Perspectives on models of academic collaboration.
Taking into account an implicit group structure, both at a social and at a socio-semantic level, as evi- denced by the data, is likely to faithfully account for the structure of academic collaboration networks. Indeed, the underlying low-level dynamics is plau- sibly closer to hypergraphic team formation mecha- nisms than would be allowed by a design based on dyadic interactions only. As said before, this should not yield a lack of organizational thinking regarding the underpinnings of scientific production: beyond the step that constitutes our present contribution, an exhaustive approach about this type of collabora- tion mechanisms would indeed have to involve both epistemic hypergraphs and organizational features. In this respect, while we claim and show that hyper- graphs make it possible to capture some interesting processes of team-based, knowledge-intensive pro- duction systems, we also emphasize that the richness of organizational mechanisms should not be shad- owed by this formalism.
case studies makes it difficult to assess their impact on PP. The 38 variables listed in Table 9 are an inventory of the various parameters that have been considered in the various papers on PP. However the 21 context variables that are both controllable and measurable should be reported in any study on PP. The four context variables, which are not controllable but are still measurable, could provide some interesting insight on the individual team members. Finally, the 13 non-controllable and non-measurable variables listed in Table 9, originally introduced by Gallis and Ally, belongs to the domain of team process dynamics, more precisely to the concept of emergent states . An emergent state is a mediating mechanism defined as the cognitive, motivational and affective states having a potential impact on the process under study. Some of these emergent states are measurable and can be controlled in empirical studies in the field of psychology but are not likely to be part of traditional methods in software engineering studies.
As the interviewees rightfully pointed out, team leaders are not obliged to choose just one of the styles, but they can create a personalised cocktail of leadership styles that the team would respond to best.
Referring back to the conceptual framework to achieve teamdynamics, the Input-Pro- cess-Output Model of Team Effectiveness concerning the inputs namely team composi- tion andteam diversity, the team leader might have limited control on these apart from having some influence during the Recruitment & Selection process. However, as the theory of the model shows, the contributing factors or fuel behind good outputs are the processes on which the team leader can exert influence and make a difference. As dis- cussed in the Literature Review, the processes refer to the behaviours as well as activi- ties of the team leader, entailing engagement, communication, coordination, and cohe- sion which if well exploited can lead to better performance. Interestingly, the primary data from this research add other components to the processes namely trust, respect, and empathy demonstrated by the team leader and within the teams. In the execution of such activities or behaviours, the team leader endeavours to make the vision and expec- tations clear for all in the team.
In the past decades, human societies experienced major demographic changes, often referred to as demographic transition: an increase in life expectancy combined with a decline in fertility, as well as a general economic growth and health improvements at the individual level. The complexity of demographic phenomenons appears at several levels since mainly (i) there is a structural interplay between mortality and fertility, possibly with delay, (ii) the age structure of mortality presents strong age regularities but its time pattern is complex and the existence of a limiting age is still a debate, and (iii) at the microscopic level, hidden underlying population heterogeneity creates non-trivial dynamicsand unexpected fluctuations at the macroscopic scale. In social sciences, microsimulation methods have been develop, which aims at simulating a collection of (possibly interacting) individuals over time, and observing the impact of microscopic rules at the macroscopic level. Computational micro- macro approaches are widely used in demographics (see e.g. Tesfatsion (2002), Morand et al. (2010) and Silverman et al. (2011)) and such microsimulation tech- niques go back to the work of Orcutt (1957). Since then, as mentioned in Morand et al. (2010), most statistical or demographical government bodies in developed countries use microsimulation methods. For instance, the MicMac project funded by the European Commission and implemented by a consortium of research cen- ters in Europe develops the general micro-macro model of the European Union that is documented in the survey of Willekens (2005). In France in particular, the na- tional institute INSEE is currently using the microsimulation model Destinie 2 (see Blanchet et al. (2009)), which is used to measure the efficiency of reforms on the national pay-as-you-go pension system.
This work package will validate both WP1 and WP2.
2.1 Work Package One Achievements: Reflective Foundations
Progress on a new iteration on the reflective layer and metaobject protocol for Pharo: We have implemented the Slots Mechanism in Pharo, which resulted in a first-class reification of instance variables and their accessing through assignment and reading. This allows us to hook into reading and writing of instance variables and perform meta-level operations on them, e.g., adding breakpoints to the reading of a specific instance var, or a transparent notification mechanism for when a specific instance variable is written. The latter can be used, e.g., in WP3 to dynamically update a visualization of the object that contains the instance variable whenever the variable changes.
The Farmer Field Schools (FFS) in Kenya examined in this study represent a new paradigm in rural adult education that focuses on farmer driven innovation. FFS provides a platform where farmers meet regularly in groups to study the how and why of farming. There are currently a multitude of FFS initiatives in more than 27 countries in Africa (Braun, Jiggins et al., 2005) funded by various development agencies and the approach is gaining in popularity. It represents extension and research efforts that are transformative (e.g, Mezirow, 2000) in nature and enable poor and frequently illiterate farmers to engage in an agricultural innovation and market driven rural development process. Published research indicates substantial impact of FFS in terms of increase in farm productivity, improved farming knowledge (Rola, Jamias and Quizon, 2002; Praneetvatakul and Waibel, 2003; Mwagi et. al, 2003) and indications of empowerment and collective action (Züger, 2004; Mancini, van Bruggen and Jiggins, 2006; Van den Berg and Jiggins, 2007). However, outside of the economic and agrarian implications of FFS little is known about the effect of FFS as a catalyst of change in social dynamics among rural poor, and in particular on the personal, communal and gendered lives of the participants and to what extent FFS contributes to social equity and reduction of poor populations in terms of innovative agency and human relationships. In response to this concern the purpose of this study was to explore FFS and the impact it had on the lives of participants from the perspective of transformative learning. The paper begins with an introduction to the pedagogy of the FFS approach followed by a discussion of transformative learning as the theoretical framework of the study. Thereafter study methodology and findings are presented followed with a concluding discussion.
We repeated the calculations of Fig. 2 for ions with charge states ranging from Z 1 to 30. The results are depicted in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). For charge states below Z 10, the influence of magnetic focusing drops rapidly and disappears completely at Z 5, which is around the onset of relativistic effects. The increase of the return current for Z < 5 is due to the decrease of the transversal spread of the electron wave packet on the one hand, and due to Coulomb focusing  on the other hand. Apart from minor changes in the return time and in the electron pulse shape, the returning electron pulse is insensitive to the particular choice of parameters. The pulse duration between Z 15 and Z 30 ranges between 100 and 300 asec. Finally, from Z 15 to Z 30, electron return energies between 10 and 100 MeV are realized.
could argue against this argument with the view that some of the districts might have been more prepared than others for the structural change, thanks to a good district manager or to the presence of good offices overall, and hence might have been chosen on those grounds. According to this view, all offices within a Pathfinder district would systematically perform better than others even without the incentive scheme. However, the fact that the selected Pathfinder offices had to reflect a cross-section of different communities and customer bases limits these arguments, as the emphasis was more on the customers of the organisation rather than the quality of the office. Also, the fact that offices tend to be self-contained and there are few operational links between offices in a district rules out any kind of spillover-effects of good performing offices on the rest of the district. Obviously, it would be ideal to test any systematic difference in the quality of offices across districts before the introduction of the incentive scheme, but we cannot do it in the absence of past data on performance, as the districts were redesigned shorty before the introduction of the scheme. Therefore, in what follows we assume random assignment to treatment for offices other than Pathfinder offices and we include in our analysis all offices except for Pathfinder offices.
5. Conclusion générale
Bien que ces travaux présentent des limites de par leur nature exploratoire, ce sont les premières recherches entièrement focalisées sur le team flow et sa phénoménologie.
Le fait d’avoir pu définir plus finement l’expérience optimale de coopération et les dimensions conceptuelles qui la caractérisent permet d’envisager de nombreuses pistes d’applications. L’une d’entre elles serait d’élaborer un game design en lien étroit avec les conditions d’atteintes du team flow formalisées dans ce manuscrit. Il existe déjà une substantielle littérature soulignant l’importance des interactions sociales dans l’appréciation des joueurs à l’endroit des jeux (De Kort & Ijsselsteijn, 2008; Bond & Beale, 2009) ; nos travaux n’ont fait que confirmer et approfondir l’aspect attractif des dimensions coopératives des environnements ludiques.
enterprises enhancing flexibility & responsiveness #
+ Involves major international cross-benchmarking survey in collaboration with UK-LAI & LARP
* Joint with Acquisition Research Team & with Lean Sustainment Initiative; in collaboration with UK-LAI, LARP and ISCM (see Chart #6)
Towards an Automation of the Mutation Analysis Dedicated to Model Transformation. A major benefit of Model Driven Engineering (MDE) relies on the automatic generation of artefacts from high-level models through intermediary levels using model transformations. In such a process, the input must be well-designed and the model transformations should be trustworthy. Due to the specificities of models and transformations, classical software test techniques have to be adapted. Among these techniques, mutation analysis has been ported and a set of mutation operators has been defined. However, mutation analysis currently requires a considerable manual work and suffers from the test data set improvement activity. This activity is seen by testers as a difficult and time-consuming job, and reduces the benefits of the mutation analysis. This work addresses the test data set improvement activity. Model transformation traceability in conjunction with a model of mutation operators, and a dedicated algorithm allow to automatically or semi-automatically produce test models that detect new faults. The proposed approach is validated and illustrated in a case study written in Kermeta. [ 17 ]
6.4. Reconciling Dynamic Languages and Isolation
Virtual Smalltalk Images: Model and Applications. Reflective architectures are a powerful solution for code browsing, debugging or in-language process handling. However, these reflective architectures show some limitations in edge cases of self-modification and self-monitoring. Modifying the modifier process or monitoring the monitor process in a reflective system alters the system itself, leading to the impossibility to perform some of those tasks properly. We analyze the problems of reflective architectures in the context of image based object-oriented languages and solve them by providing a first-class representation of an image: a virtualized image. We present Oz, our virtual image solution. In Oz, a virtual image is represented by an object space. Through an object space, an image can manipulate the internal structure and control the execution of other images. An Oz object space allows one to introspect and modify execution information such as processes, contexts, existing classes and objects. We show how Oz solves the edge cases of reflective architectures by adding a third participant, and thus, removing the self modification and self-observation constraints. [ 30 ] Bootstrapping Reflective Systems: The Case of Pharo. Bootstrapping is a technique commonly known by its usage in language definition by the introduction of a compiler written in the same language it compiles. This process is important to understand and modify the definition of a given language using the same language, taking benefit of the abstractions and expression power it provides. A bootstrap, then, supports the evolution of a language. However, the infrastructure of reflective systems like Smalltalk includes, in addition to a compiler, an environment with several self-references. A reflective system bootstrap should consider all its infrastructural components. We propose a definition of bootstrap for object-oriented reflective systems, we describe the architecture and components it should contain and we analyze the challenges it has to overcome. Finally, we present a reference bootstrap process for a reflective system and Hazelnut, its implementation for bootstrapping the Pharo Smalltalk-inspired system. [ 15 ]
to improve our understanding of dusty plasma dynamics necessary for the optimization of plasma conditions employed for pm-Si:H thin film deposition.
Recently, hydrogenated silicon nanoparticles synthesized in a PECVD reactor have been shown to be ideal building blocks for the deposition of high quality silicon thin films with high deposition rates. The deposition dynamics of hydrogenated silicon nanoparti- cles on crystalline silicon substrates under realistic plasma conditions have been investi- gated with a special emphasis on the influence of cluster-surface impact parameters on the deposition mechanisms ranging from soft-lading to destructive depositions. Based on our knowledge of the reaction dynamics with H-atoms, we have employed atomic hydrogen to “treat” a silicon surface which was partly damaged by a violent cluster impact; such a study can be justified by the fact that there are always H-atoms from the plasma that interact with the silicon substrate during the experimental silicon thin films deposition process. After the exposure with hydrogen atoms, we have observed that the ill-defined silicon surface is rearranged to its initial crystalline structure and that the silicon atoms of the deposited cluster are incorporated in the crystalline growth of the substrate surface. This finding, however, is only correct when a relatively low flux of H-atoms is used. At too high impinging H-atom rates, the surface will instead suffer even greater damage due to the resulting etching. The increase in kinetic energy of the silicon atoms is the result of the chemical reaction with H-atoms (either adsorption or recombination). This increase in kinetic energy permits the silicon atoms to overcome local potential barriers giving them access to epitaxial positions. Every time a silicon atom finds an epitaxial position, the total potential energy becomes somewhat more negative and the local area around that silicon atom heats accordingly slightly up. As long as this additional kinetic energy remains localized around that silicon atom, it can leave again its epitaxial position. The silicon atom can only remain “permanently” in its epitaxial position if a sufficient part of its increased kinetic energy is transferred to its neighbors. Ideally, it has to be well distributed among many neighbor atoms to avoid that another silicon atom might leave its epitaxial position. From those results, we pro- pose for the experimentalists to expose locally disordered silicon surfaces to a hydrogen plasma after epitaxial deposition to repair local damages due to non-perfect epitaxial deposition conditions.
Project-Team RMOD 9
7.3. Test Case Selection in Industry: an Analysis of Issues Related to Static Approaches
Automatic testing constitutes an important part of everyday development practice. But running all these tests may take hours. This is especially true for large systems involving, for example, the deployment of a web server or communication with a database. For this reason, tests are not launched as often as they should be and are mostly run at night. The company wishes to improve its development and testing process by giving to developers rapid feedback after a change. An interesting solution to give developers rapid feedback after a change is to reduce the number of tests to run by identifying only those exercising the piece of code changed. Two main approaches are proposed in the literature: static and dynamic. We evaluate these approaches on three industrial, closed source, cases to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each solution. We also propose a classification of problems that may arise when trying to identify the tests that cover a method.