North America is leading the market, because of the high number of credits issued by the CCX rather than the fact that there is a significant reduction potential. Asia has succeeded in attracting the largest number of projects, mainly ones registered under the CDM, both in agriculture and in other sectors, while Africa’s share is nil. Unlike the industry and energy sectors, where its emissions are marginal on a global scale, Africa has a real mitigation potential in theagriculturalsector. The lack of African credits appears to indicate that the barriers to investment created by a problematic geopolitical environment have prevailed, especially for bio-energies. Meanwhile, methanisation projects are hard to implement among nomadic or extensive grazing systems, which are significant in Africa. In Europe, there are still not many JI projects involving theagriculturalsector. However, this sector seems hard to include in a ―cap-and-trade‖ scheme like the European Union Emission Trading Scheme; therefore the number of JI-type agricultural projects will probably grow.
- stakeholder acceptance of bio-based products and production processes - price competitiveness for bio-based products as substitutes
2. The transition from linear chains to closing loops in theagriculturalsector let individual business models evolve towards new, dynamic and integrated business models, in which the macro-
The National Food and Agriculture Policy (2002-2020) sets out objectives for theagriculturalsector that are consistent with the aforementioned vision. These objectives are to: accelerate the diversification of agriculture geared both to exports and the domestic market; promote agro-processing and value adding; support the establishment and development of organic agriculture; promote the expansion of local and international markets and trade; increase the efficiency, productivity and competitiveness of agribusinesses; improve and conser ve the natural productive and resource base; improve access to productive resources and services and create opportunities for small farmers, women and young people, and indigenous people, particularly in poor, marginal areas; and strengthening the institutional capabilities for providing effective support in trade and marketing, research and extension, as well as in education and training.
imports from regions with FMD. As pointed out by Krystynak and Charlebois ( 1987 ), a consequence of that is that an outbreak of FMD in Canada will result on immediate embargo on exports of animal products to countries free of the disease, which include the U.S and Japan. In addition, as compared to BSE, FMD is highly contagious and the actions of one farmer affect the risk of FMD occurring on other holdings ( Knight- Jones and Rushton , 2013 ). These effects last over seven years. The variables dBSE-destination and dFMD-destination are equal to one when the destination country has at least one disease-infected cattle. The emergence of BSE or/and FMD in a destination country increases the probability to export in that country. The reduction of domestic sales due to the presence of disease, induces the infected- country to substitute domestic suppliers for foreign suppliers in short term. In term of cross-effects, the occurrence swine fever or avian flu in the origin country reduces the probability of beef exports with the effect of swine fever much stronger than the effect of avian flu.
D. Neven, F. Tartanac, E. Vandecandelaere Part 1: Introduction
It is commonly acknowledged that rapid transformation of agrifood systems 1 has been occurring
around the world with important implications for economic development (Swinnen and Maertens, 2007; Reardon et al, 2009; Mergenthaler et al, 2009). During the past three decades, global trade in agriculture and food products quadrupled from US$230 billion in 1980 to almost US$1100 billion in 2010, accompanied by a shift in production structure in many developing countries towards increased production of high-value export commodities (fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy) and processed agrifood products (Maertens and Swinnen, 2014). Despite growth in trade figures, much of this period was characterised by historically low levels of public investment in agriculture worldwide. It was only in the aftermath of the food price crisis of 2007-8 that governments of developing countries and development agencies put agriculture squarely back on the agenda as food security again became an issue of global importance. The plight of smallholder farmers who make up some 70 percent of the population in many countries in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa was also brought to the fore, and the powerful link between agriculture-led growth and poverty reduction was formally recognised calling for increased public and private investment into thesector (World Bank, 2007). Another outcome of the crisis was the renewed recognition in some parts of the world of the importance of staple crop production. In regions such as West Africa, government interventions were designed to stimulate production of staple crops (rice, maize and cassava) with the aim to reduce domestic reliance on imports in pursuit of self-sufficiency objectives (FAO and IFAD, 2013).
The CAP, which was initially drawn up to modernise the European agriculture sector and ensure food self-sufficiency, rapidly reached and exceeded its initial goals. The policy of supporting prices via taxes on imports and establishing price guarantees has enabled farmers to be guaranteed a minimum income. The resulting modernisation of theagriculturalsector led to a sharp increase in production, to the point where a portion of the CAP’s budget was being used to subsidise the export of excess foodstuffs, mainly cereals and milk. The introduction of milk quotas in 1984 marked the first deviation from the initial production targets 1 . The 1992 reform extended this deviation via a reduction in intervention prices, accompanied by the introduction of compensatory support that was paid directly to farmers conditional on leaving a portion of land fallow. These measures enabled a partial
As with the paths depicted in Figure 2 of Section 3, for any given X 0 the paths depicted in Figure 3 contain all the other possible path conﬁgurations as special cases, depending on S 0 . If S 0 > S 0 (X 0 ), then τ = 0 and theagriculturalsector is inactive from the beginning and remains inactive until t = T . If S 0 < S 0 (X 0 ), the ﬁve phases corresponding to the case where S 0 (X 0 ) > S 0 > S 0 (X 0 ) described in Figure 3 collapse into three phases, since then τ = T w = T and theagriculturalsector is always active. The optimal paths during those three phases are exactly as in the case where ˆ y a > ¯ y a , except for the fact that now the next to last phase will always be composed of the two sub-phases described above. The second of those two sub-phases is always characterized by a pure Hotelling-type path, due to the fact that water availability does not constitute a constraint beyond T H when ˆ y a < ¯ y a .
but practical. Rather than analyzing agricultural markets, they wanted to reform them by producing and editing information for market participants.
3 Producing and editing information
The USDA was an important and innovative actor in the development of U.S. statistics in the 1920s and the 1930s, in terms of both data production and statistical analysis (Didier 2009; Biddle 1999). A large part of this statistical work relied on market information. It targeted market participants so that they could better adapt to economic conditions. Its first director, Taylor, argued that the BAE’s purpose was to ”serve as a sort of barometer of theagricultural industry” (BAE 1924, p. 2). 9 The relationship between market participants and agricultural economists was not a unilateral relationship in which the uninformed agents learned from the expert economists. To increase not only market participants’ information but also its control of theagricultural economy, the USDA needed to improve its knowledge (Saleuddin 2018; Didier 2009). In fact, the State and the economists knew little more than the market participants about the economy of theagriculturalsector. For futures markets, simple information like price levels or trading volumes did not exist or were kept private by traders (Saleuddin 2018, p. 281). Before any dissemination of information, the work of the USDA’s economists was twofold. First, they collected data to produce information on theagricultural economy. Second, they
However, despite the efforts that have been put in place at regional level leading to common agricultural policy (cap) or agriculture-related strategies in different african rias, results do not seem to be convincing in many african countries. As evidenced by oxfam international in highlighting the case of sadc- rap, the options for achieving the objectives of promoting actions and supporting the development of regional-level mechanisms and instruments have never been put on the table, and consequently, the promise of a vibrant smallholder sector that enables the realization of rights and supports poverty eradication remains a dream for many smallholder farmers (mutamba and dlamini, 2015). The same applies in eac, where the lack of appropriate application of cap in member countries has been noted. Indeed, according to the study conducted in 2013 by africa lead examining the institutional architecture for food security policy change in eac, the overall performance of theagriculturalsector in the five eac partner states has been less than its potential and the overall caadp 6% target agricultural growth rate (usaid/africa lead, 2013). The same study reveals that the agro-industry sector in the eac is stagnant, with little added-value in manufacturing sectors. The main causes associated to this low average performance include: (i) inadequate research, education and skills development; (ii) inadequate financial and budget allocation; (iii) limited institutional capacity at the eac secretariat (and also partner states); and (iv) weak institutional structure at the eac secretariat (usaid/africa lead, 2013).
We identified four cohabiting ³productive configurations´ thanks to regulation in theagriculturalsector of the Orel oblast'. The first one has been developed by the Orel government: The government emphasizes food security and the zoning of the region by controlling some corporate farms and private farmers. The second productive configuration was developed by new operators. In this configuration two elements are linked together: the financing of some collective goods (primary schools, housing, etc) by the farmers in return for the favorable regulation of the food market by the regional and national authorities. This regulation comes in the form of quotas on meat importation or on facility access to credit for the oligarch in the Orel oblast' The third ³productive configuration ´ enables the development of two types of farms: independent ex-kolkhozes/ex- sovkhozes and plots of land. In this configuration, the independent farms find new outlets into the food-industry and help owners of plots of land to get contracts with industrial operators. This type of compromise guarantees the fulfillment of the local population's basic needs. The fourth productive configuration helps to expand the activity of private farmers: They sign contracts with ³speculant´ (middleman) to guarantee outlets for their products, avoiding direct competition with corporate farms and food-industry. This configuration is also dependent on the land contract that the private farmer signs with collective-landowners. Private farmers provide the collectivity of landowners with outputs from their plots of land in exchange for rental land.
In the case of climate, as three conditions were met, it was possible to reach the beginnings of a norm (Godard, 2004): on one side it was possible to establish an equivalence relation between different factors of climate change (different greenhouse gases), on the other, emissions are considered equivalent (from the point of view of their effects) independently of the location where they are generated. Finally, we were able to conventionnaly establish a universal instrument of measurement and exchange (the carbon-ton). In due course, this led to the creation of a world market based on reducing emissions. Devices for the adjustment of economic and technical asymmetries were subsequently added 6 . This regulating model does not allow the equal distribution of energy resources (that is ethically justified but economically impossible), but has the great advantage of providing a mechanism that moves in a more sustainable direction with regards to energy consumption, provided that the authorities (international negotiations) can impose reduction objectives. As per the food sector, the provision of specific regulations does not seem necessary: the transport of food products and choices relating to localisation will gradually change in function of the rise in energy costs. With regards to theagricultural and food sectors, the main task consists in adapting production and consumption systems to the energy market, which is also subject to rising prices. The "food miles" issue therefore becomes superfluous.
• The Commission could not prove that the investments in the terminal had been undertaken primarily in order to provide services to Germanwings by relying solely on unsubstantiated declarations of the German State
• GCEU, 13 December 2018, Ryanair DAC and Airport Marketing Services Ltd, T-111/15, T-165/15, T-165/16, T-53/16 and Transavia, T-591/15
Kids 0.071–0.264 0.189 (0.017) Fraction of school-aged population (5–17)
Balanced budget rule 0 / 1 0.542 (0.499) Balanced budget requirement (no carry-over rule)
Voter initiative 0 / 1 0.458 (0.499) Voter initiative available (1), otherwise (0)
estimates in columns 1–4 of both panels indicate a negative and statistically significant effect of auditor expertise on debt and expenditures. States demanding the state auditor to hold at least a CPA feature roughly 10% lower debt and 5% lower expenditures. The fixed effects regressions shown in columns 5 and 6 in both panels point to the same conclusion. The coefficients of the debt regressions in Panel A confirm the random effects results, while the coefficients of the expenditure regressions in Panel B are slightly lower and do not reach statistical significance. Note that these results are difficult to interpret since fiscal information might be systematically biased and pure fiscal level effects might not be very informative on government performance.
2. It may turn out that one employs incorrect information on the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude, so that the sum rule under consideration is, in fact, divergent. This
scenario was illustrated in section 5.2 ;
3. Finally, the information on the resonance spectrum may be incomplete and certain light resonances, which might provide a considerable contribution, are missed. If it is possible to point out the resonance which helps to restore the balance in a given sum rule and, at the same time, does not lead to problems with saturation of another ones, this can be considered as indirect evidence in favor of the existence of such resonance.
labourers have been gaining a larger portion of the market share of positions within SAWP (Preibisch & Binford 2007, Weston & Scarpa de Masellis 2003).
CONTINGENT WORKER PERSPECTIVE
TFWs can be considered as contingent workers. There continues to be an increase in the use of contingent workers (Connelly & Gallagher, 2006; Connelly & Gallagher, 2004; Drucker, 2002; Kalleberg, Reynolds, & Marsden, 2003; Rogers, 2000; Zeytinoglu, 1999). Many employers seek flexibility through the use of contingent or temporary employment to achieve improved competitiveness and success (Zeytinoglu, Chowhan, Cooke & Mann, forthcoming). With the increased globalization of goods and service production and increasing competition, many organizations are attempting to maximize returns, in party by lowering labour costs and moving from employing workers on a largely full-time continuous basis to a more contingent and temporary basis (Zeytinoglu et al, forthcoming; Blyton, Heery, & Turnbull, 2011; Cappelli, Bassi, Katz, Knoke, Osterman, & Useem, 1997; Torres, 2012). As pointed out by Zeytinoglu et al. (forthcoming), many employers have responded to the increasing global labour market by making strategic
Legal Test for Excessive Pricing
Article 102(a) provides that an abuse may consist of “directly or indirectly
imposing unfair purchase or selling prices …”
In United Brands (1978), the Court of Justice said that charging a price which is excessive because “it has no reasonable relation to the economic value of
responses to questions raised about the suitability of generic patches, which emphasised that generic versions did not have the same composition, size or quantity of fentanyl, which could lead to added variability in the concentration of the drug in the bloodstream and increased patient risk. Janssen-Cilag also sent letters to pharmacists, physicians and medical press outlets reiter- ating the AFSSAPS’s warning issued with the approval of Ratiopharm’s generic patch. These letters, however, mischaracterized the warning in several ways: they implied incorrectly that the warning related only to the risk of switching patients from Durogesic to a generic, whereas the warning applied to a switch between any products; they failed to mention that such switching risks could be effectively eliminated by proper medical surveillance; and they placed undue importance on the fact that this was the ﬁrst time the AFSSAPS had issued a warning alongside the marketing authorisation for a generic, as prior to 2008, French law had not allowed for such warnings to be issued. Other features of the denigration campaign included pop-up warnings that would appear when pharmacists searched for Durogesic in their computer systems and telephone conference calls targeting pharmacists.
We use an OLS model to explain the value added of the HBs by variables on assets and investment, employment, sectoral characteristics and individual characteristics of the owner (see Table 6.A in the appendix). This model shows that the performance of the HBs is highly correlated with labour. Compared to being self-employed and working alone, having one employee increases the value added of a HB by 21 per cent, and having two to four employees increases the value added by around 125 per cent. Assets are the actual values of machines, tools, furniture and vehicles used for the activity. We do not include here land and premises, which are treated separately. 3 The actual value of assets is correlated with the value added, but weakly: An increase of 10 per cent of the value of the assets increases the value added by 1 per cent. In the same way, investment, which includes here the purchase of new or secondhand tools, machines, furniture or vehicles and the expense of maintaining equipment du- ring the past 12 months, has a weak, although significant, effect on the value added. For most HBs, these expenditures for investment are small and sometimes difficult to distinguish from those for raw materials (e.g. tools and furniture that last less than one year). Nearly 80 per cent of the HBs have an annual investment of less than 4 mil- lion VND (see section 3 below). Moreover, for those that have made a higher level of investment, it will yield returns in the following years and it is too early to expect an effect on the value added of the year. Unfortunately, the investment of previous years is not known.
To conclude on premises, the type of premises used for an activity and their occupan- cy status are diverse among HBs. A non-negligible proportion of them, one third of the informal HBs, have no fixed location from which to run their business, reflecting a high level of instability and precariousness. However, this proportion is on the decline. Around half of the HB owners benefit from a high degree of stability as they operate their business out of their home, which they generally own. However, they are res- tricted in their growth prospects as space in their home is limited. Another segment is comprised of people who have a HB and do not own their premises but occupy freely premises owned by family members. Although they do not their premises, as a family member they benefit from a certain assurance regarding their stability. Howe- ver, free occupancy generates moral debt towards their family that can impact the functioning of their business (see Chapter 10). Finally, a minority of HBs, mostly formal ones, pay rent for a professional premises. That is why they can be more vulnerable to economic shocks, but they also have the highest potential for growth as they can adapt the surface of their premises to the size of their activity, and they operate in more adequate conditions.