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Steel structures exposed to fire: a state-of-the-art report

Steel structures exposed to fire: a state-of-the-art report

The main objectives of these studies were to demonstrate the inherent fire resistance of unprotected steel structures or to show that the amount of fire protection required can be redu[r]

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A Quadrangular Shell Finite Element for Concrete and Steel Structures Subjected to Fire

A Quadrangular Shell Finite Element for Concrete and Steel Structures Subjected to Fire

The usual situation encountered in reinforced concrete slabs is when the temperature varies through the thickness of the element. In that case, the temperature distribution comes from a SAFIR thermal analysis that has to be performed before the mechanical analysis. The temperature distribution over the thickness is the same at every surface point of integration. In steel structures, the thickness of the steel plates is such that the temperature distribution is nearly uniform over the thickness. On the other hand, a nonuniform distribution can appear in the planes of the plates. This is the case, for example, in an H-section where the thickness of the web and of the flanges is different, which means different temperatures in the web and in the flanges because of different thermal masses, and a transition zone in the region of the web to flange connection. At the moment, it is possible to introduce in the structure a temperature field that depends on time and on the three global coordinates (plus, eventually the position in the thickness). This is done by a user-defined function that has to be programmed and compiled in a DLL file.
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Robustness of steel structures subjected to a column loss scenario

Robustness of steel structures subjected to a column loss scenario

3 BEHAVIOUR OF 3D STRUCTURES Based on the knowledge gain from the studies on 2D structures, investigations on 3D steel and steel- concrete composite structures have been conducted to investigate the possibility of extending the analyt- ical 2D model presented in the previous section. In a first step, parametrical studies on braced and unbraced steel structures made of steel members (without accounting for any contribution from the slab) have been conducted (Kulik, 2014, Ghimire, 2015). Though this work, it has been demonstrated that (i) the behaviour of 3D structures is similar to the one observed for 2D structures and (ii) the be- haviour of the 3D structures can be obtained by summing the contribution from the two 2D frames intersecting at the level of the lost column as illus- trated in (Figure 3).
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Productivity gains through CIS/2 electronic data exchange format for steel structures

Productivity gains through CIS/2 electronic data exchange format for steel structures

NRC Publications Archive Archives des publications du CNRC Access and use of this website and the material on it are subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth at Productivity gains through CIS/2 electronic data exchange format for steel structures

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Designing Steel Structures for Fire Safety

Designing Steel Structures for Fire Safety

A.4. Tables and nomograms for evaluating the temperature in unprotected steel members subjected to the standard fire curve ISO 834 A.5. Tables and nomograms for evaluating the temperature in protected steel members subjected to the standard fire curve ISO 834

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Applying "Design for Disassembly" to connection design in steel structures

Applying "Design for Disassembly" to connection design in steel structures

Connection design under traditional construction methods may be optimized for disassembly through tactics such as careful allocation of bolts and welds, proper orientation[r]

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Analysis of simple connections in steel structures subjected to natural fires

Analysis of simple connections in steel structures subjected to natural fires

] ....................................................................... 5-14 Figure 5-11 : Test set-up and detail of the tested web-cleat connections (Yu, 2009b) ...................................... 5-17 Figure 6-1 : Schematic drawing of the test set-up (left) and view of the restraining sub-structure (right) [Efectis France, 2007a] .................................................................................................................................................... 6-3 Figure 6-2 : Geometry of the double-sided joint with flush end-plate connections [Efectis France, 2007a] ...... 6-3 Figure 6-3 : Predicted evolution of temperature in the steel beam (before adaptation) ...................................... 6-6 Figure 6-4 : Geometrical properties of the fin plate connection (Test n°1) ......................................................... 6-6 Figure 6-5 : Fin plate connection after failure of the connection ........................................................................ 6-7 Figure 6-6 : Geometrical properties of the double web cleats connection (Test n°2) ......................................... 6-7 Figure 6-7 : Double web cleats connection after the test .................................................................................... 6-8 Figure 6-8 : Length of the beam element representing the action of the joint for a fin plate connection ............ 6-9 Figure 6-9 : Elasto-plastic behaviour of the ‘BILIN’ material law ................................................................... 6-11 Figure 6-10 : ‘BILIN_COMP’ material law subjected to negative (left) and positive strains (right) ............... 6-12 Figure 6-11 : ‘Translated BILIN_COMP’ law subjected to negative (left) and positive strains (right) ............ 6-12 Figure 6-12 : BILIN_BOLTS material law subjected to positive (left) and negative strains (right) .................. 6-13 Figure 6-13 : BILIN_ASYM material law subjected to positive (left) and negative strains (right) ................... 6-13 Figure 6-14 : Four-fibre model for flush end-plate connections with two bolt rows ......................................... 6-14 Figure 6-15 : Lever arm in a flush end-plate connection under pure bending [CEN, 2005a] .......................... 6-16 Figure 6-16 : Failure Modes 1, 2 and 3 of T-stub in tension ............................................................................. 6-16 Figure 6-17 : Geometrical parameters for the evaluation of the effective lengths of unstiffened column ......... 6-17 Figure 6-18 : Values of α for the effective length of the first bolt row situated below the tension flange of beam
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Instruments for measurement of dynamic stresses (or strains) in temporary steel structures

Instruments for measurement of dynamic stresses (or strains) in temporary steel structures

/ La version de cette publication peut être l’une des suivantes : la version prépublication de l’auteur, la version acceptée du manuscrit ou la version de l’éditeur. Access and use of [r]

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Performance of steel structures exposed to fire

Performance of steel structures exposed to fire

L’accès à ce site Web et l’utilisation de son contenu sont assujettis aux conditions présentées dans le site LISEZ CES CONDITIONS ATTENTIVEMENT AVANT D’UTILISER CE SITE WEB. Short Course on Response of Materials and Structures to Fires [Proceedings], pp. 1-21, 2009-05-20

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Productivity through CIS/2 electronic data exchange format for steel structures - Invited Presentation

Productivity through CIS/2 electronic data exchange format for steel structures - Invited Presentation

L’accès à ce site Web et l’utilisation de son contenu sont assujettis aux conditions présentées dans le site LISEZ CES CONDITIONS ATTENTIVEMENT AVANT D’UTILISER CE SITE WEB. 2010 Canadian Institute for Steel Construction (CISC) Annual Convention [Proceedings], 2010-06-09

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Applicability of undermatched welds for high strentgh steel structures

Applicability of undermatched welds for high strentgh steel structures

The next passes of welding can be made by an evenmatched weld material, which increases the strength of the joint, shields the soft metal from excessive stresses [r]

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Analysis and comparison of connections in steel structures

Analysis and comparison of connections in steel structures

For example, joints which involve clip angles either welded or bolted from the column flange to the beam web are usually classified by AISC-ASD as pinned connections, but actu[r]

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Steel column base classification

Steel column base classification

[6] Column Bases in Steel Building Frames, COST C1, ed. K. Weynand, Brussels, 1999. [7] Wald F., Seifert J.: The Column-Bases Stiffness Classification, in Nordic Steel Colloquium, Odense 1991, pp. 309 - 316. [8] Bijlaard F., Steenhuis M: Prediction of the influence of connection behaviour on the strength, deformations and stability of frames, by classification of connections, Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Connections in Steel Structures edit. by R. Bjorhovde, A. Colson, G. Haaijer and J. Stark, AISC, Chicago, 1992, pp. 307- 318.

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Effect on Risk Based Inspection of spatio-temporal dependence of ROC curves: Study of the corrosion of steel harbour structures

Effect on Risk Based Inspection of spatio-temporal dependence of ROC curves: Study of the corrosion of steel harbour structures

2 Corrosion of steel sheet pile seawalls in marine environment Corrosion of steel structures is classically assessed by ultrasonic non destructive testing. In France, a protocol is given by the CETMEF (French Center for Maritime and Fluvial Technical Studies). This protocol consists in performing residual thickness measurements for several depths of the structure. By using this technique and considering the harsh conditions for marine inspections, the noise on the measurements at a given point on the structure cannot be neglected. Error comes both from the physical measurement (around 0.1 mm) and from the protocol (grinding, link diver-operator, etc.). Thus three measurements are performed on a given location: every 120° in a circle, with diameter of about 5 cm. The average of these three readings is considered as the “true” measurement of residual thickness. We assume that the variance between each of the three readings and their average corresponds to the noise.
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On the influence of the steel-concrete bond model for the simulation of reinforced concrete structures using damage mechanics

On the influence of the steel-concrete bond model for the simulation of reinforced concrete structures using damage mechanics

Fig. 5. Evolution of the mean crack opening as a function of the mean concrete strain Fig.5 presents the evolution of the mean crack opening as a function of the mean concrete strain. In the case of this local quantity (crack opening), the perfect relation is unable to reproduce the experimental results, contrary to the bond model. For a given concrete mean strain, the perfect relation simulates a larger number of cracks and consequently a smaller mean crack opening. This is due to the transfer length, along which stress is transferred from steel to concrete (Fig. 6). It is significantly smaller in the case of the perfect relation, entailing a potential larger number of cracks [10]. This difference in transfer length is particularly significant in this case, as the differential slip around each crack reaches value up to 200 µm at the end of the loading. This value corresponds to a heavy degradation of the interface properties, which cannot be reproduced by the perfect relation.
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Laser Ignition of Bulk Iron, Mild Steel, and Stainless Steel in Oxygen Atmospheres

Laser Ignition of Bulk Iron, Mild Steel, and Stainless Steel in Oxygen Atmospheres

Pictures from video camera monitoring ( Figure 4 ) showed that ignition occurs at the surface when molten material appears at the surface, independent of the laser power. The only difference between low laser power ( Figure 4a ) and high laser power ( Figure 4b ) is that the liquid appears more homogeneously on the surface for the latter than for the former. The ignition temperature of 1650 K corresponds to the melting point of FeO ( Table 2 ). This temperature is close to the melting point of iron (1810 K) and mild steel (1713–1778 K). Given the fact that the diffusion rate is normally several orders of magnitude greater in the liquid than in the solid (Abbaschian et al., 2010 ), the increase in the diffusion rate induces a better mixing of the reactants and thus a greater rate of reactions in the liquid. The resulting greater heat release is responsible for the strong increase in the temperature, which, in turn, induces the formation of more liquid.
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The influence of galvanic coupling on corrosion of carbon steel coupled with stainless steels for use in concrete structures

The influence of galvanic coupling on corrosion of carbon steel coupled with stainless steels for use in concrete structures

On the other hand, Knudsen et al. 3,4 , Klinghoffer et al. 5 , and Cochrane 4 demonstrated that using carbon steel with stainless steel did not increase the risk of corrosion to carbon steel as long as both steels were in a passive condition. Bertolini and co-workers 6- , , 7 conducted their experiments on concrete specimens and concluded that the use of stainless steel in connection with carbon steel did not increase the risk of corrosion of passive carbon steel. They stated that when both carbon steel and stainless steel are in a passive condition, the galvanic coupling current did not produce appreciable effects, since these two types of steel had almost identical corrosion potentials. Galvanic coupling with stainless steel can increase the corrosion rate of active carbon steel reinforcement in chloride contaminated concrete, but this is not worse than the coupling with passive carbon steel. Hope 8 reached a similar conclusion in his investigation and concluded that high and potentially damaging corrosion rates would arise in galvanically coupled carbon steel and stainless steel 316 or 2205 if the concrete surrounding the carbon steel became chloride contaminated or carbonated. These corrosion rates were likely to be similar to, or somewhat lower than, the corrosion rates, which would develop if only carbon steel were used.
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Galvanic coupling between carbon steel and stainless steel reinforcements

Galvanic coupling between carbon steel and stainless steel reinforcements

This paper presents an investigation of the galvanic coupling behaviour between carbon steel (CS) and three types of stainless steel (SS) alloys. Tests were performed both in electrochemical cells containing saturated calcium hydroxide solution [Ca(OH) 2 ] and with concrete specimens inside a environmental chamber. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was introduced to the solution during the experiment or premixed in the concrete, to simulate aggressive environmental conditions from road salt in the field. The galvanic coupling currents between corroding CS and SS were measured and compared with those between corroding CS and passive CS, which always surrounds the corroding area. The anodic/cathodic behaviours of individual CS and SS were also studied using the potential polarization test, and cyclic voltammetry. The effects of the oxygen reduction rate, coupling resistance and chloride content on the galvanic coupling current were also investigated.
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Galvanic coupling between carbon steel and stainless steel reinforcements

Galvanic coupling between carbon steel and stainless steel reinforcements

CONCLUSIONS Based on the above investigation, it can be concluded that use of SS and CS reinforcing bars in the same concrete structure will not increase the corrosion risk on CS even when these bars are in direct (electrical) contact. In fact, the increase in the corrosion rate of CS due to galvanic coupling of SS with corroding CS was less than that of the combination of non-corroded CS with corroding CS. Stainless steel, with its ability to resist chloride-induced corrosion, can be used in areas vulnerable to chloride ingress. Therefore, the judicious use of stainless steel with carbon steel in the high- corrosion-risk areas of a concrete structure can be a cost-effective option for reducing corrosion and greatly extending the service life of concrete structures.
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Structural-scale modeling of the active confinement effect in the steel-concrete bond for reinforced concrete structures

Structural-scale modeling of the active confinement effect in the steel-concrete bond for reinforced concrete structures

Structural-scale modeling of the active confinement effect in the steel-concrete bond for reinforced concrete structures... 1 Structural-scale modeling of the active confinement e[r]

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