility in science as a physical act or a permanent move. The fact that scholars may be contributing to more than one institution/country with their publications reveals that the current research context allows them to establish ties with different countries beyond physical mobility. Further research should focus on expanding the theoretical interpretation of such indicators to provide more advanced research policy discussions around mobility.
Abstract: Cities are facing many sustainability issues in the context of the current global interdependency characterized by an economic uncertainty coupled to climate changes, which challenge their local policies aiming to better conciliate reasonable growth with livable urban environment. The urban dynamic models developed by the so-called “urban science” can provide a useful foundation for more sustainable urban policies. It implies that their proposals have been validated by correct observations of the diversity of situations in the world. However, international comparisons of the evolution of cities often produce unclear results because national territorial frameworks are not always in strict correspondence with the dynamics of urban systems. We propose to provide various compositions of systems of cities in order to better take into account the dynamic networking of cities that go beyond regional and national territorial boundaries. Different models conceived for explaining city size and urban growth distributions enable the establishing of a correspondence between urban trajectories when observed at the level of cities and systems of cities. We test the validity and representativeness of several dynamic models of complex urban systems and their variations across regions of the world, at the macroscopic scale of systems of cities. The originality of the approach resides in the way it considers spatial interaction and evolutionary path dependence as major features in the general behavior of urban entities. The models studied include diverse and complementary processes, such as economic exchanges, diffusion of innovations, and physical network flows. Complex systems dynamics is in principle unpredictable, but contextualizing it regarding demographic, income, and resource components may help in minimizing the forecasting errors. We use, among others, a new unique source correlating population and built-up footprint at world scale: the Global Human Settlement built-up areas (GHS-BU). Following the methodology and results already obtained in the European GeoDiverCity project, including USA, Europe, and BRICS countries, we complete them with this new dataset at world scale and different models. This research helps in further empirical testing of the hypotheses of the evolutionary theory of urban systems and partially revising them. We also suggest research directions towards the coupling of these models into a multi-scale model of urban growth.
concretely measure and visualize the structure and dynamics of urban networks, thereby creating a dialogue or common ground among the different schools of thought. Such an approach first permitted to identify the global properties of urban networks, i.e. their resemblance to theoretical models such as the scale-free and small-world networks. It also allowed to compare cities based on their various centralities in the network (Guimera et al., 2005), and to extract, from a large network, different and strongly interconnected subsystems, to test, for instance, the existence of barrier effects such as distance or borders. Few analyses, however, tackled the difficulty to study multiple linkages at a time, or analyzed the urban network by considering the socio-economic characteristics of the connected cities. In the world maritime network of cities, since the late 19 th century, the most populated nodes remained dominant until new hubs emerged thanks to progresses in shipping and port technology as well as operational modifications, as shown per using single linkage analysis and assortativity measures (Ducruet et al., 2018). Other studies could show the connivance between urban Gross Domestic Product, population, and centrality in airline urban networks. When it comes to multiple linkages, studies often looked at the degree of overlap of at least two transport modes on nodes and on links, but without taking into account the characteristics of cities (see Ducruet et al., 2011; Derudder et al., 2014). Should it be in natural or social sciences, the complex networks approach remains usually rather static and does not consider node attributes. Thus, the future or urban network research should lean towards the analysis of a fully-fledged network where nodes and links have multiple characteristics and evolve
Concerning the children and parents levels of income, we note that the average parent's hourly and yearly wage is higher, what can be the consequence of seniority.
Considering that the parents included in the sample have worked mostly during the communist period, one can wonder how inequalities of income, in particular, could be transmitted to children, as the society was pretty egalitarian. Of course, inequalities among the same sectors of activity or the same city or even province, could be low during this period. But as written earlier, even during the Mao Tse Dong period, inequalities between urban and rural areas and between provinces existed (Walder (1989)). Consequently, two determinants can be combined to justify the existence of inequalities in my sample: the inequalities in the seniority evolution of the wage structure; a relatively unegalitarian structure when we consider a population which mixes both rural and urban individuals, or people from different provinces. To illustrate this fact, I give in the two last rows of the table 1, a measure of inequalities (the GINI coefficient 10 ) for the sub samples of parents and children. We note a pretty high level of inequality for both of them. The GINI coefficient for parents yearly income is even higher than the one for the children one (0.4561 against 0.3917). Even if it is a simplified picture of the situation, we can see that inequalities existed, even among the workers who were employed during the communist period.
This paper addresses endogeneity biases to provide empirical evidence on the intergenerational transmission of human capital across three generations. The endogeneity of paternal schooling is addressed by the use of a two-fold instrumental variable approach. A natural experimental set up from a regional war that occurred at the beginning of the 20 th century is exploited to instrument years of schooling of the “grand- father” generation whereas labour market indicators serve as an instrument for the education of the “parents” generation. Using a unique Mexican survey that gathers retrospective information on the three generations, the paper first shows that parental education has a significant effect on their children’s education. It also shows that the IV estimate is larger than the OLS estimate, which implies that accounting for endogeneity unveils a larger importance of familiar background (less educational mobility) than ignoring it. This holds true for both the older and the younger pairs of parent-child links in the three generations at hand.
3 Methods of statistical inference
The tests for dominance in mobility derived in this section extend the use of the empirical likelihood ratio statistics developed in Davidson and Duclos (2006). They are based on an intersection-union approach that makes it possible to test directly for strict dominance of one distribution over another. For measures of absolute mobility, the dominance condition pertains to a univariate distribution, and the Davidson and Duclos method is thus directly applicable. A comparison of measures based on transition matrices requires an extension to the two-dimensional case; this has been suggested and partly investigated by Batana and Duclos (2008).
The paper thus builds on the earlier literature that has considered both the ben- efits of mobility and the costs of variability (for instance, Gottschalk and Spolaore 2002, Creedy and Wilhelm 2002 and Makdissi and Wodon 2003) by providing and estimating measures of the differential social welfare impact of mobility and taxation. Looking jointly at taxation and mobility helps assess both mobility’s impact and the tax system’s impact on intertemporal social welfare. How much is the usefulness of mobility as a longer-term equalizer diminished by the pres- ence of a progressive tax system? How much is the cost of mobility as a tem- poral disequalizer reduced by a progressive tax system? Is the welfare benefit of tax progressivity reduced or increased by the presence of mobility? How do the inequality-reducing benefits and the variability-reducing benefits of tax progres- sivity compare? How do the welfare benefits of mobility and taxation compare? These are some of the original questions that this paper seeks to address, both through the provision of a measurement framework and empirically.
The necessity for such records has come about because of the essential coordination of the different services now buried beneath the streets of modern cities. A committee of representatives of the several local utility organizations is usually responsible for supervising steady and accurate maintenance of these vital records. Exactly the same type of subsurface records of the urban geology of all Canadian cities should be similarly maintained and publicly available. In some, a start has been made, but it will require strong support from those concerned with building - architects, engineers and contractors - to ensure that city engineers and their staffs are provided with the necessary facilities for the preparation and regular maintenance of these vital records.
This work has been done when Majed Haddad was with INRIA Sophia- Antipolis, France.
complexity due to inter-layer Radio Resource Management (RRM), between macro and small cells. A mobile user has a great freedom to switch from one cell to another, whereas the network must ensure continuous service and high-quality user experience. Supporting service continuity is especially challenging due to potentially high handover frequency and new requirement of ultra low latency . However, if the UE’s mobility information is available for mobility management and network optimization, the network can proactively adapt to the user and guarantee seamless and smooth UE handover with optimal cell selection to ensure good end-user quality and high performance .