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Safety of ethyl acrylate to be used as flavouring

Safety of ethyl acrylate to be used as flavouring

Maria Carf ı, Siiri Saarma and Wim Mennes Abstract The EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel) was requested by the European Commission according to Art. 29 1(a) of the Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 to carry out a review of existing literature on the safety of ethyl acrylate [FL-no: 09.037] when used as a flavouring substance. Ethyl acrylate [FL-no: 09.037] was evaluated in 2010 by EFSA in FGE.71 as a flavouring substance, based on the 2006 JECFA evaluation. The Panel concluded that ethyl acrylate was of no safety concern at estimated level of intake as flavouring substance based on the Maximised Survey-Derived Daily Intake (MSDI) approach. The Panel has evaluated the new literature available and any previous assessments performed by JECFA (2006) and EFSA (2010). Moreover, new data on the use levels of ethyl acrylate as flavouring substance have been provided. For use as flavouring substance, the chronic dietary exposure estimated using the added portions exposure technique (APET), is calculated to be 3,545 lg/person per day for a 60-kg adult and 2,233 lg/person per day for a 15-kg 3-year-old child. Exposure from food contact materials may be up to 6,000 lg/person per day. The Panel considered that based on the available data, which covers all relevant genetic endpoints (i.e. gene mutations, structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations) there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity of ethyl acrylate. The Panel evaluated the available carcinogenicity studies conducted in rats and mice and agreed with the NTP evaluation (1998) concluding that the forestomach squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma observed in rodents were not relevant to humans. Additionally, there was no evidence of systemic toxicity in short-term and subchronic toxicity studies. Therefore, the Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the use of ethyl acrylate as a flavouring substance, under the intended conditions of use.
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When and Why Does It Pay To Be Green?

When and Why Does It Pay To Be Green?

Such a short-run negative price movement does not, however, mean that the price of capital is going up. Short-term price changes do not provide enough substance to formulate buy/sell strategies unless we believe that the environmental performance to be a matter for day traders constantly arbitraging. We can thus turn to the second scenario, the “green investor effect” 27 that may come through the so-called green mutual funds mentioned above. Finding out about bad environmental news, these investors may worry about the quality of the management of the companies involved and decide to sell “dirty” stocks, which reduces their price. Investors‟green preferences are likely to be more long-lived, and thus require multi-period analyses to be well investigated (using panel data and regression analysis for instance). In this second scenario, as the price of “dirty” stocks falls, investors will demand compensation with a higher return and, therefore, the cost of capital for such companies will increase, and it will be more difficult to raise new funds. In the context of our discussion on the impact of better environmental performance on the cost of capital, it will be central to find out which of these two scenarios dominates.
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Does it pay to be a doctor in France?

Does it pay to be a doctor in France?

A descriptive analysis …rst shows how length of studies and career beginning di¤er markedly for GPs and executives. These two professions also experienced opposed demo- graphic changes: while the number of doctors per cohort is decreasing over time because of a numerus clausus policy aiming at monitoring the number of doctors, the number of executive per cohort is increasing rapidely. Secondly, an econometric analysis performed on yearly earnings enables us to compare the average in‡uences of experience and cohort e¤ects on GP and executive earnings. Finally, we construct a measure of wealth for each individual in accumulating all his/her yearly earnings, begining at the same age (24) for GP and executives, including zero or low-income years that occurs sometimes for execu- tives who do not start their career at 24, and that concerns all doctors because of their longer education. Then we compare the GP and executive wealth distributions with sto- chastic dominance analysis to examine if it pays to be a GP in France. More exactly, we check the following conjecture: if people with enough ability can choose freely between a GP and executive career, long run equilibrium should imply a higher return to study for GPs that compensate their higher investment. Consequently wealth distributions should not di¤er signi…cantly di¤erent between executives and GPs.
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To be or not to be... secreted as exosomes, a balance finely tuned by the mechanisms of biogenesis

To be or not to be... secreted as exosomes, a balance finely tuned by the mechanisms of biogenesis

endocytosis of specific cargoes, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Flotillins may favor the clustering of the cargoes, therefore promoting their endocytosis that in some cases may require the presence of clathrin (28). All these internalization pathways will deliver their cargoes to early endosomes (EE) (6) providing a first checkpoint to target cargoes to MVEs and exosomes. Early endosomes appear as vacuolar compartments characterized by the presence of the small GTPase RAB5 from which thin tubular structures are pulled to generate recycling endosomes (RE). Cargoes targeted to recycling endosomes will be targeted back to the PM while cargoes destined to MVEs will accumulate on vacuolar subdomains of the EE and will be sorted into ILVs. Hence, cargoes that are destined for recycling to the plasma membrane will likely not be enriched in exosomes, unless their recycling is impaired as in case of transferrin receptor in reticulocytes (29). Such balance between recycling and targeting to MVE can be seen as a second checkpoint that will regulate exosome biogenesis. Among the proteins that regulate this crossroad between recycling and intraluminal sorting, the PDZ protein syntenin is an ideal suspect. In endosomes, syntenin interacts with syndecans and support their recycling to the plasma membrane trough a mechanism that requires the production of PI(4,5)P 2 and the small GTPase Arf6 (30). Alternatively, syntenin, together with the ESCRT accessory protein ALIX, can dispatch syndecans to ILVs (12). Syndecans, syntenin and ALIX assemble in a tripartite complex that is able to drive not only their own exosomal release, but also the release of CD63 and HSP70. Interestingly, Arf6 and his effector PLD2 also control budding of ILVs and biogenesis of exosomes via the syndecan-syntenin-ALIX pathway (27). Although it remains to be determined if recycling of syndecans affects directly syntenin-exosomes biogenesis, the fact that the same proteins play a role in both recycling and intraluminal sorting clearly illustrates the role of EE as the first “sorting station” of the cell, in which the fate of a cargo is primarily decided, and how this process needs to be tightly regulated. One could propose then that the “internalization” checkpoint
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Nostradamus: The radar that wanted to be a seismometer

Nostradamus: The radar that wanted to be a seismometer

known to induce, by dynamic coupling, atmospheric infra- sonic waves propagating upward through the neutral and ionized atmosphere. Those waves have been detected in the past at ionospheric heights using a variety of techniques, such as HF Doppler sounding or GPS receivers. The HF Doppler technique, particularly sensitive to the ionospheric signature of Rayleigh waves is used here to show iono- spheric perturbations consistent with the propagation of Rayleigh wave phases R1 and R2 following the Sumatra earthquake on the 28 March 2005 (M = 8.6). This is in our knowledge the first time that the phase R2 is detected by ionospheric sounding. In addition, we prove here that the ionospheric signature of R2 is also observed by over‐ the‐horizon (OTH) Radar. The latter was never used before to detect seismic signature in the ionosphere. Adding the OTH Radar to the list of the “ionospheric seismometers” we discuss and compare the performances of the three dif- ferent instruments mentioned above, namely HF Doppler sounding, GPS receivers and OTH radar. Citation: Occhipinti, G., P. Dorey, T. Farges, and P. Lognonné (2010), Nostradamus: The radar that wanted to be a seismometer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18104, doi:10.1029/2010GL044009.
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L’espace périurbain francilien. The place to be ?

L’espace périurbain francilien. The place to be ?

« Gallius ? C’est pas The place to be ! » Tara, 17 ans « Gallius ? C’est un village de 1000 habitants, qui fait partie du PNR. C’est actif au niveau de la ville : y’a des évènements organisés (retraite aux flambeaux), des associations (gym). Mais y’ a aucun commerce et c’est très peu desservi par les transports en commun. » Julie, 17 ans .

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Fit mice, fit women? Or fit to be tied?

Fit mice, fit women? Or fit to be tied?

No, this isn’t only another example of geneticization, which of course it is and certainly seems to be from the headline. But no less worse: it’s again another extrapolation from rodents to humans. Both of these processes just never seem to end; they only expand. And put women’s health at true risk.

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Safety of benzophenone to be used as flavouring

Safety of benzophenone to be used as flavouring

While benzophenone caused liver adenomas in the B6C3F1 mouse, at a dose of 40 mg/kg bw per day, the Panel noted that this effect is a less sensitive endpoint than the kidney effects in rats at the lowest dose of 15 mg/kg bw per day in a chronic carcinogenicity study (NTP, 2006). Along with dose- related increases in the incidences of renal tubule hyperplasia and in the severity of chronic nephropathy, a positive trend in the incidences of renal tubule adenoma was observed in the male rats. In female rats, the severity of nephropathy was signi ficantly increased in the mid and high dose groups. Given that proliferative lesions and adenomas may be considered as a biological and morphological continuum in the progression to kidney neoplasia and the contribution of nephropathy to kidney tumour development cannot be ruled out (Rhodes et al., 2007; Melnick et al., 2012), the Panel considered that the non-neoplastic effects are adverse and used them as a point of departure for the risk assessment of benzophenone. As reported in the CEF Panel opinion (EFSA, 2009) ‘Benchmark dose (BMD) analyses were applied for the non-neoplastic kidney effects in male rats (NTP, 2006), and the lower 95% con fidence limits of the benchmark dose for a 10% effect (BMDL10) were calculated to be 3.1 –7.4 mg/kg b.w. per day. The models used in the analysis were consistent, and passed statistical validation. The Panel decided that the BMDL10 value of 3.1 mg/kg b.w. per day was the most appropriate departure point for derivation of the TDI. By applying an uncertainty factor of 100, a TDI of 0.03 mg/kg body weight is derived ’. Based on the incidence data for non-neoplastic kidney effects, the BMDL was recalculated in accordance to the update on the use of the BMD approach (EFSA Scienti fic Committee, 2017) using the EFSA web-tool 5 and the same BMDL was obtained as in the previous assessment (Appendix D ). In the light of an ongoing debate on the relevance of the rat chronic nephropathy to humans (Melnick et al., 2012; Hard et al., 2013), the Panel considers the EFSA approach used in the 2009 opinion to derive a TDI for benzophenone conservative and appropriate to cover the potential induction of toxic effects including tumours in humans.
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To be or not to be modified: Miscellaneous aspects influencing nucleotide modifications in tRNAs

To be or not to be modified: Miscellaneous aspects influencing nucleotide modifications in tRNAs

Collectively, the introduction of modi fications at appropri- ate positions in tRNAs is of primary importance for optimal cell function. The understanding of the mechanisms that determine and in fluence nucleotide modifications in tRNAs thus holds a central position in the general understanding of the biological functions of tRNA modi fications. Within each organism, although tRNA molecules must all be, to some extent, suf fi- ciently similar to each other to be recognized and used by the translation machinery, they at the same time need to be suf fi- ciently dissimilar to be uniquely recognized by their cognate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. This notion is perfectly appropri- ate to describe the challenge faced by tRNA modi fication enzymes, which have been shaped by million years of coevolu- tion with tRNAs to deal with a population of highly similar but unique tRNAs such as to modify them in a very speci fic manner (20, 21). The present review aims at presenting and summariz- ing the different aspects that determine whether a certain posi- tion in a tRNA molecule is modi fied or not. These aspects include the sequence and structural determinants of modi fica- tion enzymes, as well as the presence of prior modi fications, and will be presented in the first parts of this review. Impor- tantly, modi fications in tRNA are not static decorations that are introduced on every tRNA of the cell in any circumstances. The level of certain modi fications in a tRNA population can change dynamically in response to several factors, and in some cases, these dynamic changes are thought to be not only due to alterations in the introduction of these modi fications, but also to active demodi fication processes. These aspects will be de- scribed in the latest parts of this review. These elements will be discussed in the light of selected examples from prokaryotic
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To be or not to be sick and tired: Managing the visibility of HIV and HIV-related fatigue.

To be or not to be sick and tired: Managing the visibility of HIV and HIV-related fatigue.

revealing HIV and expressing fatigue appeared to be somewhat different for heterosexual men, although they gravitated around similar factors. Indeed, the double stigma of homosexuality and HIV also seemed to play a role in the management of the (non)disclosure of HIV and the expression of fatigue. In the words of one man, disclosing HIV makes others “deduct […] or suspect several things, like your sexual orientation, or your drug use or I

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When and Why Does it Pay to be Green?

When and Why Does it Pay to be Green?

hen environmental issues are presented to business people as just one more costly regulation “doing the right thing” becomes burdensome and intrusive. Even if environmental protection did not require any additional costs, few managers would go out of their way to follow this course of action. This is because they recognize that the collective benefits from saving the environment are likely to be diffuse and not easily measured on their company’s bottom line. For example, the reductions in morbidity or premature mortality that can accompany cleaner air, the recreational opportunities that can result from water-quality improvement or the enhanced vitality of aquatic systems that might follow reduced pesticide use, are clearly beneficial to society. But are they beneficial to the firm (or the firm’s manager)?
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Does it pay to be a doctor in France?

Does it pay to be a doctor in France?

A descriptive analysis …rst shows how length of studies and career beginning di¤er markedly for GPs and executives. These two professions also experienced opposed demo- graphic changes: while the number of doctors per cohort is decreasing over time because of a numerus clausus policy aiming at monitoring the number of doctors, the number of executive per cohort is increasing rapidely. Secondly, an econometric analysis performed on yearly earnings enables us to compare the average in‡uences of experience and cohort e¤ects on GP and executive earnings. Finally, we construct a measure of wealth for each individual in accumulating all his/her yearly earnings, begining at the same age (24) for GP and executives, including zero or low-income years that occurs sometimes for execu- tives who do not start their career at 24, and that concerns all doctors because of their longer education. Then we compare the GP and executive wealth distributions with sto- chastic dominance analysis to examine if it pays to be a GP in France. More exactly, we check the following conjecture: if people with enough ability can choose freely between a GP and executive career, long run equilibrium should imply a higher return to study for GPs that compensate their higher investment. Consequently wealth distributions should not di¤er signi…cantly di¤erent between executives and GPs.
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Peer-to-Peer Storage Systems: a Practical Guideline to be Lazy

Peer-to-Peer Storage Systems: a Practical Guideline to be Lazy

I. I NTRODUCTION Peer-to-peer systems are an interesting alternative to obtain a storage solution with high reliability at low cost. Some backup solutions, e.g., data centers and high-end NAS appli- ances are highly reliable, but also tend to be very expensive. The advantages of using a peer-to-peer network for data archival is that, by nature, it can distribute the information into different locations and has a high potential to be scalable. Many systems have been proposed, e.g., CFS, Farsite, OceanStore, PAST, Glacier, TotalRecall, or Carbonite (see [5] and references within). Also, there is an effort by the open source community to create a global storage cloud, the Tahoe-LAFS [16] project. Commercial companies, like Wuala [17] and Ubistorage [14] , exploit that technology to deliver a reliable backup solution.
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How to be the best at sail pumping?

How to be the best at sail pumping?

The rig tracking analysis enables to display the forces evolution along the mast head trajectory and shows that the dynamic response of this aero-elastic system deviates from a quasi-steady behaviour. As an extension of this work, the same technique could be used to compute the boom end trajectory and use the sheet load signal in order to compute the mechanical work exchanged between the trimming system and the rig. This mechanical work is interesting as it corresponds to the energy required for pumping. Computations with different Fluid Structure Interaction models will also be performed to be compared to these experimental results.
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Do insurance defrauders want to be punished ?

Do insurance defrauders want to be punished ?

1 Introduction In many countries, there is a growing concern about insurance fraud because its consequent costs are very high. Some estimations corroborate this asser- tion. Fraudulent claims stand for more than 10% of claims paid in Canada. The Comité Européen des Assurances (CEA) considers that insurance fraud represents between 5 and 10% of the total amount of indemnities paid in Europe. In the USA, the annual cost of insurance fraud is estimated to be above $80 billions. In response to that, not only insurers but also many di¤erent private and public organizations try to deal with this phenomenon. First of all, there are investigative …rms, some with very suggestive names such as “Shadow Chasers” or “Sherlock Investigations”, that provide surveil- lance and information services for insurance companies in the USA or in the UK. In other circumstances, an independent agency is created to investi- gate on behalf of the insurance companies, as it is the case for the French Agence pour la Lutte contre la Fraude à l’Assurance (ALFA). 1 Finally there
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Rosiglitazone: to be or not to be?

Rosiglitazone: to be or not to be?

Even sulfonylureas raised concerns because of a higher risk of myocardial infarction observed in the University Group Diabetes Program in the early 1970s [13]; similarly, there were concerns surrounding the use of biguanides (including metformin) in the early 1980s following a reported association with a higher incidence of lactic acidosis vs other glucose-lowering strategies [14]. Interestingly, both are now considered to be well- validated core therapies by the authors of the consensus statement [1] and are leaders in the diabetes market. Even if data obtained on completion of ongoing trials may help to produce accurate estimates of the effect of rosiglitazone on cardiovascular outcomes [5], given the negative recommendation stated in the recent ADA- EASD consensus statement, the use of rosiglitazone may greatly decline prior to the generation of these data. Be careful not throw the baby out with the bath water in the absence of clear-cut, evidence-based data.
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What does it take to be a social agent?

What does it take to be a social agent?

Tendency for interaction requirement: social agents must be able to exhibit a tendency to engage in interaction with other agents and manifest certain interest in others’ actions. In humans and other social animals, this exhibition of tendencies to be interested in others and interact with them probably depends on a conglomerate of diverse motivations. Several authors argue that many types of prosocial behavior depend on individualist and selfish inclinations, so they are oriented, for instance, to protect individual reputation [15]. However, it can be argued [16,17] that, although the reputation management mechanism is a strong source of motivation, it can hardly be a general explanation for prosocial tendencies. Moreover, it is doubtful that reputation management could be developmentally prior to general dispositions to engage in positively valenced interactions with other people within a framework of long-lasting concern for each other’s welfare [16]. Whatever the mental structures behind human social motivation are, what we can be sure of is that an object that can be called social in a minimal sense must, at least, be capable of exhibiting certain behavioral profiles that we can associate with an inclination or tendency to seek social encounters and care about the behavior of others and, at least in some cases, find social interactions intrinsically rewarding.
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"Be ready to be excited" - Stratégie marketing et modèle économique de la WWE

"Be ready to be excited" - Stratégie marketing et modèle économique de la WWE

« Be ready to be excited, be ready to be entertained and be ready for anything ! » : voilà ce que déclame John Cena, catcheur vedette de la World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), dans un clip promotionnel de cette fédération. En effet, la WWE est une entreprise de divertissement sportif basée à Stamford dans le Connecticut. Son activité principale consiste à organiser des spectacles de catch dont elle assure aussi la gestion des droits médiatiques et des produits dérivés. Cotée à la bourse de New York depuis 1999, elle est classée au 182 ème rang du TOP 200 des petites entreprises du Magazine Forbes 1 (122 ème en 2008) et emploie 585 personnes (hors catcheurs). A la différence d’une ligue sportive professionnelle, son rôle n’est pas de réguler sportivement et économiquement sa discipline mais de créer du contenu original pour attirer un public dans les salles et devant les postes de télévision. La stratégie d’entreprise et le développement de la fédération sont explicités dans ce propos de Linda McMahon, alors directrice générale, « the company has come a long way from being a
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How to Scale Up Kernel Methods to Be As Good As Deep Neural Nets

How to Scale Up Kernel Methods to Be As Good As Deep Neural Nets

Data characteristics To this end, we use two datasets: the IARPA Babel Program Cantonese (IARPA-babel101- v0.4c) and Bengali (IARPA-babel103b-v0.4b) limited language packs. Each pack contains a 20-hour training, and a 20-hour test sets. We designate about 10% of the training data as a held-out set to be used for model selection and tuning (i.e., tuning hyperparameters etc). The training, held-out, and test sets contain different speakers. The acoustic data is very challenging as it is two-person conversations between people who know each other well (family and friends) recorded over telephone channels (in most cases with mobile telephones) from speakers in a wide variety of acoustic environments, including moving vehicles and public places. As a result, it contains many natural phenomena such as mispronunciations, disfluencies, laughter, rapid speech, background noise, and channel variability. Compared to the more familiar TIMIT corpus, which contains about 4 hours of training data, the Babel data is substantially more challenging because the TIMIT data is read speech recorded in a well-controlled, quiet studio environment.
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The Right to be Unbalanced

The Right to be Unbalanced

According to the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, every person accused of a crime has the right to be represented by an attorney. If the accused cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided by the state. The Constitution does not, however, address the competency of that attorney. I honestly believe that most public defenders ranked lower in their class than their opponents, the assistant district attorneys. And since they get paid a salary, there is no incentive for them to walk the extra mile trying to win their cases. Their caseload means they do not have the time, the resources, or often the motivation to do all they can for the people they represent. Why would they? They get paid the same for a case that lasts half a day as for a case that lasts eight months.
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