1. Measuring and spatializing LUCC, especially from agricultural to urban land; 2. Understanding the main driving forces of these LUCC;
3. Analyzing the socio-economicimpacts of these LUCC on local populations, especially in the close periphery of Hanoi;
as an onset for evaluating socio-economicimpacts of floods
J. Ernst, B. J. Dewals, S. Detrembleur, P. Archambeau, S. Erpicum & M. Pirotton J. Ernst, B. J. Dewals, S. Detrembleur, P. Archambeau, S. Erpicum & M. Pirotton
Hydrology, Applied Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Constructions (HACH)
Prior to assessing the effects of different flood protection measures, a preliminary step consists in determining how floodplain inundations and their socio-economicimpacts are likely to be affected by climate change. Besides a comprehensive presenta- tion of the 2D hydraulic model and its validation, the present paper describes how the model is imple- mented in the framework of integrated flood risk as- sessment, with a focus on the selection of relevant climate change scenarios for hydraulic modelling and on the discussion of the simulation results for a specific case study located along the river Ourthe in the Meuse basin (Belgium).
Generally, urbanization and economic growth are closely linked. The strong positive correlation between these two indicators has been numerously documented 19 . There is no doubt that much of
the causation goes from economic growth to increased urbanization. However, as countries grow, they undergo structural changes. Labor forces are reallocated from rural agriculture to urban manufacturing and services sectors (Michaels et al., 2012) and when urbanization occurs without industrialization, serious urban and development problems can arise (Gollin et al, 2013). This is particularly the case for most African countries. The statistical analysis presented in table 5 shows evidence that the urbanization in rich-resource African countries is associated with huge social problems (Expansion of urban slums, limited access to improved water and sanitations facilities). Further research is needed to focus on this complex causal link between urbanization problems and resource dependence in rich-resources African countries. Future studies should also evaluate the final impact of rapid urbanization in many resource-rich African countries. A time-series analysis of this group of countries, over a longer period, will also allow for more conclusive results.
2.4. Co-firing policy
In some countries, there are clean energy policies that force coal power plant to implement project to reduce their impacts. For example, Korean Government had established regulation that require power plants with capacity higher than 500 MW to produce part of their electricity from renewable energy. This policy has encouraged the coal power plants to convert to co-firing and created big market for imported pellets, including pellets from Vietnam. Co-firing is also mentioned in the latest National Power Development Plan of Vietnam. However, the more detailed regulations such as the roadmap for implementation of co-firing in Vietnam or supporting mechanism for this technology. These policies is very important for the adoption of a new technology not yet exist in a country.
To date, four studies have used scoring systems to quantify the socio-economicimpacts of alien birds (Shirley and Kark 2009; Kumschick and Nentwig 2010; Kum- schick et al. 2013; Evans et al. 2014). Shirley and Kark (2009) scored alien bird impacts under two broad categories: economicimpacts resulting from damage to agricultural crops and human health impacts resulting from disease transmission, noise disturbance and threats to aviation safety. They found alien birds from three families (true parrots (Psittacidae), pheasants (Phasianidae) and ducks, geese and swans (Anatidae)) to have the most severe economicimpacts and pigeons and doves (Columbidae) and true par- rots to have the most severe human health impacts. The other three studies used the Generic Impact Scoring System (GISS: Nentwig et al. 2010) to quantify the severity of alien bird impacts using six categories: agriculture, animal production, forestry, human infrastructure, human health and human social life. Kumschick and Nentwig (2010) found four alien bird species to have the most severe economicimpacts in Europe: the Canada goose, rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), monk parakeet and the Afri- can sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). Kumschick et al. (2013) found that most alien birds generally have relatively minor economicimpacts in Europe, with the exception of the Canada goose. Evans et al. (2014) found the economicimpacts of alien birds in Australia to be more frequently documented than their environmental impacts, that there are more species with recorded economicimpacts in Australia than in Europe (14 vs. 7) and that these impacts tend to be more severe in Australia than in Europe. The species with the most severe economicimpacts in Australia included the common starling, common myna (Acridotheres tristis) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus). These regional studies have provided useful insights regarding the types of alien birds that have the most severe impacts on a range of socio-economic activities in Europe and Australia. However, these studies did not adopt a common metric with which to determine the severity of socio-economicimpacts generated by alien birds: this means they are less useful when trying to directly compare the severity of impacts caused by different alien bird species and sustained across different regions of the world.
At any step, the set of admissible controls depends upon the agent’s actual state. The agent observes its actual state and selects an admissible control on the basis of a policy. This is a function that maps the agent’s state into admissible controls. Once the control is selected, the agent’s state is updated.
The update rules can be deterministic, non-deterministic or stochastic. They model idealized economic actions like trading, exchange of goods, production, consumption. Update rules for a given agent might depend on its state, on its control, on the states and controls of other agents and on model parameters. Update rules which model interactions between agents – for instance trading or exchange rules – usually imply simultaneous updates of the states of the interacting agents.
regardless of her/his social category and level of power, and investigates the situated people’s relationships with other people and things when they try to justify their behavior. It belongs to the currents of heterodox economics and goes by the name of theory of conventions, of justification, of policies, or even of the economy of worth, depending on the approach. Within this framework, we studied socio-economic dilemmas defined as situations where organization’s members shall choose between different options relative to socio-economic dimensions of the organization, options that defend values which all make sense for actors which refers to it. We focused on reached agreements between members which allowed them to get over these dilemmas and on justifications and implementations of these agreements. Such agreements either consist in simple arrangements that can be easily overturned or they are formalized and put into practices in a more sustainable way. The latter may be materialized in objects, giving them a certain degree of irreversibility.
VHLSS belongs to the family of Household and Expenditure Surveys (HCES) which are conducted regularly in several countries over several years (Kilic et al., 2017). HCES have also been used previously to study food consumption and nutrition at national levels, with the objective of supporting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) (Zezza et al., 2017). Household level socio-economic, demographic and expenditure on food groups were obtained from three waves: 2010, 2012 and 2014, of the nationally representative VHLSS surveys, comprising about 9000 households in each wave. These variables have been previously used to study the impact of socioeconomic characteristics on Vietnamese diets previously: see Trinh et al. (2018a), Trinh et al. (2018b), and Trinh et al. (2018).
Très peu de stratégies ont réellement pu évaluer ce point. Cependant, la prise en charge en hospitalisation à domicile (HAD) comme alternative à l’hospitalisation conventionnelle dans les EABPCO sans signe de gravité initiale a pu faire l’objet d’une méta-analyse. Elle reste hélas relativement limitée car trois études seulement (dont aucune n’a été effectuée en France) ont pu être cumulées et des effectifs trop faibles ne permettent pas la méta-analyse. Le résultat indique — au-delà de la supériorité clinique abordée dans le chapitre dédié — une tendance favorable en termes de coûts socio-économiques ( Fig. 1 )  . L’organisation du système franc¸ais actuel de santé ne permet pas de recommander l’HAD pour la prise en charge des EABPCO (G2C).
Figure 4: Proportion of sales of invasive plants (n=68)
When asking to nursery men which invasive plants are considered of economic value, 32 species were identified. Results are presented in figure 5. This figure shows 48% of nursery men consider Prunus laurocerasus is economically important. Table 6 presents species considered of economic value by more than 5% of nursery men. No aquatic plants are considered of economic value here, but this probably reflects the lower sampling rate of aquatic plant producers or sellers in this study.
Master of Science in Technology and Policy and Master of Science in Nuclear Science and Engineering
Increasing amounts of intermittent renewables have led to zero and negative priced electricity at times of peak wind and solar production. The volatility added to the grid by renewables and low prices at peak production create a demand for flexible energy supply and present an opportunity for energy arbitrage. Nuclear reactors in the United States are inflexible when compared to fossil generators, and batteries may store energy at peak renewable production, albeit at a high capital cost. Thermal energy storage coupled to nuclear reactors may both increase nuclear flexibility and capitalize on price volatility, benefitting the economics for the struggling nuclear industry. This research maps the option space for constructing a crushed rock thermal energy storage (TES) system coupled to a light water reactor and employs a modification of the GenX capacity expansion model to evaluate the economic. Historic demand and renewable resource availability from ERCOT were used to illustrate the benefit of crushed rock TES with an increasingly restrictive CO 2 emission constraint. Parametric variations were used to address uncertainty
IV CAS D’ÉTUDE
Avec un bassin versant de 2900km 2 , l’Ourthe est le principal affluent de la Meuse en Belgique. Les
tronçons étudiés sont localisés quelques kilomètres en amont de la confluence avec la Meuse, située à hauteur de Liège en Région wallonne. Trois mesures de protection contre les inondations par débordement de cours d’eau ont été analysées afin d’atténuer les impacts des inondations subies par trois villages (Tilff, Esneux et Poulseur). Les mesures prises en compte ont été choisies à la suite d’une étude de la dynamique des crues et en concertation avec le gestionnaire du cours d’eau. À Tilff, la mesure de protection consisterait à réhabiliter un canal anciennement exploité pour la navigation fluviale et ainsi augmenter la section du cours d’eau. La deuxième mesure, envisagée à Esneux, vise à installer des rehausses mobiles au dessus d’un mur de protection existant, initialement dimensionné pour protéger le village contre une crue de récurrence 20 ans. Enfin, les modélisations hydrauliques de débits de crue à Poulseur ont révélé la présence d’une plaine inondée passive, où les vitesses sont très faibles voire nulles. La mesure consisterait dès lors à modifier la configuration de la topographie à l’entrée et la sortie de cette zone, afin de permettre aux vitesses de se développer et ainsi d’augmenter la section de passage effective du cours d’eau.
-“effort against development in time” is a type of time axis and refers to future progress and technological developments (e.g. more powerful computers or improved VR equipment).
Universities develop new technologies focusing on technol- ogy itself. Researchers do not care how long the simulation will need to calculate the results and they not only develop the simu- lation but they need to develop the tools and methods to evaluate whether the simulation is working fine and whether the results are exact. On the other hand, industrial users focus on relia- bility of the technology, maturity economic aspects (referring to the effort axis) and on the integration of these techniques within existing information technology systems of the companies (e.g. existing CAD-CAM systems, ...). To our mind, Virtual Manu- facturing is, for a part of its scope, still an academic topic. But in the future, it will become easier to use these technologies and it will move in the area of industrial application and then invest- ments will pay off. For example in the automotive and aerospace companies in the late 60’s, CAD was struggling for acceptance. Now 3-D geometry is the basis of the design process. It took 35 years for CAD-CAM to evolve from a novel approach used by pioneers to an established way of doing things. During this period, hardware, software, operating systems have evolved as well as education and organizations within the enterprise in or- der to support these new tools. Fig. 5 presents a classification of VM applications with respect to market penetration and maturity. Three classes can be determined: some techniques are daily used in industry, some are mature but their uses are not widespread and some are still under development.
(Economist, Research Director at IRD/UMR PRODIG; firstname.lastname@example.org )
The assessment of socio-economic effects of marine protected areas on fishing activity points out some methodological difficulties. As a methodology we propose a selection of two components: the fishing unit profitability and the fishery household income distribution and a comparison between a marine protected area versus an “unprotected zone”. The methodology has been applied on a case study: the Chumphon National Park versus the Chumphon Province (Gulf of Thailand).
The level of depression was increased when the persons became poor (b = 0.42) or confronted to subjective ﬁnancial strain (b = 0.40, p < 0.001). An improvement in social capital (b = −0.22, p < 0.01) and particularly moving to live with a partner of spouse (b = −1.19, p < 0.001) decreased the level of depression. Conﬁrming these results, the appearance of a diagnosis of major depression was favored by an increase in subjective ﬁnancial strain (OR = 1.20, p < 0.001) whereas getting a partner exhibited a protective effect (OR = 0.60, p < 0.001). The effects were different according to gender. The changes in subjective ﬁnancial strain inﬂuenced depression more signiﬁcantly among women (b = 0.58 vs 0.25, p < 0.001). Similarly, modiﬁcations in poverty modiﬁed depression only among women (b = 0.74, p < 0.001). Finally, changes in partnership inﬂuenced depression much more notably among women as compared to men (b = −1.87 vs −0.63, p < 0.001). A stratiﬁcation according to the mean income during the 8-year period did not reveal differences in the inﬂuence of socio-economic status. Taking into account the direction of the changes, we found that a decrease in subjective ﬁnancial strain was associated with more symptoms of depression (b = −0.31, p < 0.001) whereas the opposite was true for a decrease in objective ﬁnancial strain (b = 0.29, p < 0.01). Regarding the presence of a partner, only the loss played a signiﬁcant role in increasing depression (b = 1.64, p < 0.001) and leading to a diagnosis of major depression (OR = 2.41, p < 0.001).