Sustainable design

Top PDF Sustainable design:

Towards sustainable design of highway bridges

Towards sustainable design of highway bridges

2 KEY CONCEPTS AND APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DESIGN OF BRIDGES 2.1 Sustainability objectives and indicators Seven key objectives: public safety, public health, public security, mobility, environment quality, so- cial equity and the economy, against which the per- formance of public assets is assessed, are identified in a Model Framework for the assessment of public infrastructure performance (NRTSI/NRC 2009). These objectives derive from the so-called “Triple Bottom Line” evaluation approach or pillars of sus- tainability, i.e. social equity, environmental protec- tion, and economic prosperity. For each of these ob- jectives, several assessment criteria or performance indicators are provided to measure the performance of the asset towards reaching the objective. The se- lection of specific performance indicators or com- pleteness of assessment will depend on many fac- tors, namely (not exclusively):
En savoir plus

10 En savoir plus

Educating interior design & architecture clients about sustainable design : issues, perceptions, and expectations

Educating interior design & architecture clients about sustainable design : issues, perceptions, and expectations

environment. “Each country has its own building tradition, architecture, building technologies, climate, and culture.” (Zeiler W., 2014, Chapter 1, p: 6). 2.6.2. Halifax, Canada The Canadian example is presented by Henderson debating the construction industry in Halifax, Canada trying to show us the appropriate way to deal with extremely cold conditions. “Residential Deep Energy Retrofit in Cold Climates” (Henderson S., 2014, Chapter 5, p: 111) was the title of this chapter. Henderson introduces how Canada was one of the first countries to introduce energy efficiency programs through the “National building code of Canada” in 2012 (Henderson S., 2014,Chapter 5, p: 113). He also explains how with the extreme cold weather comes a number of problems; “horizontal driving rain, repetitive freeze, high flood zones, permafrost, seismic loading, and other structural and safety concerns”, (Henderson S., 2014,Chapter 5, p: 113), while Canada has succeeded to improve its energy efficiency and decrease energy usage. Targeting materials as a major issue to be developed while implementing environmental design is a must. As Henderson S. (2014) mentions, targeting retrofit envelope is a necessity to achieve a better thermal efficiency. He suggests different solutions on how to improve the insulation in renovated buildings such as adding more insulation to the exterior of the building. “In typical terms of energy efficiency, there is a ‘law of diminishing returns’ in play when increasing insulation levels.” (Henderson S., 2014, Chapter 5, p: 117). Henderson also introduces a better understanding of the cost of insulation for retrofit in which he includes under the title of “The cost of insulation vs. the cost of fuel” to show a comparison chart on how to implement a better envelope for the building. Pinpointing “Ventilation and Air Movement” as a major element to work on by improving the environmental retrofit process has been a concern for Henderson specifically in cold weather.“Controlled (mechanical) ventilation is required in cold climates as building envelopes get tighter.” (Henderson S., 2014, Chapter 5, p: 119). Mentioning that a ductwork heating system is an excellent option except in Quebec.
En savoir plus

145 En savoir plus

Biomimicry and innovation in sustainable design : understanding its innovation supporting characteristics compared to ecodesign

Biomimicry and innovation in sustainable design : understanding its innovation supporting characteristics compared to ecodesign

Design Solution: Industrial symbiosis is part of a new field called industrial ecology which is concerned with the flow of materials and energy through systems at different scales, from products to factories and up to national and global levels as a means to achieve sustainable industrial development (Chertow, 2008). Not long after Kalundborg became a major industrial center, in an effort to minimize the use of the limited ground water, an oil refinery wanted to use surface water from nearby Lake Tisso. The oil refinery financed the project as the city offered to build the pipeline marking the first of many collaborations between the city and industry in the said industrial park. The key motivation behind these partnerships and exchanges was to reduce costs by finding cash- positive applications for waste products (Suarez, 2012). The industrial partners and residents of the city later came to understand the environmental benefits of these partnerships as well; by using the products of another company as a resource, not only reduced the cost of managing and disposing waste but also reduced the need for buying and using virgin resources hence less environmental impact. By the late 1980s, these partners effectively self-organized into what has become the most recognized example of industrial symbiosis. Since, the primary partners in this industrial ecosystem are an oil refinery, a power station, a gypsum board facility, and a pharmaceutical company; they share ground water, surface water, wastewater, steam, fuel and a variety of by-products that become feedstocks in other processes (Chertow, 2008). Excess heat is used for fish farming, heating of nearby homes, and greenhouse agriculture while other by-products not usable within the industrial park, such as sulfur, fly ash, and sludge are sold to companies in the vicinity (Institute, 2011a).
En savoir plus

172 En savoir plus

Sustainable design of biorefinery processes: existing practices and new methodology

Sustainable design of biorefinery processes: existing practices and new methodology

Challenges and future trends Th e implementation of this new methodology and its associated tools is subject to several barriers. Indeed, these limits can be classifi ed in several groups: barriers linked to the application of environmental LCA, limits related to biorefi ning processes simulation step, and concerns about the assessments of the other dimensions of sustainable development (social LCA and LCC). Finally, some refl ec- tions are formulated as an opening to link this new meth- odological framework with other environmentally friendly methods, such as green chemistry.
En savoir plus

24 En savoir plus

From Eco-Design to sustainable design : a contribution of the precautionary principle

From Eco-Design to sustainable design : a contribution of the precautionary principle

The following questions are intended to help explore the decision making process based on the precautionary principle of sustainable development; if possible what ethical framework is us[r]

296 En savoir plus

Sustainable design of oilseed-based biofuel supply chains : the case of Jatropha in Burkina Faso

Sustainable design of oilseed-based biofuel supply chains : the case of Jatropha in Burkina Faso

The present thesis work contributes to address these issues through the development of a methodology for the design of sustainable biofuel supply chains. It was specifically elaborated in the context of Burkina Faso, a West African country where several biofuel production initiatives have started in recent years and the government wishes to evaluate the opportunities for the development of this sector. The country has very low living standard. The main economic activity is agriculture, which employs about 80% of the population. While the largest part (80%) of energy consumption is related to the use of firewood for cooking, modern energy supply mostly relies on expensive imports of fossil fuels. In this context, the development of a biofuel sector is expected to address a number of issues, including the development of energy access in rural area and the substitution of fossil fuels imported for power generation and transportation. The goal of this work is to investigate these opportunities by determining the technical possibilities regarding the context and in what conditions and to what extent they can contribute to sustainable development objectives. The approach is based on the modelling and simulation of production processes coupled with environmental and economic assessment tools. This results in calculating a series of indicators that allow comparing several supply chains in regard to their contribution to development objectives, including environmental, micro- and macro-economic performances.
En savoir plus

223 En savoir plus

Beyond transparency : collective engagement in sustainable design

Beyond transparency : collective engagement in sustainable design

An open ap- proach to sustainability assessment based on linked data and open source software could create alternative business models for environ- mental, social an[r]

104 En savoir plus

Cooperative innovation in the commons : rethinking distributed collaboration and intellectual property for sustainable design innovation

Cooperative innovation in the commons : rethinking distributed collaboration and intellectual property for sustainable design innovation

Individual and cooperative production occurs within social and institutional settings, which determine the nature of norms, incentives, responsibilities and mechanisms for [r]

130 En savoir plus

Advanced methods for sustainable energy systems in operation and design of district heating networks

Advanced methods for sustainable energy systems in operation and design of district heating networks

5.6 Outlook on the contributions of part B The contributions of Part B to sustainable design of DHN systems use a multi- perspective approach which is initially based on the works carried out at a small- scale DHN system in Nantes/France (Jamali-Zghal et al. 2013) . The DHN system under consideration is used as basis for the development of the following concepts. First of all, as concluded in part A of this thesis, DHN systems must be treated as energy service systems providing heating service to (end)consumers. Due to the fact, that those system should comply with a variety of policy target regarding technologi- cal and environmental advancements, a holistic design approach which goes beyond the view of energy supply only, must be applied. Furthermore, industrial companies have constraints regarding the cost-or profitability of DHN system which might limit appropriate measures to be taken. When DHN systems are considered as energy service systems, measures on the demand side of the DHN system can be included in design which also support to establish new business models. This allows overcom- ing the mere focus on heat supply by industrial sites.
En savoir plus

251 En savoir plus

Sustainable wastewater treatment plants design through multiobjective optimization

Sustainable wastewater treatment plants design through multiobjective optimization

Regardless the available approaches used for designing treat­ ment plants, the goal of sustainable development must be ad­ dressed, which is defined as "the development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the abil­ ity of future generations to meet their own needs" ( WCED, 1987 ). Thus, the multidimensional nature of sustainability is fondamental and considers three dimensions. Nevertheless, some studies in the literature attempt to capture the sustainability requirements using a single indicator, e.g., through economic analysis ( Balkema et al., 2002 ; Muga and Mihelcic, 2008 ). Most studies focus on the en­ vironmental and/or economic dimensions, ignoring the social as­ pects ( Molinos-Senante et al., 2014 ). The multidimensional charac­ ter of sustainability makes the selection of sustainable wastewater treatment systems a multiobjective optimization problem. How­ ever, in previous works, the sustainable design of wastewater treat­ ment networks was not assessed completely, where the objective fonctions were related to the structure of the WWTP, its eco­ nomic dimension of sustainability and very few considered envi­ ronmental aspects such as energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge the social criterion has not been analyzed in multiob­ jective optimization approaches for WWTPs design. For instance, Rezaei et al. (2019) proposed a multiobjective optimization mode! for wastewater systems management, where the mathematical for­ mulation consisted of two objective fonctions. The first objective fonction minimized the costs and incorporates a term that consid­ ered as a social indicator the price or the value of resource recov­ ery. The second objective fonction minimized the greenhouse gas
En savoir plus

18 En savoir plus

Chemical enterprise model and decision-making framework for sustainable chemical product design

Chemical enterprise model and decision-making framework for sustainable chemical product design

A posteriori, we can assess the sustainability degree of the solution over six dimensions as suggested by Gagnon et al. [43], with sustainability shade ranging from A (minimal) to D (state of the art). The ‘design process’ dimension consists in counting how many tasks were covered among the 22 tasks listed by Gagnon in his integrated sustainable design process. With 13 tasks, including all tasks listed as critical by Gagnon (see the state of the art section), the ‘design-process’ dimension is graded ‘‘B-shade’’. The ‘sustainability issue covered’ dimension is graded ‘‘B-shade’’ as issues covering partially all three sustainability pillars are considered. The ‘indicator relevance’ dimension should get an excellent ‘‘D-shade’’ grade since a systematic search of bio-sourced solvent is run. But it is degraded to a poor grade ‘A-shade’ since the initial EHS index models were found unsuitable. The ‘analysis tool accuracy’ dimension is graded a fair ‘C-shade’ because most property estimation models but the EHS index methods are state of the art models. The ‘alternative performance’ dimension is graded ‘C+-shade’ because a novel aqueous – bio-based solvent mixture has been found, dramatically reducing the environmental impact. The ‘decision-making’ dimension is graded ‘C-shade’ because all sustainability pillars are addressed and so in a balanced manner. Overall with one A, two Bs and three Cs shades, the experts estimate that the product development process is reasonably sustainable but can be improved. Thus the decision is taken to run again the CAPD tool by selecting new property estimation methods for the EHS impacts assessment as the ‘indicator relevance’ dimension is responsible for the current worst shade ‘‘A’’. 6. Conclusion
En savoir plus

16 En savoir plus

Sustainable wastewater treatment plants design through multiobjective optimization

Sustainable wastewater treatment plants design through multiobjective optimization

Regardless the available approaches used for designing treat­ ment plants, the goal of sustainable development must be ad­ dressed, which is defined as "the development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the abil­ ity of future generations to meet their own needs" ( WCED, 1987 ). Thus, the multidimensional nature of sustainability is fondamental and considers three dimensions. Nevertheless, some studies in the literature attempt to capture the sustainability requirements using a single indicator, e.g., through economic analysis ( Balkema et al., 2002 ; Muga and Mihelcic, 2008 ). Most studies focus on the en­ vironmental and/or economic dimensions, ignoring the social as­ pects ( Molinos-Senante et al., 2014 ). The multidimensional charac­ ter of sustainability makes the selection of sustainable wastewater treatment systems a multiobjective optimization problem. How­ ever, in previous works, the sustainable design of wastewater treat­ ment networks was not assessed completely, where the objective fonctions were related to the structure of the WWTP, its eco­ nomic dimension of sustainability and very few considered envi­ ronmental aspects such as energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge the social criterion has not been analyzed in multiob­ jective optimization approaches for WWTPs design. For instance, Rezaei et al. (2019) proposed a multiobjective optimization mode! for wastewater systems management, where the mathematical for­ mulation consisted of two objective fonctions. The first objective fonction minimized the costs and incorporates a term that consid­ ered as a social indicator the price or the value of resource recov­ ery. The second objective fonction minimized the greenhouse gas
En savoir plus

17 En savoir plus

Chemical enterprise model and decision-making framework for sustainable chemical product design

Chemical enterprise model and decision-making framework for sustainable chemical product design

A posteriori, we can assess the sustainability degree of the solution over six dimensions as suggested by Gagnon et al. [43], with sustainability shade ranging from A (minimal) to D (state of the art). The ‘design process’ dimension consists in counting how many tasks were covered among the 22 tasks listed by Gagnon in his integrated sustainable design process. With 13 tasks, including all tasks listed as critical by Gagnon (see the state of the art section), the ‘design-process’ dimension is graded ‘‘B-shade’’. The ‘sustainability issue covered’ dimension is graded ‘‘B-shade’’ as issues covering partially all three sustainability pillars are considered. The ‘indicator relevance’ dimension should get an excellent ‘‘D-shade’’ grade since a systematic search of bio-sourced solvent is run. But it is degraded to a poor grade ‘A-shade’ since the initial EHS index models were found unsuitable. The ‘analysis tool accuracy’ dimension is graded a fair ‘C-shade’ because most property estimation models but the EHS index methods are state of the art models. The ‘alternative performance’ dimension is graded ‘C+-shade’ because a novel aqueous – bio-based solvent mixture has been found, dramatically reducing the environmental impact. The ‘decision-making’ dimension is graded ‘C-shade’ because all sustainability pillars are addressed and so in a balanced manner. Overall with one A, two Bs and three Cs shades, the experts estimate that the product development process is reasonably sustainable but can be improved. Thus the decision is taken to run again the CAPD tool by selecting new property estimation methods for the EHS impacts assessment as the ‘indicator relevance’ dimension is responsible for the current worst shade ‘‘A’’. 6. Conclusion
En savoir plus

17 En savoir plus

Is the concept of sustainable tourism sustainable? Developing the Sustainable Tourism Benchmarking Tool

Is the concept of sustainable tourism sustainable? Developing the Sustainable Tourism Benchmarking Tool

1. Sustainable tourism indicators – what do we have so far? Most studies assessing tourism activities deal often with one component of tourism. For instance, the economic impact of tourism activities is usually estimate based on data on number of arrivals, receipt per tourist, average length of stay and other economic indicators. In order to correctly estimate tourism activity and tourism’s impact in national economies, some studies are specialized on tourism account methodology (Frechtling, 1999). Other studies have been interested in assessing the use tourism resources (natural, cultural, etc). However, a growing literature deals with the sustainability assessment, trying to develop indicators and to provide methodologies for sustainable tourism. For instance, Miller (2000) focuses on the development of indicators measuring tourism sustainability. Unlike many studies that cover only physical and human environment, Miller (2000) presents several indicators covering all aspects of the sustainability: environmental issue (physical and human), employment, financial leakages and customer’s aspects (satisfaction and role). Another notable attempt to create a comprehensive methodology to assess sustainable tourism is found in Ko (2004). After a review of the existing literature, he argues that “methods of systemic sustainability assessment are not currently used in tourism” (Ko 2004:4). He finds that most studies on sustainable tourism development are descriptive, based on qualitative data and subjective in their conclusions, thus lacking a rigorous methodology to assess sustainability issues in the tourism sector. After identifying this gap in the literature, he develops a conceptual framework for tourism sustainability assessment based on 8 dimensions: political, economic, socio-cultural, production-related aspects, environmental impact, ecosystem quality, biodiversity and environmental policies. Each dimension is assessed on the basis of several quantitative and qualitative indicators which are scaled and clustered in order to assess the sustainability of a tourist destination.
En savoir plus

29 En savoir plus

Bilevel optimization of Eco-Industrial parks for the design of sustainable resource networks

Bilevel optimization of Eco-Industrial parks for the design of sustainable resource networks

Indeed, previous studies have widely explored Pareto front generation approaches but some numerical problems were encountered especially when a very large number of binary variables is involved. In most cases, choosing the bounds for generating methods (e.g. ε-constraint method) is a non-trivial task, and the choice of these bounds is important because if they are not well chosen the solver may not succeed into obtaining a feasible solution. Furthermore, if a solution is found it remains a very long and tedious computational task. That is why a GP approach shows more affinity with EIP design. However, Ramos et al. (Ramos, Boix, Aussel, et al., 2015) demonstrated that in different scenarios and by tuning different optimization parameters (e.g. weight factors associated with the objective functions) one company is favored compared to the others. Although optimal solutions are intermediate and satisfying in terms of individual costs, it is of great interest to obtain more balanced solutions so that each plant/company is satisfied at the same time and moreover, by minimizing freshwater consumption in order to insure the environmental performance of the EIP.
En savoir plus

352 En savoir plus

Design of an Accurate and Stiff Wooden Industrial Robot: First Steps towards Robot Eco-sustainable Mechanical Design

Design of an Accurate and Stiff Wooden Industrial Robot: First Steps towards Robot Eco-sustainable Mechanical Design

2.1 Advantages and drawbacks of wood in the context of robot eco-sustainable mechanical design Wood is one of the many bio-sourced materials that could help reducing the environmental impact of robots. It was chosen in the context of this work for several reasons: (a) its main advantages mentioned in the introduction (stiffness to density ratio equivalent to steel or aluminum, low envi- ronmental impact); (b) it is relatively well known compared to other newer materials (e.g. natural fibre composites); (c) its availability and ease of use in this project. As previously mentioned, wood presents some challenges as an engineered material: (i) there is a large variety of species, leading to questions about the best ones to be used for robot design, (ii) wood expects a variability of its properties, has some issues of dimensional stability, long-term behaviour (creep), etc.
En savoir plus

22 En savoir plus

Sustainable Development Fund

Sustainable Development Fund

by the regulator. This implies that at least the announced cost has to be fixed by a set of independent experts and that the information on the cost has also to include at each date T 0 + h, the list of considered pollutants, the pollution rates, the concerned surfaces... Such information should be public, since it is a required basis for building databases of cleaning up costs and their evolutions, or to check the coherency of the financing profiles of the different funds. The control of the approximated cleaning up costs by plant cannot be done by the usual financial regulators, which are specialized in financial risks, not in industrial risks. There is a need for another regulator, i.e. an industrial regulator, to control with the help of experts the proposed financing profiles. It could take the form of a ”Sustainable Development Authority”. Since these industrial expertises are costly and take time, they could be required at a yearly frequency, which differs from the monthly frequency retained by Basel II financial regulation.
En savoir plus

20 En savoir plus

Optimal Design of a Sustainable Hydrogen Supply Chain Network: Application in an Airport Ecosystem

Optimal Design of a Sustainable Hydrogen Supply Chain Network: Application in an Airport Ecosystem

Several data are necessary to design the HSC, including the capital and operational costs (CAPEX and OPEX) for a given facility that will be used for extrapolation purpose, the throughput associated with a given technology, the quantities of the input and output products associated with unit operations of the transformation types, and so forth. Because hydrogen demand is one of the most significant parameters, the uncertainty of the demand has also been taken into account and modeled using the fuzzy linear programming (FLP) strategy proposed by refs 25 and 26 , giving more robustness to the proposed approach. The original model involves a multi- objective optimization designed to consider five stages: energy sources, production, transportation, storage, and fueling stations. It was designed to include regional and national levels in order to study the operability and evolution of the system at different scales.
En savoir plus

12 En savoir plus

Design of sensor system to monitor napkin usage for sustainable user behavior

Design of sensor system to monitor napkin usage for sustainable user behavior

The angle at which a user grabs a napkin, the force that a user yanks a napkin, the speed that a user pulls a napkin, and the level of napkins inside of the dispenser can all [r]

39 En savoir plus

The design of effective policies for the promotion of sustainable construction materials

The design of effective policies for the promotion of sustainable construction materials

Viewed in another way, the practice of sustainable development can be treated as a yardstick for the degree of overlap and flexibility in a government structure; it is also an indication of the strength of the relationship between the government and the non-governmental stakeholders.

327 En savoir plus

Show all 7330 documents...