Restricted interests in autism with versus without speechonsetdelay:
the importance of perceptually versus thematically organized interests
Liliane Chiodo 1 , Steve Majerus 2 , Sandrine Eusèbe 1 , and Laurent Mottron. 3
( 1) Université de Liège, Belgium, (2)Université de Liège, Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique FNRS, Unité de recherche : Psychologie et Neuroscience Cognitive (Psy.Ncog), Belgium, (3)Centre d'excellence en Troubles envahissants du développement de Montréal, QC, Canada | Conflicts of interest: none
condition even in control participants. In the speech con- dition, the stimuli were the same, but they were presented as language sounds, favoring categorical perception of the stimuli, along the “b”–“d” continuum. Thus, categorical perception is expected for this speech condition. In the modulated speech condition, the sounds were created fol- lowing the same procedure as for the other conditions and presented as speech, but with additional low-frequency amplitude modulation. Modulation was reproduced at the F0 frequency (constant at 100 Hz), giving the sounds the equivalent of voice pitch and making them sound more like natural speech stimuli. Maximal categorical perception is expected for this continuum. The continua have been validated in previous studies and have shown atypical cate- gorical perception in different neurodevelopmental condi- tions such as dyslexia and the genetic syndrome microdeletion 7q11.2 (Williams syndrome) [Serniclaes et al., 2001; Majerus, 2011]. If autistic people present reduced prior phonemic knowledge or use less this knowl- edge in speech perception tasks, then we should again observe reduced discrimination peaks for between-category stimulus pairs and this particularly in the speech and mod- ulated speech conditions where the in ﬂuence of prior cate- gorical knowledge is expected to be at its maximum in the control population. If autistic subjects have enhanced, bottom-up perceptual abilities, then higher levels of dis- crimination abilities should be observed for all types of material, and this most markedly for the nonspeech condi- tions and the between-category sound pairs. Again, of criti- cal interest here was whether this speci ﬁc pattern of perceptual performance was observed for only the autistic group with speechonsetdelay or for both groups.
Other accounts suggest that the domains of knowledge targeted by intense interests are those which ‘fit’ best autistic cognition. According to the hyper-systemizing model , the enhanced tendency to systemize in autis- tic individuals orients autistic people towards the detec- tion and application of inflexible rules (if p, then q) mostly found in non-social information. The hyper- systemizing model can account for some broad domains of interests, such as physics or biology, which have been observed in autistic adults. Its explanatory power is less convincing for domains where rules are more arbitrary and unrelated, such as interests in written material in the case of ‘hyperlexic’ children; it also cannot account for the perceptual grounding of some intense interests, and their appearance in young children without oral speech. Alternatively, the veridical mapping  exten- sion of the enhanced perceptual functioning model  grounds the nature and mechanisms of autistic intense interests on domain-specific expertise. This model pro- poses that perceptual expertise, mostly found in autistic people with speechonsetdelay, results from the superior performance, role, and autonomy of perception in autis- tic cognition. Conversely, speech-specific expertise is found in autistic people without speechonsetdelay (largely overlapping with the previous DSM-IV category of Asperger syndrome), accounting for enhanced re- gional cortical dedication of speech-related material in this autism subgroup . This model accounts for the domain-specificity of intense interests, their behavioral and brain imaging correlates, the intrinsic association between intense interests and savant abilities, and the combination of interest and performance found in autistic individuals with limited speech. However, contrary to the hyper-systemizing account, this model poorly accounts for interests involving verbally expressed encyclopedic knowledge.
In the early investigations on speech perception at the Haskins Laboratories, Liberman, Delattre, Gerstman & Cooper  found that the lengthening of formant transitions progressively changed a stop+vowel percept (/b,d,g/+V) into a semivowel+vowel percept (/w, È,j/+ V) and then into a vowel+vowel percept (/u,y,i/+V). This suggests that the place contrasts between stops and those between vowels are conveyed by similar acoustic differences between formant frequencies. However, these similarities are fairly coarse because they are based on the prototypical values of the vowel and consonant categories, not on the boundaries between categories. Prototypical values correspond to the endpoints of the S-shaped identification function and can therefore not be assessed with the same precision as the perceptual boundaries which are located at the middle of the function (50% response point), where the slope of the S- curve is the steepest. Whether or not distinctions between vowels and those between consonants share the same
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.253903 PACS numbers: 42.81.Dp, 78.67.Pt
We will argue that the problem of cloaking becomes intrinsically more difficult as the size of the object to be cloaked increases compared to the wavelength, and is ultimately limited by fundamental considerations involv- ing the delay-bandwidth and delay-loss products, even for ground-plane cloaks [1–3] where bandwidth is not limited by causality constraints. The difficulty is greatest for cloak- ing objects many wavelengths in diameter (unlike experi- ments cloaking wavelength-scale objects [3–11]), but unfortunately this is the most useful regime for resolving an object of interest. We illustrate these limitations with an idealized one-dimensional (1D) system in which cloaking is much simpler than in three dimensions (3D)—only one incident wave need be considered—but in which the same limitations appear. We argue that the results and conclu- sions from this simplified model apply even more strongly to 2D and 3D, and are consistent with recent numerical calculations for 3D cloaks . We conclude that cloaking of human-scale objects is challenging at radio frequencies (rf ), while cloaking such objects at much shorter (e.g., visible) wavelengths is rendered impractical by the delay-loss product. Despite the simplicity of this analysis, we arrive at fundamental criteria that may help guide future research on the frontiers of cloaking phenomena.
months accelerate the onset of ocean acidification in the Southern Ocean, and is a key factor in understanding the timing of future corrosive conditions [McNeil and Matear, 2008]. Although phytoplankton growth during winter is sup- pressed the dominant Antarctic pteropod species, Limacina helicina, is known to have a life‐cycle of 1–2 years with important veliger larval development during winter/spring months [Gannefors et al., 2005; Seibel and Dierssen, 2003]. Understanding the seasonal onset of corrosive conditions is therefore important for the future prospects of these important Antarctic calcifying organisms. Despite this, adequate sea- sonal observations are lacking for Antarctic waters. In this work, we combine oceanic pH and W ARAG seasonal mea-
in the previous section must then include fabrication dis- order and surface roughness in addition to absorption.
Examples and results: Let us take some real-world ex- amples of cloaking applications and study what practi- cal limitations one would face even for an idealized 1d ground-plane cloak. For microwave frequencies, consider cloaking a vehicle of height ≈ 2 m from a radar of wave- length ≈ 1.25 cm (24 GHz). Using a time-delay cloak of thickness 10 cm over a 10% bandwidth, Eqs. (1) and (2) imply an effective index of & 1.4 and a loss tangent of 4.7 × 10 −4 . (Operating in the phase-delay regime
Keywords: Time-delay systems, integral inequalities, matrix inequality, reciprocally convex lemma.
This paper aims at providing less conservatism and com- putationally efficient stability conditions for linear systems subject to fast-varying delays. This topic of research has attracted many researchers over the past decades. The main difficulties for the study of such a class of systems rely on two technical steps that are the derivation of efficient integral and matrix inequalities. Indeed, the differentiation of usual candidates for being Lyapunov-Krasovskii func- tionals leads to integral quadratic terms that cannot be included straightforwardly in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) setup. Including these terms requires the use of integral inequalities such as Jensen (see for instance Gu (2000)), Wirtinger-based provided in Seuret and Gouais- baut (2013), auxiliary-based from Park et al. (2015) or Bessel inequalities developed in Seuret and Gouaisbaut (2015). Althrough these inequalities have shown a great interest for constant delay systems, their application to time- or fast-varying delays leads to additional difficul- ties related to the non convexity of the resulting terms. Then, some matrix inequalities are employed to derive convex conditions. The first method corresponds to the application of Young’s inequality or Moon’s inequality, which basically results from the positivity of a square positive definite term. It can also be noted that the re- cent free-matrix inequality from Zeng et al. (2015) can be interpreted as the merge of the Wirtinger-based inequality and Moon’s inequality. Recently, the reciprocally convex lemma was proposed in Park et al. (2011). The novelty
Figure 6 illustrates the results of the synthesis on magnitude, group delay and time-domain responses of three configurations: the line alone with the two gates (fig. 3), the two-stage NGD circuit with and the whole cascaded circuit (fig. 5). These results are got on condition that the parameters per unit length be R = 76 Ω/cm, L = 5.3 nH/cm and C = 2.6 pF/cm for a length d = 0.8 cm in the Ismail-Friedman RLC longlines model .
2.6. Data acquisition
All measurements were connected to the Physiologia work- station and recorded using this workstation (Teston and Galindo, 1990). The experiments took place at the Eras- mus Hospital of Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Phygiologia is a multisensor data acquisition system allow- ing simultaneous recording of the speech signal and various aerodynamic measures, it consists in a PC computer and an acquisition system equipped with various transducers. All signal were processed with software Phonedit (Ghio, 2002).
• What are the challenges in enabling speech as a modality for hands-free interaction
• What are the differences between the commercial ASR systems' accuracy claims and the needs of mobile interactive applications • What do you need to enable speech in an interactive application • What are some usability issues surrounding speech-based
In line with ELDP reference data (22), children tended to perform better at normal versus fast speech rate. However, there was no interaction between speech rate and listening condition with respect to task performance. This surprised us as we expected fast speech rate to pose an additional challenge for speech perception in already difficult listening conditions. One possibility is that the speed difference between normal and fast speech rate (i.e. 30 %) was too small to yield an effect. Recall also that pseudo-word pairs were presented in isolation with unlimited response time and short interruptions between items. With regard to listening effort and processing costs, this paradigm is less challenging than paradigms in which longer speech segments are presented or response time restrictions are applied. Beyond that, we cannot be certain whether the children’s perception of the two speech rates is actually in agreement with the intended speech rates (i.e. normal and fast). This uncertainty is worth investigating in a future perceptual experiment.
Systems with time-delays; Linear parameter-varying systems; Robust linear matrix inequalities
Since several years, time-delay systems (TDS) have been intensively studied [Niculescu, 2001, Gu et al., 2003, Frid- man, 2006, Gouaisbaut and Peaucelle, 2006b, Suplin et al., 2006, Kao and Rantzer, 2007]. Indeed, delays are often responsible of instability and poor performances and their effect must be considered to analyze stability and synthe- size control laws. Since the advent of electrical commu- nication networks and embedded electronics, system with time-varying delays have gained more and more interests since the control input and the measured output of a system controlled through network are affected by a time- varying delay physically corresponding to the information propagation. There also exist many engineering problems where time-varying delays are involved such as milling process. . .
 A. Amehraye, D. Pastor, S. Ben Jebara, On the Application of Re- cent Results in Statistical Decision and Estimation Theory to Percep- tual Filtering of Noisy Speech Signals, Proceedings of the second IEEE- EURASIP International Symposium on Control, Communications, and Signal Processing, ISCCSP’06, Marrakech, Morocco, 2006.
Current tag models do not fully take into account the rich and diverse nature of tags. Each model makes different partial assumptions as to the definition and attributes a tag should receive. In this paper we propose an ontology, NiceTag, whose primitives are “tag actions” modeled with RDF named graphs. This mechanism allows us to type, describe and thus ensure the traceability of each single act of tagging. Our named graphs contain at least a resource linked to a “sign”, which can be any resource reachable on the Web (an ontology concept, an image, etc.). The resource, the sign and the link between them are the three components of the acts of tagging that we want to explicitly represent as social actions, akin to speech acts. The purpose of our model is threefold. First, to be able to describe acts of tagging in a very precise and general manner, consistent with the principles behind the architecture of the Web. To reconcile and bridge existing tag models (Newman ontology, Tagont, ES, SCOT, SIOC, CommonTag, MOAT, NAO). And finally, to propose a viable way to reify and represent the intention behind an act of tagging and leverage its semantics.
Early onset neonatal sepsis due to salmonella spp is rare in developed countries. Vertical
and horizontal transmissions were described, including faecal contamination of the birth canal. After a short incubation period, newborns may remain asymptomatic or present with sepsis or meningitis. Mortality rate as high as 58% were reported.
The breakup of large cohesive groups around threshold is probably closely related to what happens in the case without cohesion: the subgroups connected by filaments may correspond to the ordered patches seen in the dis- ordered phase near threshold in Fig. 2d. The breakup itself can be seen as resulting from the maximal effect of acoustic modes on the shape of the group . Also affecting the shape dynamics are rotational modes: the subgroups seen in Fig. 4a not only move but they also rotate slowly . Rotation is not steady, but intermit- tent. We recorded the rotation times and their corre- sponding angles. Extremal statistics analysis reveal that the tendency to rotate is maximal at the onset of motion (Fig. 3b). Moreover, at threshold, the distribution of ro- tation times is algebraic with a decay exponent such that it has no finite mean (inset of Fig. 3b).