whiteness it is held up against. Early on in the novel, Tom discusses the conclusions he has come to based on his readings on white supremacy. 32 He insists that “[they] are
Nordics” and that if “[they] don’t look out the white race will be utterly submerged” (Fitzgerald 13). His and Daisy’s marriage of ethnic purity is a prime example of such an act of defence. The length to which the novel goes in order to emphasize the indisputable quality of Daisy’s whiteness is noteworthy. Brown also makes the acute observation that TheGreatGatsby speaks to the issue of race “less through the medium of a sustained black presence than through its notable absence” (Brown). Indeed, the novel contains no “sustained black presence” but is rather permeated with a persistent focus on whiteness which, in its attempt to stamp out the race issue, only makes it more visible. The first time Nick sees Daisy, she and Jordan are “both in white” (Fitzgerald 8) and Daisy insists on telling Nick that she and Jordan passed their “beautiful white girlhood” (Fitzgerald 19) together in Louisville. Jordan also mentions that during their girlhood, Daisy “dressed in white and had a little white roadster” (Fitzgerald 74). Such pointed references to Daisy’s whiteness pervade the novel, transforming her into an emblem of the white race. Not only is she white, but it can also be said that the “pervasive whiteness” (Elmore 429) critic A.E. Elmore associates with Daisy serves to demonstrate that she is the ultimate embodiment of the pure white American woman. This makes her capable of defending the white race against utter submergence. As Elmore mentions in “Color and Cosmos in TheGreatGatsby,” “the Buchanans represent the rich, old-family wing of white, Anglo-Saxon, protestant America in the era immediately following World War I” (430). In this “world where the carefully guarded borders of old money European Americans are being penetrated and reconfigured by new wealth upstarts with non-Anglo names, murky backgrounds, and endless ambition,” Tom views it as his nativist duty to protect the “old money” Euro- American social class to which he belongs. As mentioned earlier, marriage in TheGreatGatsby functions as a means of organizing class structures. In the case of Tom and Daisy, this organization of class structures implies the preservation of one’s belonging to a certain
Cas du Roman « TheGreatGatsby » de Scott.F.Fitzgerald traduit par : Nadjib el Manaà
- Etude Analytique Critique -
Le texte littéraire pose des questions nombreuses, entre autres : la présence des termes et expressions culturellement marqués. La présente recherche a été entamée afin de clarifier le rôle du traducteur et l’importance de ces choix en ce qui concerne le transfert des deux types essentiels de figures de style : la comparaison et la métaphore. Il est évident que ces deux phénomènes rhétoriques sont des obstacles pour le traducteur lors de ce processus de traduction, Car il se trouve contraint de choisir les meilleures procédés susceptibles de transférer la forme et le fond du texte traduit. sachant que la métaphore et la comparaison, sont un tissu compliqué de mots, phrases et du sens. Et qui valorise les spécificités culturelles de la langue et ses propres moyens d’expression.
In “Death of a Salesman”, Arthur Miller wants to depict a specific ideology in regards to
values, dreams, and success in the postmodern consumer society. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the American people began to strive for a better materialistic life. Everyone was obsessed with success, money, and the material possessions. Arthur Miller’s play appeared in 1949 to reflect the bad situation of the American society after the Second World War. Willy Loman the play’s protagonist is a man in the sixties who has strived to achieve the American dream for over 30 years, however he ended up with a miserable failure. Willy continuously highlighted His importance in the world and in the work as a salesman to his sons, and he insisted on them to follow the same path when they grow. However, Willy was not in fact that hard worker, he was no more than a daydreamer. Willy wanted his sons Biff and Happy to achieve the success that he could not achieve as a salesman. At the end when Willy realized his Failures, he decided to commit suicide through having a car accident in order to ensure that his sons get the insurance money on his life.
C et article traite d’un aspect peu connu de Gatsby le Magnifique (dorénavant GG pour TheGreatGatsby, 1925) : la forme et le rôle des lieux communs et autres moyens d’exprimer des géné- ralités dans le roman de F. Scott Fitzgerald. Ces clichés, sur les- quels s’appuie ponctuellement la narration, sont cachés à double titre : matériellement, dans les replis du texte, mais aussi, idéolo- giquement, dans la nébuleuse de ce qu’on peut rattacher au sa- voir partagé, à la doxa. GG donne à voir, en effet, les faux plis que prennent certaines des valeurs de l’Amérique des années folles.
However, the growth process is far from being mechanical. Accumulation of physical and human capital, growth in total factor productivity (TFP) and energy constraints may vary over time. For instance, assuming a constant annual 8% growth rate, China’s economy will grow 21-fold in the next 40 years, while assuming a linear convergence of China’s annual growth rate from 8% to 3% in 40 years would result in ‘only’ 8-fold growth. These two scenarios would have entirely different implications for the world in terms of commodity markets, multinationals’ strategies, carbon emissions, the political order, etc. Although a very risky exercise, projecting the long run world economy is useful since it is indicative of magnitudes that can change the face of the world. It also provides a useful baseline for global economic policy models, since the results of these simulations are often heavily dependent on the baseline path of the world economy. 4
To compute the welfare implications of theGreat Recession, we use a house- hold production model where the consumer combines time with market goods to produce activities that generate satisfaction. Utility maximization implies that the value of time is given by the ratio of the marginal utility of time over the marginal utility of market goods. A method proposed by Gardes (2014) shows that this ratio can be estimated provided that data on time and income are available. To overcome the lack of this type of data, we use an original statis- tical matching procedure proposed by Rubin (1986) to combine the American Time Use Survey (as processed by Aguiar et al. ) with the Consumer Ex- penditure survey. Unlike Rubin’s procedure, other statistical matching methods assume implicitly that the variables to be matched are conditionally independent, which is a strong assumption that leads to severe biases when this assumption is not verified.
under Tony Blair’s leadership, attempted to compensate for these shortcomings, taking leadership where the Americans did not.
To advance the British position and strengthen its alliance with the United States, the Prime Minister made numerous high-profile public appearances in Washington and encouraged bilateral exchanges at all levels. Shortly after the event, Blair was the only world leader to appear at President Bush’s address to a joint session of Congress. To the Canadian media, the UK had gained favour to the detriment of Canada, which spurred criticisms of Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. Chrétien later remarked on Blair’s frequent visits to President Bush: “If Tony Blair wanted to be seen at Bush’s side in order to strengthen his position in Europe as the United States’ closest ally, that was his call, but it wasn’t in my character to try to spin some political advantage out of the innocent dead.” 293 Not surprisingly, Blair saw his role differently. Visits to Washington were part of a broader diplomatic approach to curtail Bush’s reaction to 9/11. Rather than encouraging the United States to engage in multilateral forums, such as the UN or NATO, the UK acted as the intermediary, soliciting support from world leaders and articulating the main motive for action against the Taliban in Afghanistan: self-defence. From the outset, Blair spoke to his European counterparts, German Chancellor Gerard Schroeder, French President Jacques Chirac, as well as Russian President Vladimir Putin. According to Alaistair Campbell, the aim was to “mobilize solidarity for the US” against the current trend toward anti- Americanism that prevailed in reaction to the Bush presidency. 294 In November 2001, Blair
The most celebrated of all Irish cultural associations, the Gaelic League, was founded by Douglas Hyde in this context in 1893, and despite its motto – ‘Ní tír gan teanga’, no country without a language – it meant to act far beyond the idea that language could build bridges between Catholics and Protestants: literature, history, music, dance, Saint Patrick, medieval manuscripts, dress, place names, first names, etc. were all enrolled in the promotion of a specific Irish identity and, in the longer term, for international recognition. In this context of 19 th century nationalism, the objective was twofold: to deal with the lack of confidence of Irish men and women in their own culture in the wake of theGreat Famine, but also to give a tangible existence to Ireland’s distinctiveness for the outside world. Not only did it hold adult classes in Irish but, in 1897 alone, it also created a festival with music competitions (Oireachtas na Gaeilge), it invented rules, regulations and costumes for solo dancing competitions (Feiseanna), and held the first ever Irish Céilí (ball) for group dancing in London, based loosely on a Scottish precedent. It then went on to absorb the Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language, to publish its own newspaper under the leadership of Pádraig Pearse (An Claidheamh Soluis, 1899), it backed a “Buy Irish” campaign (1900), convinced politicians to introduce more Irish teaching in schools (1903), made St Patrick's Day an official bank holiday celebrated by Protestants and Catholics alike (1903) and, more significantly, encouraged the creation of a national literature through the revival of Irish mythology, with artists of the Irish Literary Renaissance such as William B. Yeats (1865-1939) or Lady Gregory (1852-1932). In 1977, Nobel laureate Séamus Heaney summed up the ambivalent Irish attitude to this movement, often called the ‘Celtic Twilight’: “Although it has long been
However, the information on these brackets needs to be well placed over the income distribution in order to yield the most precise results. Fortunately, our income data from American tax records after 1944 meets that criterion, and is granular enough to provide information across the entire distribu- tion—for the years in which tax returns are representative of the population (or close to a full population sample). Unfortunately, before 1945, we do not observe a full population sample filing tax returns. We will turn to this ques- tion below. As we will discuss, when we do not have information below the 90th percentile, then it is difficult at best (speculative at worst) to infer the levels and shares of income for middle-class earners. Therefore, we must infer or impute as much information as possible about income levels throughout the population, before setting our generalized Pareto curve distribution func- tion to smooth out the cumulative distribution function and rigorously model income shares accruing to the middle-class and poorest households.
42 In one set of results, we also examined the effect of payroll tax subsidies in place since the early 1990s for minimum-wage workers receiving
between 1 and 1.2 times the minimum wage Kramarz and Philippon (2001). Changes in the payroll tax for unskilled workers may have a confounding effect on our estimates because the LFS, FQP and DADS datasets do not include employer-paid contributions. However, workers covered by these deductions represent a small share of our sample—only 4% on average and never more than 15% of workers in the low skill group when the sample is restricted to workers aged 25-55. In an attempt to check the robustness of our estimates, we have estimated models in which gross wages are imputed, using the value of the net wage computed from the data. We find that doing so only marginally changes the results.
The Fourth Turning propose une vision apocalyptique dans le sens où l’histoire des États-Unis
s’y trouve intégralement déterminée, ce qui est contraire aux idéaux fondateurs. Si des intellectuels ont effectivement cherché, au 19ème et au début du 20ème siècles, à théoriser voire à anticiper la marche de la civilisation, dont Karl Marx, Auguste Comte ou Arnold Toynbee, William Strauss et Neil Howe, historiens auto-proclamés, ne sont pas de ceux-là. Poussée à l’extrême, la logique déterministe et cyclique qu’ils déploient invalide de facto une vertu fondamentale de la démocratie puisqu’il n’y aurait alors plus aucune différence dans le fait que les Américains aient élu Franklin Roosevelt plutôt qu’Herbert Hoover, Ronald Reagan plutôt que Walter Mondale, et Donald Trump plutôt qu’Hillary Clinton. Strauss et Howe décrivent en outre l’avènement d’un « Gray Champion » après chaque événement catalyseur : John Winthrop, Benjamin Franklin, Abraham Lincoln et enfin Franklin Roosevelt. Le « Gray Champion » est à l’origine un personnage de fiction, issu des Twice
If one views the glass as half full, the trauma and effects of last year's abrupt decline in trade reawakened recognition of the importance of trade and could serve as a cat- alyst to finish the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations and to strengthen the multilateral trading system. The huge gains to open multilateral trade became evi- dent to all as the system choked temporarily. Completion of the Doha Round would strengthen the WTO (whose credibility has been damaged by the delays in negotia- tions), and reinforce the upturn in economic activity, as exporters would no longer hesitate to invest for lack of assured future levels of market access. It would also enable low-income countries to accelerate their growth rates once again, as access to markets is critical for their prospects. No poor country has been successful in acceler- ating growth without opening its markets and integrating with the world economy. For the still-poor countries, a vibrant open multilateral trading system would offer the best platform for enhancing their growth rates and alleviating poverty.
Coarse graining procedure
Stop points are then organized in Stop Areas representing facilities (Airports, Bus/Metro/Coach/Railway Stations) or possible interchange points. Also Stop Areas are geo-referenced and identified by an ATCOcode (characterized by the character ‘G’ at position four in the code). These Stop Areas have been taken as a basis for defining a multilayer network from the timetable data. Probably because of the bottom-up data entry process used for NaPTAN, the Stop Areas were not homogeneously defined. In particular, the spatial size can vary significantly and in some cases groups of stops can cover a distance of order 10 kilometres or more. In order to define consistently the nodes in the multilayer network where the inter-layer edges represent the inter-modal connections, we define inter-modal exchange nodes by correcting inconsistent NaPTAN Stop Areas using as a reference parameter a walking distance wd = 500 m, used here as the maximal distance allowed to reach a bus stop by walking. We focused on bus stops as we identified them as the main source of errors, and we therefore removed bus stops from groups when they were out of the walking distance range and included them when they were within that range. Finally, the procedure aimed to maintain the hierarchy defined by the NaPTAN scheme: Air ¿ Ferry ¿ Rail ¿ Metro ¿ Coach ¿ Bus and in the coarse graining we took into account this ranking where Airports are the most important locations and Bus stops the less important.
TABLE I: Dataset dimensions.
This dataset is stored as a single zip file at the Dryad Digital Repository (Data Citation 3). It describes the Public Transport Network of Great Britain by using a multilayer node-list and edge-list, where each layer is associated to a mode of transport. Each node is geo-referenced, thus defining a spatial network, and associated to a wide list of administrative meta-data. For each edge, we indicate the minimal travel-time in minutes. In the case of inter-layer edges, their weight is defined as the walking time needed for the inter-modal connection. For each intra-layer edge, we also specify a list of temporal events representing the vehicles’ rides along the edges, with origin time and travel duration expressed in minutes with a precision of one minute. In multilayer networks, each node may have several ‘copies’ in different layers. For that reason, nodes are identified by two numbers, one specifying the node itself, and another the layer where it belongs. As a consequence, the edges are identified by four numbers, two for the origin and two for the destination (node and layer). The ordering of the fields in edge-list has been chosen to conform to the tensorial notation widely used for this type of networks. There is no established standard format for the temporal event list, and we therefore decided to use a format, derived from the idea of adjacency lists, which has been specifically adapted to this dataset.
source regions of infrasonic waves (Topography data: ETOPO30). (A) The colored dots indicate the sources location according to the detected arrival times (UTC) of the infrasonic waves. Taking into account uncertainties due to the measurements and the propagation modeling, a max- imum location error of 20 km is estimated for each dot. (B) Predicted celerity models versus slowness and propaga- tion range for a source located at the main shock epicenter. The definition range of the celerity is given by the maximum of the slowness distribution derived from the measured trace velocities (Figure 2). The circles indicate the locations of the ground reception of both ducted stratospheric (Isd phases) and thermospheric paths (It phases). (C) Normalized surface pressure distribution along the Kunlun fault.
At each location, three simulations were conducted. First, FLake was integrated with observed meteorological values and using the average observed value for k (hereafter re- ferred to as “raw”). However, due to the location of AWS 1 and 2 – both surrounded by several buildings and large trees – especially the wind speed values are expected to be underestimated by these stations. Moreover, as the data gap- filling technique averaged out high values for ff, unrecorded high wind speed events were not recreated. Consequently, wind speed recordings at these stations can be considered as a lower bound for the actual ff at the respective eval- uation sites. As a supplementary evidence, wind velocity measurements from a state-of-the-art AWS, newly installed over the lake surface on a floating platform in the main basin and 2 km off the shoreline (AWS Kivu: 1 ◦ 43 0 30 00 S, 29 ◦ 14 0 15 00 E), showed that wind speeds at AWS Kivu were on average 2.0 m s − 1 higher compared to AWS 1 (from Oc- tober to November 2012, n = 892, root mean square er- ror RMSE = 2.7 m s − 1 ). By applying a constant increase of 2.0 m s − 1 to the wind velocities observed at AWS 1, the RMSE between wind velocities from both AWSs reduced to 1.8 m s − 1 . Since the location of AWS Kivu is much more exposed than the Ishungu Basin – especially given the pre- dominance of southeasterlies over the lake – wind velocities
Responsibility of LIEU members is to help researchers to bring projects from TRL (Technology Readiness Level) 2 to TRL 4 or even TRL 5 to 6. This includes managing IP (Intellectual Property), achieving the proof of concept, looking for relevant partners, setting up agreements, and finally transferring properly the technology to the more suitable partner to get the market. Additionally, the LIEU Network brings some support for promoting the laboratories among companies, using industrial language and standards, instead of pure scientific approach.
Extreme selective sweeps independently targeted the X chromosomes of thegreat apes
Kiwoong Nam (남기웅) a,1 , Kasper Munch a , Asger Hobolth a , Julien Yann Dutheil b , Krishna R. Veeramah c ,
August E. Woerner c , Michael F. Hammer c , Great Ape Genome Diversity Project d,e,2 , Thomas Mailund a ,