Travel and Tourism

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Defining business strategy for development of travel and tourism industry

Defining business strategy for development of travel and tourism industry

After studying Travel and Tourism industry in Argentina and Turkey, the thesis deals with performance factors and policies defined in tourism destination countries from[r]

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Flowers and gardens on the context and tourism potential

Flowers and gardens on the context and tourism potential

Palavras-chave: paisagismo, jardins históricos, feiras, jardins botânicos. Introduction Tourism involves a combination of travel, destination, and marketing, leading to a process in the cultural dimension (UNWTO, 2020). Travel and Tourism are considered one of the world’s largest economic sectors, supporting more than 300 million jobs. This represents 1 in 10 jobs worldwide, generating 10.4% of world Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including directly, indirectly, and induced impacts. In 2018, Travel and Tourism raised 3.9% compared with 3.2% of the global economy (WTTC, 2019). The USA received the greatest contribution to GDP from Travel and Tourism, 19%, considering the direct impact, but China is seeking to have this position in 2028 (Nicol and Jukes, 2018).
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Usages of the internet and e-tourism. Towards a new economy of tourism

Usages of the internet and e-tourism. Towards a new economy of tourism

have already committed distributing flights through this new system. The process of deregulation of the GDS will certainly lead to some new major reconfiguration of the sectoral system. For the airlines, the emergence of the ‘electronic market hypothesis’ (Malone et al., 1987), the internet led shift of the industry from hierarchies to market based forms, seems to be a first best, as they continuously adapt their strategy towards this aim. Nevertheless, the GDS-agencies have enough synergies in the tourism industry to resist against new entrants in their core activities, dropping for instance airlines from their online subsidiary agencies, which are also the largest ones. For instance, Amadeus has announced an agreement with the fifty top airlines companies, American and European, including low cost, to display their internet direct fares. Still, after the low cost airlines, the low cost GDS – a point to point solution applied to airlines–agencies links – could promise a new revolution in travel and tourism activities. Amadeus has also taken shares of ITA Software, because of its declared interest for the mathematical algorithms the GNE develops...
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Interviewing elites. Perspectives from medical tourism sector in India and in Thailand

Interviewing elites. Perspectives from medical tourism sector in India and in Thailand

We quickly found out that if we talk about medical tourism generally, it takes different forms through the context. For example, India receives among ‘its medical tourists’ nearly only Non-Resident Indians (NRI) living abroad who travel for medical treatment to their ‘homeland’ during their holidays. In Thailand, there is no typical medical tourist but a mix of nationalities among the patients and later the interviewees there were cautious in separating medical tourists from foreign patients. The private hospitals in India, have more difficulties in drawing such distinction. The medical tourist and the expatriate can be counted as foreigner patients, while the NRI coming for a health check-up can be counted as a local patient. As already mentioned by Connell (2005), measuring and assessing the exact number of patients involved in medical tourism is rather tricky. How differentiate a patient coming especially for care in Thailand or India from an expatriate or from a tourist using local health infrastructure further following an illness? And then among medical tourists, how differentiate those who have no quality hospital in their countries from those who are looking for cheaper treatments? The problem of the definition of ‘a medical tourist’ and the dissimilarities between Thai and Indian systems of counting brought us to be careful with the figures that we used and called into question the appellation of ‘medical tourism’ itself. The further we advanced, our look became more and more sceptical to this stock phrase as ‘medical tourist’ expression refers today to a reality which can not be precisely measured.
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Tourism and globalisation: vectors of cultural homogenisation? (the case study of bali)

Tourism and globalisation: vectors of cultural homogenisation? (the case study of bali)

The TO, therefore, offers a good range of options to its customers, by recreating a sense of the unknown to justify its presence in an island which is extremely popular with Australians. The Indonesian and French offers present highly diverse models (63 Indonesian and 70 French offers), but which are fairly similar. Although they include the fashionable southern beaches, they are only one stop on an organized tour designed to allow for the discovery of natural and cultural sites scattered across the island. Despite this diffusion, the French and Indonesian TOs largely overlook the west. This situation stems from its relative distance from the political, historical and cultural centers of the island which makes it less interesting. While some environmental factors attract visitors (diving sites on the northwest coast, the Barat Bali national park), the difficult accessibility - several hours of travel on poor-quality mountain roads, often congested by heavy goods traffic - preclude their inclusion in the packages offered by agencies. Although Bali is a major destination, its tourism development is far from homogeneous. It certainly favors the south rather than the north, but also greatly favors the east over the west.
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Selling Tourism Products through the Opaque Channels

Selling Tourism Products through the Opaque Channels

If passenger’s information is imperfect and incomplete, depending on traveller’s uncertainty levels, two types of results are expected. On one hand, if uncertainty is strong, potential travellers estimate their relative propensity to pay very inexactly. They imagine that they would have to bid very high in order to get the ticket at the NYOP channel, while the posted price on the Opaque channel seems to them to be lower. Consequently, in case of joint implementation, potential passengers would purchase the tickets on the posted-price Opaque channel. On the other hand, if uncertainty is moderate, potential travellers are able to better estimate their relative propensity to pay. If the two systems are jointly implemented, agents who underestimate their relative propensity to pay would purchase at the Opaque posted- price channel in order to be sure to travel, while the others, who estimate their relative propensity to pay as high, would bid at the NYOP channel. Thus, the joint implementation of the two systems seems to be the optimal solution for the OTA.
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Henna for brides and gazelles : ritual, women's work, and tourism in Morocco

Henna for brides and gazelles : ritual, women's work, and tourism in Morocco

social liminality that accompanies travel. In recent years, henna practices have been increasingly commodidzed, particularly widi die appearance of artisans who apply henna for domestic [r]

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Sustainable Tourism Products Distribution: Optimal Pricing and Branding Strategies

Sustainable Tourism Products Distribution: Optimal Pricing and Branding Strategies

Nita, V. & Agheorghiesei, D. T. (2010). The Perception of the Students Specializing Trade, Tourism and Services on the Importance of the Concept of Sustainable Development in Commercial Activities. Amfiteatru Economic 12(27): 66-82 Rivera, J. (2002). Assessing a voluntary environmental initiative in the developing world: The Costa Rican Certification for Sustainable Tourism. Policy Sciences 35: 333-360 Shapiro, D. & Shi, X. (2008). Market Segmentation: The Role of Opaque Travel Agencies.

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Living heritage and sustainable tourism

Living heritage and sustainable tourism

117 involves three essential elements: reasons for departure, the initiation or the experience of transcendence and connectivity, and the return or the presentation of the transformed self, back to the society. Spiritual experiences come from within and manifest in different ways among different people. Spiritual pilgrimages are not the same as religious pilgrimages, the latter being undertaken by religious devotees, while spirituality seeking can be done by anyone. Even atheists can acquiesce to having deep spiritual experiences in relation to nature and their own self-consciousness (Olsen & Timothy 2006, p. 4). Spirituality seeking journeys are undertaken by individuals in quest of personal meaning from and through travel; they get involved in deeply intense experiences which energize and uplift them. In a broad sense, spiritual tourism manifests in several traits such as mobility (slow-physical, slow-internal, and spiritual); the experiential value of authentic encounters and cathartic experiences; and the route, which pertains to multi-cultural or multi- religious routes, introspective routes and therapeutic routes (Lopez, González & Fernández). Yoga is one prominent example of how these characteristics and experiences manifest from a travel perspective. During the last several decades, the increasing popularity of yoga in western societies has become a notable manifestation of the desire to enhance health and wellbeing. It nurtures both mind, spirit and body and is increasingly connected to health, wellness, and spiritual aspirations among its practitioners, health professionals, and researchers (Ali- Knight 2017; Olsen & Timothy 2006). Smith and Kelly define yoga tourism as a form of tourism that “focuses on the union of body, mind and spirit, but which is essentially areligious” (2006, p. 17).Yoga retreats are actively sought to experience transcendence or spiritual healing (Smith and Sziva 2018) and “part of the therapeutic potential of the retreat focuses on how ‘taking the body away from the ‘everyday’ open up attention to the body itself, foregrounding its connection to the world” (Lea 2008, p. 95).
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Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation: The Case of Tourism@

Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation: The Case of Tourism@

In this event, the clustering of actors, even if temporary, is very intensive. In fact, the dynamics of such a meeting-conference-exhibition is based on mutual observation, constant comparison and the gathering of information and knowledge thanks to interactions and face-to-face exchanges. Providers can evaluate customers’ reactions in front of their project proposal or in front of their competitors’ project, on the spot, lively. In fact, main customers of these innovative projects are travel agencies and intermediaries for a large majority before final customers. This points out the fact that projects are instantaneously evaluated by sophisticated customers on site. Data analysis have shown a clear-cut orientation of uses towards final customers. Projects as “Voxinzebox” (that provides guided tours on mobile devices such as mobile phone, Pocket PC, MP3 players and Vidéo Ipod) or “Decizium” (that develops and markets an innovative decision support system to plan fully-customized trips automatically generated in accordance with a tourist's preferences, wishes and constraints). Address final consumers directly. This means that these interactions allowed the participants to capture market tendencies and help them to make a decision on their technological focus and future investments. From provider focused uses, projects leaders have moved towards final customers uses. Furthermore, some technologies that were addressing providers are later addressing tourists a few years after. This attests for a diffusion of technology that has succeeded and contributes to reinforce the suggestion that such events play the same role as temporary clusters in terms of exchange and diffusion of information and knowledge.
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Travel and tick-borne diseases: Lyme disease and beyond

Travel and tick-borne diseases: Lyme disease and beyond

All tick species favor particular environmental conditions and bio- topes that determine their geographic distribution and consequently the areas of risk for TBD. This geographical aspect of TBD is an important issue in the context of travel medicine. The growth of international tourism to rural, tropical or remote areas, visits to friends and relatives in other countries, and travel related to military work or foreign aid development increasingly expose travelers to tick bites and TBD. Ticks from one regions of the world can serve as vectors of various pathogens that often are unknown to physicians from other parts of the world. Even Lyme disease can be misdiagnosed in patients who travel to areas of the Northern hemisphere where the disease is endemic and subse- quently return to southern countries where the vectors are absent and the disease is not known or considered by regional health care provi- ders [ 1 ]. In a similar manner, the numbers of travel-related cases of tick-borne encephalitis are probably underestimated since there is little awareness of this disease in countries where the pathogen is not en- demic and often seroepidemiological studies are the first to the extent of exposure to TBD [ 3 ].
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Demographics, health and travel characteristics of international travellers at a pre-travel clinic in Marseille, France

Demographics, health and travel characteristics of international travellers at a pre-travel clinic in Marseille, France

categories were documented. Of these travellers, 70.7% were working currently, 14.0% were retired and 15.2% were students or unemployed. Of 10 travellers, 7 planned to travel to Africa, 2 to the American continent and 1 to Asia. The top 10 visited countries were Senegal, Kenya, Burkina Faso, French Guyana, Mali, Comoros, Co ˆte d’Ivoire, India and Tanzania. Overall, 90.9% of the travellers planned to visit only one country. The mean travel duration for individuals who were travelling one year (95.8%) was 5.6 weeks (rangeZ 0.1e52 weeks). The travel duration was 2 weeks for 53.5% of the travellers, one month for 76.3%, >3 months for 10.4% and >six months for 6.5%. The mean time between the visit date and the departure date was 32.4 days (range Z 0e269 days), and 17.2% of the travellers were consulted10 days before departing, 44.8% 21 days and 57.4% 28 days. The most common reasons for travel were tourism, business and visiting friends and relatives (VFR). The majority of travellers travelled at least by pair and underwent pre-organised trips.
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Scientific tourism, a tool for tourism development in Patagonia

Scientific tourism, a tool for tourism development in Patagonia

1. A network of science and tourism organizations In 2007 the Center for Research in Patagonian Ecosystems (Centro de InvestigaciónenEcosistemas de la Patagonia, CIEP,www.ciep.cl) chooses to implement Scientific Tourism to foster research programs, technology transfer and scientific mediation in order to strengthen a sustainable tourism development. More than a hundred public and private entities of Chile, South America, USA and Europe have collaborated in a participatory process, supporting research on cultural heritage and natural processes. Starting 2012 a scientific tourism networkof local entrepreneurs, travel operators, agencies, accommodation, transportation companies and non-governmental organizations,is created (CIEP, 2012). Scientific and culture stakeholders, such as national and international universities, researchers and students, public institutions in charge of environment, culture and common heritage, as well as private organizations and foundations involved in education, conservation and culture joined business related actors. The latter composed mainly by national and international tourism entrepreneurs, public institutions in charge of economical development, and tourism promotion. The articulation and networking carried out by CIEP gave way to a Scientific Tourism Platform to support and enhance research that could foster tourism development. Regardless of the potential implications of the findings of the research programs, most regional actors showed keen interest in sharing scientific knowledge.
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Tourism leakage of accommodation in Bali

Tourism leakage of accommodation in Bali

that the multiplier effects of tourism are often considerably less than expected due to high investment costs (a high dependency on foreign capital, skill, and management personnel, as well as import) (Pavaskar, 1987). Karagiannes (2004) cited in Meyer (2007) supports this argument that the import content and the size of the tourism multipliers are inversely related, so countries with high leakage rate tend to end up with small multipliers and relatively insignificant effects from tourist spending. He said that there were several reasons for this. First, small economies, in particular small island developing states, tend to rely strongly on imports, because they do not have the capacity to produce the goods and services that are required to meet the demands of the industry. Larger states, on the other hand, that do not often face these resource constraints, can develop stronger inter- sectoral linkages between tourism and the rest of the domestic economy. Second, many developing countries that do not have well-developed domestic industries, develop stronger inter-sectoral linkages within the economy, which provides the platform for the efficient distribution of goods and services, and allows domestic industries to try to compete successfully with their overseas business partners (Karagiannes, 2004 cited in Meyer, 2007).
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Le slow tourism à Lausanne et ses impacts environnementaux sur la destination

Le slow tourism à Lausanne et ses impacts environnementaux sur la destination

4.4 Synthèse et analyse de la première partie de l’enquête quantitative Tout d’abord, le slow tourism est une forme de tourisme récente et complexe et cela se ressent dans les réponses. De fait, seule une faible majorité (53.7%) a répondu connaître le slow tourism. Sachant que ce concept est nouveau et qu’il peut être confondu avec d’autres formes de tourisme proches, cette majorité démontre malgré tout un intérêt pour le développement de ce tourisme. Cela dit, c’est principalement à l’école que ces personnes en ont entendu parler, ce qui limite le public cible auprès duquel ce thème est communiqué. Certes les réseaux sociaux ainsi que les médias traditionnels ont contribué à l’expansion de ce thème mais de façon restreinte. Cela est peut-être dû au fait que chaque personne choisit ce qu’elle a envie de voir ou lire et donc ne s’arrête pas forcément sur ce thème. À l’école, au contraire, ce thème fait peut-être partie du programme et il est alors obligatoirement évoqué. Ensuite, à travers les questions concernant la pratique du slow tourism, il est, une fois encore, mis en évidence que cette forme de tourisme n’est pas encore très développée. Effectivement, seulement 16 personnes sur les 95 de Suisse romande interrogées ont déjà pratiqué ce tourisme. Ce qui ressort de façon positive en revanche est que 86 personnes seraient intéressées à le pratiquer pour la première fois ou à nouveau. De plus, il est également intéressant de mentionner qu’une des 16 personnes ayant décrit leur expérience, pense avoir pratiqué du slow tourism sans vraiment le savoir. Cela indique que la façon dont il faut pratiquer cette forme de tourisme n’est pas forcément très éunivoque. Enfin, en ce qui concerne les différentes catégories pour la pratique d’un tourisme lent, le transport est celle qui ressort comme la moins attirante. Cela est peut-être dû au fait que pratiquer du slow tourism au niveau du transport, implique l’utilisation de la mobilité douce ou des transports en commun et limite alors les destinations dans lesquelles ces personnes pourraient se rendre.
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Travel information portal in Montpellier

Travel information portal in Montpellier

• Workshop “Transport accessibility and logistics in urban, seaport and industrial areas: technologies, organisational issues and training needs”, held in Carrara (Italy), on the 22nd September 2006, within the Mobility Show. Regione Emilia-Romagna and Regione Toscana jointly organised this MATAARI workshop. The workshop represented a forum of presentation and discussion among experts, local bodies, companies and institutions on concrete cases, solutions and innovative actions targeted at the promotion of SMEs’ competitiveness, at the reduction of transport environmental negative effects and at the use of ICT as strategic leverages for transport and logistics in urban, seaport and industrial areas.
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The Relationship between Urban Structure and Travel Behavior: Challenges and Practices

The Relationship between Urban Structure and Travel Behavior: Challenges and Practices

  1 INTRODUCTION Structures and forms of cities must be taken into consideration in order to reduce car externalities in urban areas. Although various cities have different indicators, urban structures have similar factors such as land use, street network, private motorized facilities, and public transport infrastructures. These indicators affect private motorized trips. Literature on this field is filled with the studies that have shown the relationships between urban structure indicators and transport behaviour. Yet, there are some scholars who claim that the influence of urban form on travel behaviour is limited (e.g., Boarnet and Crane 2001; Handy et al., 2005; Stead, 2001). These researchers have not found enough evidence to prove that urban forms significantly influence motorized trips. They claim that built environment traits are weak in defining travel behaviour. For instance, the residents of areas with comparable density, diversities, and designs may show different travel behaviour since they have diverse socio-economic characteristics such as income and age. As a result, these factors need to be controlled. The location of the investigated residential areas relative to the metropolitan center structure is another example that makes different travel behaviour for areas with similar 3D (density, diversities, and designs). This has often been disregarded especially in North American studies.
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Projet Ultra-Trail - Angers tourism Lab

Projet Ultra-Trail - Angers tourism Lab

HAL Id: halshs-02900988 https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02900988 Submitted on 3 Sep 2020 HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci- entific research documents, whether they are pub- lished or not. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.

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Tourism, jobs, capital accumulation and the economy: A dynamic analysis

Tourism, jobs, capital accumulation and the economy: A dynamic analysis

1. Introduction Tourism is a growing and important industry in both developed and developing countries. It is also an important source of earning foreign exchange and providing employment opportunities for domestic labor. Expenditure by tourists in the receiving country is predominantly in non-traded goods and services. This type of consumption had become quite important especially for economies suffering a downturn in their traded-goods sector. The recent recovery of the Hong Kong economy is a good example of this type of tourism led recovery and growth. In the past two decades, due to the restructuring and relocation of manufacturing processes to China, unskilled workers in Hong Kong have borne the brunt of unemployment. The Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the SARS outbreak in 2003 had made the situation even worse and the unemployment rate in Hong Kong reached more than 7 per cent. Since April 2003, China has allowed individuals from selected cities to visit Hong Kong. The consequent tourism boom of 4.26 million visits in 2004 has provided job opportunities and thus substantially reduced unemployment. The economic doldrums was halted and the GDP growth is 8.2 per cent in 2004, well above average 4.8 per cent over the past 20 years. 1
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Enrolment, student retention and attrition in the tourism management program.

Enrolment, student retention and attrition in the tourism management program.

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence high school seniors and transfer students to choose the Tourism Management Program at Champlain College, Saint-Lam bert[r]

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