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Toward a single definition of periurban areas? A review of terms, definitions and characteristics relating to the "urban" terminology.

Toward a single definition of periurban areas? A review of terms, definitions and characteristics relating to the "urban" terminology.

In order to evaluate the resistance of landscape classes and ecosystems to the periurbanization process of a dozen cities in Sub- Saharan Africa, we plan to conduct a diachronic landscape evolution analysis from satellite imagery. But remote sensing image interpretation and classification require a clear definition of what is considered as a rural, a periurban and an urban area. Different terms, definitions and characteristics relating to different « urban terminology » concepts have been reviewed and compared according to different criteria like their type, citation frequency (references in the footer), strenghts and weaknesses.
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Terms & definitions on the identification of drinking water protected areas and related zones

Terms & definitions on the identification of drinking water protected areas and related zones

Delineation of the catchment area : BRGM approach (Vernoux et al. 2007) river Part of Aquifer Feeding the Abstraction (« PAFA ») Topographical crest Gr oundw at er divide or imper vious [r]

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Social Entrepreneurship: Definitions, Drivers and Challenges

Social Entrepreneurship: Definitions, Drivers and Challenges

Not the only model of social innovation Social innovation is another concept which has gained increasing attention recently (Martin & Osberg 2007; Mulgan et al. 2007; Phills et al. 2008). Drawing on the literature on innovation and on its broad conceptualization by Schumpeter, Nicholls (2010a:247) distinguishes three types of social innovation: “in new product and service development (institutional innovation); in the use of existing goods and services in new –more socially productive– ways (incremental innovation); in reframing normative terms of reference to redefine social problems and suggest new solutions (disruptive innovation)”. While much of the literature has focused on innovation as inherent in entrepreneurship and market orientation, the concept of social innovation tends to consider innovation in a much broader way. Social innovation, broadly defined as new solutions to social needs, is not necessarily market-based and can be found in any sector (Mulgan et al. 2007; Phills et al. 2008): public (example of participative budgeting in Porto Alegre and elsewhere, see for instance Novy & Leubolt 2005), private for-profit (Austin et al. 2006), or non-profit (Gerometta et al. 2005). In such sense, whilst social entrepreneurship and social innovation clearly overlap, a difference lies in the fact that social innovation is not necessarily market oriented, while social entrepreneurship clearly is. Hence, some authors view social innovation as the broader umbrella term under which social entrepreneurship, as well as other novel public and third sector initiatives located outside the market, can be affiliated (Mulgan et al. 2007; Phills et al. 2008).
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Block orthogonal polynomials: I. Definitions and properties

Block orthogonal polynomials: I. Definitions and properties

on E i and on the two inner products ( , ) and ( , ) 2 . (The standard problem of getting an orthogonal basis {φ 0 , . . . , φ i−1 } of E i with respect to ( , ) 1 brings nothing new.) All the relevant quantities in the G-SO (e.g., connection coefficients between bases) are expressed in terms of determinants with metric tensor components as entries, except possibly for the last row. Furthermore, the G-SO is a step by step procedure well-suited for numerical calculation. The importance of the non-degenerate and/or the definite character of the inner products considered is underlined. Since different inner products are considered simultaneously, the Dirac
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Landscape phytosociology concepts and definitions applied to serial and catenal vegetation mapping

Landscape phytosociology concepts and definitions applied to serial and catenal vegetation mapping

The syntaxon regeneration can include a pioneer therophytic stage. Curtaseries: truncated series, caracterised by at least two dynamical perennial stages, which mature stage, due to ecological constraints, is a non-forest one. In 2003, Lazare and Lanniel define a new concept, the mesoserie, replaced by the term of curtaserie or truncated serie [15], as synonym of minoriseries [27]. It concerns intermediary cases between permaseries and series, where the vegetations are submitted to less extreme ecological constraints than permaseries, allowing the appearance of the first steps of succession, but strong enough to prevent the natural potential vegetation to reach the forest stage. For grammatical reasons, Rivas-Martínez (2011) proposes to name this concept “minoriserie” instead of “curtaserie”. For this author, these terms are synonymous.
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Open-Endedness: Definitions and Shortcuts

Open-Endedness: Definitions and Shortcuts

We have defined OE in terms of innovation and emergence: changes to models and meta-models. In classical software simulations, a model is designed (say, in UML) conforming to some meta-model (e.g. of object orientation, or agent-based systems), and then implemented. The running code conforms to the model. That model does not change as the system runs. Therefore, can such simulations ever exhibit innovation or emergence? Can they be open-ended?

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Dissemination of definitions and concepts of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions

Dissemination of definitions and concepts of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions

The allergy and hypersensitivity definitions Outside the allergy community, the terms “hypersensitivity” and “allergy” have often been considered to be synonymous. However, currently in the field of allergy they receive differ- ent hierarchical positions since (Fig. 3) “hypersensitivity” is defined as “conditions clinically resembling allergy that cause objectively reproducible symptoms or signs, initiated by exposure to a defined stimulus at a dose tolerated by normal subjects” and “allergy” as “a hypersensitivity reaction initiated by proven or strongly suspected immuno- logic mechanisms” [19]. Therefore, the heading “hypersen- sitivity” includes allergic hypersensitivity conditions, such as milk-induced anaphylaxis (IgE-mediated) or antiepileptic- induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (non-IgE mediated), as well as non-allergic hypersensitivity conditions, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor induced angio- edema or cold-induced urticaria (non-immune mediated hypersensitivity). An allergic reaction occurs when triggered by allergens to which the affected individual is sensitized (i.e., has immune antigen receptors directed against them). Although the term “intolerance” has been wrongly used to describe allergic clinical presentations by other specialties and laypersons, it has been mentioned as a non-allergic (non-immunological) hypersensitivity condition [50], out of the area of allergy practice. Therefore, this term has been added as exclusion of allergy in the new ICD- 11 framework.
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Recursive Operator Definitions

Recursive Operator Definitions

Proof: By Theorem 3, substituting Fr for G, and Corollary 2. In practice, for any v, the value of Def (v, F ) is dened in terms of v and F (v 1 ) , . . . , F (v k ) for some nite set {v 1 , . . . , v k } . There is then an obvious recursive algorithm for computing F (v). Our results imply that if this algorithm terminates, then it computes F (v ) equal to Fr(v). To prove this, let S equal the set of all values x for which the algorithm computes F (x), and dene the relation ≺ on S so x ≺ y is true i the algorithm computes F (x) when computing F (y). Termination of the algorithm implies that ≺ is an irreexive partial order on S and that S is nite, so ≺ is well-founded on S. Let G(x) be the value computed by the algorithm for all x ∈ S. Theorem 3 implies Representable(G, S ) and Theorem 2 then implies G(v) = Fr(v).
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Physical Activity, Inactivity, and Sedentary Behaviors: Definitions and Implications in Occupational Health

Physical Activity, Inactivity, and Sedentary Behaviors: Definitions and Implications in Occupational Health

physical activity guidelines. This inappropriate understanding of these terms can be illustrated using the recent paper by Rantalainen et al. ( 24 ), who compared the amount and patterns of time devoted to moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) between two groups of habitual recreational runners: (i) running between of 20 to 40 km per week and (ii) running more than 50 km per week) and a “sedentary group” composed of office workers ( 24 ). However, to be included in their “sedentary group,” participants had to engage in <150 min per week of MVPA, defining them as inactive and not sedentary. The misuse of the concept in this study was justified by the fact that the three groups showed a statistically similar overall sedentary time. This study clearly highlights that individuals may be classified as both active and sedentary and that inactive and sedentary must not be confused in order to avoid any misinterpretations, incorrect conclusions and/or public health messages ( 25 ).
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Monoid-like definitions of cyclic operad

Monoid-like definitions of cyclic operad

operadic operations). One then has to examine the properties of this product, primarily by comparing species (S  T )  U and S  (T  U ), in order to exhibit an isomorphism whose commutation with the multiplication µ : S  S → S expresses axioms of the operad-like structure in question. Analogously, an appropriate isomorphism of species is needed for each of the remaining axioms of such a structure (for example, the isomorphims λ ◦ S and ρ ◦ S account fot the unit axioms of an operad), except for the equivariance axiom, which holds by the naturality of µ. The operad-like structure is then introduced as an object S of Spec, together with the multiplication µ (and possibly other natural transformations, like the unit η in the previous definition) that commutes in the appropriate way with established isomorphisms.
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The Quality of Employment and Decent Work: Definitions, Methodologies, and Ongoing Debates

The Quality of Employment and Decent Work: Definitions, Methodologies, and Ongoing Debates

6 3.1. Methodology and Measurement in the Academic Literature The academic research that measures selected employment conditions that are conducive to a better quality of working life is built upon a solid theoretical foundation and a large body of empirical work (Adams et al, 2000; Dex and Bond, 2005; Gallie et al, 2004; Green, 2006; Kalleberg, 2011; Olsen and Kalleberg, 2004; Rose, 2003). This generated a considerable understanding of the various job characteristics conducive to workers’ well-being within national labour markets. However, even despite this solid theoretical and empirical foundation, no consensus was ever reached as to what exactly constitutes a "good job" or how best to operationalise the idea in a synthetic or compound measure. Again, the above- mentioned multiple and diverging focuses of different academic disciplines on the subject do not help in this regard. It is hardly surprising then, that the translation of these complex and heterogeneous concepts into a policy relevant, cross-country comparative analysis have taken so long to emerge. Moreover, the vast majority of existing indicators was developed based on single country datasets. Consequently they tell us little about national comparisons. Where such studies have been done, they tend to be limited to the member states of the EU. Overall, these studies can be divided into roughly three groups: a first that uses self-reported data and/or evaluations such as job satisfaction to estimate job quality, a second group that used objective data, and a third one that uses a mixed approach.
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Case Definitions for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Case Definitions for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

manifestations of the disease, and they overlap. A major hindrance in achieving scientific respectability has been the difficulty in agreeing upon a definition for this condition (or conditions). It should be realized that no single case definition, even if agreed upon in one context—e.g., for diagnosis purposes—will suffice for use in other contexts. It is important to distinguish case definitions for use in diagnosis, epidemiological studies, research on the nature of the condition, regulatory standard-setting, compensation awards, and situations requiring alternative employment or housing. The social and political consequences of the use of a particular definition in a specific context requires the case definition to be carefully constructed.
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Tensor and Coupled Decompositions in Block Terms: Uniqueness and Irreducibility

Tensor and Coupled Decompositions in Block Terms: Uniqueness and Irreducibility

in Fig. 1b ), can be characterized using Schur’s lemma [ 5 ], when the other factor matrices are nonsingular. In this work, we shall explain how this result leads to a possible new generalization of the concept of Kruskal rank [ 9 ]. Kruskal’s rank is a key concept in defining the uniqueness of the decomposition of a tensor in sum of rank-1 terms. Earlier work on the uniqueness of BTD focused on role of the factor matrices (e.g., the matrix A and its transpose in Fig. 1 ), but not on the role of the values on the block-diagonals of the tensor S (see Fig. 1 ). In order to avoid reducibility, it was assumed that the block-diagonal terms, also known as core tensors [ 2 ], were generic. Given this assumption, it was proven in earlier work that BTD were generically unique, under mild conditions on the factor matrices.
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Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lexicographic Definitions using Unit Graphs

Reasoning with Dependency Structures and Lexicographic Definitions using Unit Graphs

4.3 Unit Types Hierarchy with Definitions We formalize the notion of definition of a Primi- tive Unit Type (PUT) and include a set of PUTs definitions in the definition of the unit types hier- archy. Definitions are of special interest to rep- resent lexicographic definitions of a LexUT L, which corresponds to the definition of its associ- ated DSemUT / L \ . Informally, a definition de- fines an equivalence between two λ-UG defined over the same support. One of them has a cen- tral free unit node typed with the defined PUT and some of its ASlots filled by free unit nodes. The other λ-UG is called the expansion of t. There is no circumstantial triple in these two λ-UG because they must not be part of the lexicographic defini- tion of a LexUT.
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Tensor and Coupled Decompositions in Block Terms: Uniqueness and Irreducibility

Tensor and Coupled Decompositions in Block Terms: Uniqueness and Irreducibility

in Fig. 1b ), can be characterized using Schur’s lemma [ 5 ], when the other factor matrices are nonsingular. In this work, we shall explain how this result leads to a possible new generalization of the concept of Kruskal rank [ 9 ]. Kruskal’s rank is a key concept in defining the uniqueness of the decomposition of a tensor in sum of rank-1 terms. Earlier work on the uniqueness of BTD focused on role of the factor matrices (e.g., the matrix A and its transpose in Fig. 1 ), but not on the role of the values on the block-diagonals of the tensor S (see Fig. 1 ). In order to avoid reducibility, it was assumed that the block-diagonal terms, also known as core tensors [ 2 ], were generic. Given this assumption, it was proven in earlier work that BTD were generically unique, under mild conditions on the factor matrices.
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Combining compound and single terms under language model framework

Combining compound and single terms under language model framework

AP88 79,919 201–300 WT10g 1,692,096 451–550 4.2 Data set and experimental setup We evaluate our model using the following TREC data sets: the ad hoc collections AP88 (Associated Press News, 1988) and WSJ90-92(Wall Street Journal, 1990–1992) and the WT10g web collection. In 201–300 Topics: title and description fields are used, and only title portion is considered in 451–550 Topics, this restriction is due to the fact that the web queries are short. Figure 1 shows an example of topic, taken from the WT10g. The topic is composed by three portions, where the title portion contains only two terms. The query constructed by the IR system is “Bengals cat” (which is recognized as compound term), and then, the documents of WT10g collection are matched with this query. Our model which is based on compound terms boost the documents in the ranking of the returned list which contain the compound term “Bengals cat” as depicted in Table 7 .
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Interpolation inequalities, nonlinear flows, boundary terms, optimality and linearization

Interpolation inequalities, nonlinear flows, boundary terms, optimality and linearization

associated with the invariances of the equation. Of course, any element of the set of functions generated by the dilations and the multiplication by an arbitrary constant is also optimal if w ⋆ is optimal. Conversely, there is symmetry breaking if equality in ( 3 ) is not achieved among radial functions. Deciding whether symmetry or symmetry breaking holds is a central problem in physics, and it is also a difficult mathematical question. It is well known that symmetric energy functionals may have states of lowest energy that may or may not have these symmetries. In our example ( 3 ) the weights are radial and the functional is invariant under rotation. In the language of physics, a broken symmetry means that the symme- try group of the minimizer is strictly smaller than the symmetry group of the functional. For computing the optimal value of the functional it is of great advantage that an optimizer is symmetric. The optimal constant C β,γ,p can then be explicitly computed in terms of the Γ function. Otherwise, this is a difficult question which
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Combining compound and single terms under language model framework

Combining compound and single terms under language model framework

AP88 79,919 201–300 WT10g 1,692,096 451–550 4.2 Data set and experimental setup We evaluate our model using the following TREC data sets: the ad hoc collections AP88 (Associated Press News, 1988) and WSJ90-92(Wall Street Journal, 1990–1992) and the WT10g web collection. In 201–300 Topics: title and description fields are used, and only title portion is considered in 451–550 Topics, this restriction is due to the fact that the web queries are short. Figure 1 shows an example of topic, taken from the WT10g. The topic is composed by three portions, where the title portion contains only two terms. The query constructed by the IR system is “Bengals cat” (which is recognized as compound term), and then, the documents of WT10g collection are matched with this query. Our model which is based on compound terms boost the documents in the ranking of the returned list which contain the compound term “Bengals cat” as depicted in Table 7 .
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Unequal societies, Unequal Terms of Trade and Trade Policy

Unequal societies, Unequal Terms of Trade and Trade Policy

process, the terms of trade and the welfare distribution within countries. Our framework hopefully provides a basic tool for studying the interactions between changes in taris on welfare and inequalities inside and between countries. We show in this paper than a redistributive policy is always prot increasing in a closed as well as in an open economy for the countries which redistribute. This increasing prot is obtained by an intensive use of manufactured goods, and possibly by an extensive one depending on the initial income distribution. Anyway, the intensive positive impact always dominates the generally negative extensive one, whatever the distribution of the wealth, and the initial level of income. More surprisingly, the impact of a redistributive policy on the income of a partner country is non trivial 3 . It depends on the relative size of the countries,
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Comparison of research case definitions for carpal tunnel syndrome.: Research case definitions of carpal tunnel syndrome

Comparison of research case definitions for carpal tunnel syndrome.: Research case definitions of carpal tunnel syndrome

Matte et al, ( ) 1989 22 Symptoms suggestive of carpal tunnel syndrome are present. One or more of the following symptoms are sufficient: paresthesia, hypoesthesia, pain or numbness affecting at least part of the median nerve distribution of the hand(s). The median nerve distribution generally includes palmar side of thumb, index finger, middle finger, and radial half of ring finger; dorsal (back) side of same digits above PIP (proximal interphalangeal) joint; and radial half of palm. Pain and paresthesia may radiate proximally into the arm. Symptoms should have lasted at least one week or, if intermittent, have occurred on multiple occasions. Other causes of hand numbness or paresthesia, such as cervical radiculopathy, thoracic outlet syndrome, and pronator teres syndrome, should be excluded by appropriate clinical evaluation. *
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