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Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile

Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile

https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-3581 Access and use of this website and the material on it are subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth at Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile

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Large-Eddy Simulation and experimental study of cycle-to-cycle variations of stable and unstable operating points in a spark ignition engine

Large-Eddy Simulation and experimental study of cycle-to-cycle variations of stable and unstable operating points in a spark ignition engine

1. Introduction The quest for high performances and low emissions leads engi- neers to trim the operating range of combustion devices near their stability limit. In this context, being able to simulate these devices to predict their stability before building them is of primary impor- tance since experimental campaigns are often very costly. For internal combustion (IC) engines with spark ignition, promising concepts like stratified combustion, lean combustion, direct injec- tion (DI), controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion or downsizing have appeared. Downsizing relies on the fact that using an engine at higher loads reduces the fuel consumption. This can be achieved by reducing the engine size. However, for such engines, instabili- ties like knock, rumble or cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) need to be controlled. High CCV levels can lead to high pollutants forma- tion, serious drivability issues and, as a consequence, a limited operating range [1] .
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Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Premixed Flames under Spark-Ignition Engine-Like Conditions

Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Premixed Flames under Spark-Ignition Engine-Like Conditions

Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Premixed Flames under Spark-Ignition Engine-Like Conditions.. Marco Di Lorenzo, Pierre Brequigny, Fabrice Foucher, Christine Mounaïm-Rousselle.[r]

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Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start

Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start

Smaller turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines, used for better fuel economy, introduce new emissions issues that degrade emissions behaviour during cold[r]

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Experimental investigation on ammonia combustion behavior in a spark-ignition engine by means of laminar and turbulent expanding flames

Experimental investigation on ammonia combustion behavior in a spark-ignition engine by means of laminar and turbulent expanding flames

Charles Lhuillier, Pierre Brequigny, Francesco Contino, Christine Mounaïm-Rousselle. Experimental investigation on ammonia combustion behavior in a spark-ignition engine by means of lami[r]

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LES study of deflagration to detonation mechanisms in a downsized spark ignition engine

LES study of deflagration to detonation mechanisms in a downsized spark ignition engine

Deflagration to detonation transition A B S T R A C T Using 15 LES cycles of a high load/low speed spark ignition engine operating point, two different fresh gases autoignition regimes called knock and super-knock are analyzed. A direct ‘‘a posteriori’’ analysis of pressure waves and autoignition heat release observed in LES is proposed. It reveals that low to mod- erate knock intensity, corresponding to late spark timings (ST) is characterized by one or several random autoignition (AI) spots which consume the surrounding fresh gases without coupling with the AI heat release. On the contrary, the highest knock intensities correspond to what is usually called super-knock, a very intense knock observed under pre-ignition conditions or for very early ST, as done in this study. LES shows that the pressure waves generated by one or a couple of AI spots are strong enough to induce locally a strong fresh gases temperature increase leading itself to a substantial decrease of the AI delay. This allows to generate a coupling between the pressure wave and the AI reaction rate which reinforce each other, leading to maximum pressures and propagation speeds close to those of a detonation. These results therefore strongly support the hypothesis proposed in the literature that super-knock is characterized by a deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). An ‘‘a priori’’ analysis is also performed thanks to the use of a local detonation indicator based on Bradley’s DDT diagram. It is shown that this tool not only predicts the change of combustion regime as a function of the ST, but it also roughly suc- ceeds in predicting the location and time of appearance of the DDT in the chamber. Unfortunately, the first AI spot is not always responsible for the DDT, implying that using cold flow LES to calculate the detonation indicator instead of a reacting LES as proposed here, would lead to a failure of the indicator in many cases.
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON NH3/H2/AIR COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE CONDITIONS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON NH3/H2/AIR COMBUSTION IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE CONDITIONS

application. As illustrated in Table 1, ammonia can be stored in liquid form at ambient temper- ature under mild pressure conditions, thus ensuring a comparable energy density with other fuels. Its high octane rating is a beneficial feature for its use in boosted Spark-Ignition (SI) engines. Even though early studies on ammonia use as an internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel are reported [4–6], a broad commercial deployment was first hindered by its difficult flam- mability and very low combustion intensity, illustrated by its narrow flammability limits and low Laminar Burning Velocity (LBV) in Table 1, respectively.
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Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile

Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile

Access and use of this website and the material on it are subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth at Transient particulate matter measurements from the exhaust of a direct injection spark ignition automobile Smallwood, Gregory J.; Snelling, David R.; Gulder, Omer L.; Clavel, Dan; Gareau, Daniel; Sawchuk, Robert A.; Graham, Lisa

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Experimental study on ammonia/hydrogen/air combustion in spark ignition engine conditions

Experimental study on ammonia/hydrogen/air combustion in spark ignition engine conditions

Stoichiometric, Ammonia, and Gasoline Dual Fueled Spark Ignition Engine. Exhaust Emissions From a Stoichiometric, 375[r]

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Large eddy simulation of spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet

Large eddy simulation of spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet

Abstract Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to compute the spark ignition in a turbulent methane jet flowing into air. Full ignition sequences are calculated for a series of ignition locations using a one-step chemical scheme for methane combustion coupled with the thickened flame model. The spark ignition is modeled in the LES as an energy deposition term added to the energy equation. Flame kernel formation, the progress and topology of the flame propagating upstream, and stabilization as a tubular edge flame are analyzed in detail and compared to experimental data for a range of ignition parameters. In addition to ignition simulations, statistical analysis of non-reacting LES solutions are carried out to discuss the ignition probability map established experimentally.
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Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

Figure 13. H 2 mole fraction in a homogeneous reactor with a stoichiometric NH 3 /air mixture under the conditions of Fig. 9a. Summary and Conclusions As ammonia is gaining increased interest as a sustainable fuel and has been validated as a suitable fuel for internal combustion engines, it is worth investigating the characteristics of a recent SI engine fueled with ammonia. Objectives are to assess the best operating conditions in the current configuration, propose a detailed analysis and provide useful data for comparisons and validation purposes. In the present study, new experiments were conducted in a recent PSA spark-ignition GDI engine used as a single-cylinder engine fueled with premixed ammonia/air and methane/air mixtures at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. Ammonia/hydrogen/air results from a previous study are presented for comparison purposes. The
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Natural gas spark ignition engine efficiency and NOx emission improvement using extreme exhaust gas recirculation enabled by partial reforming

Natural gas spark ignition engine efficiency and NOx emission improvement using extreme exhaust gas recirculation enabled by partial reforming

provided that the EGR quantity is not sufficient to affect the combustion stability and duration severely. However, the combustion stability and burning velo- city degrade when higher levels of EGR are used without RG. For example, use of 20 per cent EGR required 10 per cent RG to stabilize ignition and use of 20 per cent RG to speed combustion sufficiently for optimum thermal efficiency. The degradation of indic- ated fuel conversion efficiency for greater RG blend fractions greater than optimum may be attributed to increased heat losses due to the heat transfer con- tribution of hydrogen and water vapour.
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Design and demonstration of a spark ignition engine operating in a stratified-EGR mode

Design and demonstration of a spark ignition engine operating in a stratified-EGR mode

In this chapter, system performance analysis techniques are described. The analysis is based on the following. i) The pressure data; results are used to evaluate th[r]

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Crevice volume effect on spark ignition engine efficiency

Crevice volume effect on spark ignition engine efficiency

Again the two efficiency values at different coolant temperatures for the control, groovel, and groove 2 piston crevice modifications are close together, whereas the[r]

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Contribution of oil layer mechanism to the hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines

Contribution of oil layer mechanism to the hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines

A ten component synthetic fuel, and a set of well-specified lubricants were used in a research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of [r]

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Combustion chamber deposit effects on hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignition engine

Combustion chamber deposit effects on hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignition engine

During the 100-hour accumulation test, the HC emissions were regularly measured using the deposit build-up fuel and indolene. Indolene is an industry-wide standard no[r]

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Do turbulent premixed flame fronts in spark-ignition engines behave like passive surfaces?

Do turbulent premixed flame fronts in spark-ignition engines behave like passive surfaces?

/ La version de cette publication peut être l’une des suivantes : la version prépublication de l’auteur, la version acceptée du manuscrit ou la version de l’éditeur. For the publisher’s[r]

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Analysis of fuel behavior in the spark ignition engine start-up process

Analysis of fuel behavior in the spark ignition engine start-up process

The objective of this research is to characterize engine start-up behavior, focusing on the fuel transport. Several sets of start-up data have been analyzed, incorporating runs with two [r]

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The autoignition characteristics of turbocharged spark ignition engines with exhaust gas recirculation

The autoignition characteristics of turbocharged spark ignition engines with exhaust gas recirculation

Experimental data indicates that correlation between these two values is reasonable and thus the ignition delay at knock for a mean cycle can be used to estimate t[r]

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Chemical kinetic modeling of oxidation of hydrocarbon emissions in spark ignition engines

Chemical kinetic modeling of oxidation of hydrocarbon emissions in spark ignition engines

The fitted parameters a, [5, and E for the one-step expressions for the whole test matrix are listed in Table 3.2 and Table 3.3, for fuel decomposition and for carbon [r]

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