Social identity

Top PDF Social identity:

View of Cultural differences in General and Psychiatric Nurses: A critical analysis using Social Identity Theory

View of Cultural differences in General and Psychiatric Nurses: A critical analysis using Social Identity Theory

According to SIT a low status group member can reacquire positive social identity, an action called ‘social change’,[20] by various means. One technique is to make more flattering comparisons to the subordinate group.[19] Although literature apparently designed to deliberately demean general nursing and thereby heighten the standing of psychiatric nursing is reassuringly rare, one example appears to be a paper by an academic and psychiatric nurse regarding pre-registration nursing programmes. Clarke[72, p39] argued that although psychiatric nursing students are ‘susceptible to the types and levels of debate that are appropriate to a university’ and the breadth and depth of their programmes necessitates university-based study, many students on general nursing programmes ‘crave more input on anatomy and physiology’, fail to appreciate the importance of psychosocial studies and have ‘anxieties about entering the workplace with limited knowledge about the medical tasks that await them’. Moreover, the academic claimed that general nursing students ‘seek descriptive curricula, watered down versions of medicine, and they generally resent being denied this’ [p.40], their programmes should last only two years and that their professional training be ‘completely separate from mental health and other branches of nursing’.[p41]
En savoir plus

11 En savoir plus

Communal Conflict and the Geopolitics of Land Tenure, Social Identity and Statehood in North Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Communal Conflict and the Geopolitics of Land Tenure, Social Identity and Statehood in North Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

for those chiefdoms that the DRC has formally recognized and integrated into its politico- administrative architecture as entités territoriales décentralisées (ETDc) 28 . Ethnic Historicism, Constructivism and Instrumentalism in North Kivu: Hence, most of North Kivu’s ethnic identities have their origins in centuries-old processes of ethno- tribal social identity formation. In many cases, these social identity-forming processes are long enough to justify a historicist view of ethnicity. It is important to note, however, that this is not always the case. Indeed, particularly in times of accelerated political change or crisis, ethnic construction accelerates as instrumentalization dynamics gain the upper hand. When instrumentalised as political or economic tools, ethnic identities, affiliations and alliances tend to form, harden, alter or dissipate much faster in response to the changing needs, interests and strategies of social agents. Here both the elitarian and the individualist instrumentalist interpretations are appropriate because instrumentalisation processes are present both at the elite level (for example, via elites that reinforce ethnic identities to mobilize ethnically-defined constituencies) as well as at the individual level (for example, by individuals that make certain, interest-driven choices that effect their ethnic identities and affiliations). As I will show in the results discussion Chapter 7, ethnic instrumentalisation has been a central factor of social identity formation in North Kivu and much of the African Great Lakes region since the early decades of the colonial period.
En savoir plus

376 En savoir plus

Social identity and competitiveness

Social identity and competitiveness

the other members of their group until the end of the experiment. Previous experiments used various tricks to enhance a sense of membership to the group. Brown-Kruse and Hummels (1993) made participants answer a questionnaire (which Solow and Kirkwood (2002) used as well) including questions such as the best book they had read lately or their favorite flavor of ice-cream and the answers of each group member were made public to the other members. Participants could not identify their fellow group members. Eckel and Grossman (2005) used several treatment each corresponding to a more or less strong way of creating a group identity. In one treatment, participants were assigned to a color group and wore a tag of the corresponding color so that all subjects could witness the membership of every other participant. In another one, subjects were divided into groups depending on the answers they had given to a quiz. In a last one, subjects had to complete a group task. In each of these treatments, a participant could identify all of his group members. Chen and Li (2009) divided their subjects into two groups according to their painting preferences (Kandinski vs Klee) and group members remained anonymous. In the present experiment, it seemed important to make team membership anonymous (one could not know which participants belonged to his or her own group) so that one would not have to worry about having to answer to the members of her group about her performance and whether she chose to enter the different tournaments. It also appeared crucial to have group members engage in a common activity in order to instill a sense of group membership.
En savoir plus

36 En savoir plus

Castes in India : implications of social identity in economics

Castes in India : implications of social identity in economics

ensues a hierarchical order 10 . One may question the pertinence of presenting the world-views at the beginning of this era to understand the actual working of castes today. The answer is that such a view introduced notions that were to have enormous ramifications for the history of religion in India and a large influence over Indian thought. Concepts such as non-violence, vegetarianism, the relative purity of a life style and most impor- tantly dharma are all still very operative in modern days India. As Srinivas (1974) noted, "certain Hindu theological notions like karma and dharma have contributed very greatly to the strengthening of the idea of hierarchy, which is inherent in the caste system". Birth is the only way to acquire membership to a caste, yet birth is not an accident according to Hinduism. It results from accumulated actions in previous lives. If these actions were virtuous, a man is to be reincarnated in a high caste, while misconduct is sanctioned by a low caste reincarnation. "Thus the caste hierarchy comes to be an index of the state of an individual’s soul. It also repre- sents certain milestones on the soul’s journey to God" (Srinivas, 1974). This point underlines the centrality of the concept of purity that was seen as so fundamental that one of the most prominent theorists of castes L. Dumont (1970), put it at the very center of the system and thought that anything in the social organization is to interpreted by this yardstick, wealth or power playing very little role. This last point will be nuanced by section 1.1.4. Caste prescriptions are reinforced by the important concept of dharma which has many meanings, one of which is "that which is right or moral" or "the universal law" to be followed. As Srinivas (1974) tells "a man who accepts the caste system and the rules of his particular sub-castes is living according to dharma, while a man who questions them is violating dharma. Living according to dharma is rewarded, while violation of dharma is punished both here and after. If he observes the rules of dharma, he will be born in his next reincarnation in a high caste, rich, whole and well endowed. If he does not observe them he will be born in a low caste, poor, deformed and ill endowed. Worldly position and success indicate the kind of life a man led in his previous incarnation".
En savoir plus

217 En savoir plus

How do organizations control managers ongoing identity? A study of micro-practices of identity regulation

How do organizations control managers ongoing identity? A study of micro-practices of identity regulation

managers experience during the two days training and during ‘managers’ coffee’. In providing ontological security and a sense of continuity with previous self-conception, the exercises allow managers to open and then to close an identity work. The result of these micro-practices is a confirmation of their overall managerial identity, albeit lightly moved regarding their managerial identity. Moreover, we show that identity work is not an autonomous process that individuals undertake as an expression of their free agency. Identity work can be a deliberate target of identity regulation incentives in order to create a link between the discursively promoted social identity and organizational members’ identities. This strategy seems to be quite powerful since the identity regulation discursive enactment is controlled or at least channeled. One of the managerial tactics to control organizational members’ identity definition is to trigger and to orient their identity work in a favourable way to managerial interests.
En savoir plus

32 En savoir plus

Dogwhistles as Identity-based Interpretative Variation

Dogwhistles as Identity-based Interpretative Variation

Works on Social Meaning Games (SMG) ( Bur- nett , 2017 , 2019 ) fill this gap by offering a frame- work based on game theory (like Lewis’ works and like many formal approaches to pragmatics, including RSA) which treats socially significant linguistic variation as another source of meaning. This leads to a variation on signaling games in which the personae signaled by the speaker and retrieved by the listener have to match in order to maximize both players’ utilities. Crucially, we are talking of personae, not social identity, because we have to account for cases where the speaker is trying to convey a specific set of traits about them- self to the listener for a given goal; they are trying to communicate how they want to be seen in this situation. Here, we are reaching a point where the maxim of quality is, to some extent, flouted, or at least not as relevant.
En savoir plus

10 En savoir plus

Is There Personal Identity in Economics?

Is There Personal Identity in Economics?

philosophical standards of identity discussions as we would prefer to call it. This last point is interesting in itself and attention could be paid on it in particular. Then, a distinction could be drawn between two different concepts of identity: what the individual is and who the individual is [Kirman and Teschl 2004]. The latter refers to the idea of a dynamical concept of identity, initiated by a self-reflexive and conscious individual who remains numerically the same through time. The former refers globally to the common way in economics to represent individuals in terms of preferences and constraints. Some models include time aspects (such as Stigler and Becker [1977]), others not. Of course, in static models, nothing much can really be said about identity through time. However, the what conception of the individual, refers to several quite common characteristics in economic models: first, change is brought about from outside, that is, the individual is only reacting to modifications in the constraints. Second and related to the first, no conscious behaviour initiated by the individual can affect his or her constraints. And third, more information can be added that is related to the individual, but this amounts to giving him or her a richer social identity or identification, but not a better account of his or her dynamical development as a person through time. Given this general characteristics, Stigler and Becker’s paper is classified as a what conception of individuals. The “principle of action” [p. 57] is still a principle of reaction to changes in the individual’s constraints in accordance with the first characteristic. Stigler and Becker’s model is first of all a model of human capital stock accumulation that, evaluated at market prices, initiates new investment and thus influences the decisions at a later date. Preferences remain the same, what is changing are the constraints and the accumulated stock of human capital, which is not “embodied” in the individual, but which remains a good like any other that is possessed by the individual. The individual can only be followed through time by his or her changing stocks of human capital. Rather than to see this model as a Lockean, subjectivist account of individuals, it gives an account of what the individual is, because all that matters are the constraints and not the preferences of the individual as such. Furthermore, changes in the behaviour of the individual can only be explained in terms of price and income changes, but not because of a conscious and self-reflexive initiative taken by the individual irrespective of prices and incomes.
En savoir plus

19 En savoir plus

What is the point of identity economics?

What is the point of identity economics?

The ability to give an account of oneself is thus at the heart of the theoretical and methodological challenges establishing a theory of identity but is by no means straightforward. Citing Adorno’s (2001, pp28) claim that ‘‘it will be obvious to you that all ideas of morality or ethical behaviour must relate to an ‘I’ that acts’’, Butler wants to ask what this ‘I’ is and its relation to societal norms and morality. She wants to investigate the question of what Davis would call ‘individual identity’. But as we have already seen, individual identity, for Butler, is always discursive and therefore social and is an illusion if it is thought of as something that is natural or essential to the body. Here Butler wants to go further and begin to elaborate the constitution and reconstitution of this decentred identity in light of its discursive nature. We can see already that the fundamental referent of analysis appears to be shifting from the individual as the mechanism onto some linguistic construction. However, this is not necessarily the case and Butler vehemently denies that her theory removes agency from the picture. Rather, agency must always be understood within the discursive constraints in which it is constituted. No person can escape the referential framework into which they are introduced. But there are strategies by which incoherence and ambiguity within this framework might reveal its construction and allow it to be reconceived. In this sense the individual has a kind of socialised agency, an agency which is mediated and structured by a set of linguistic categories which are themselves the product of cultural discourse and motivated by political power. Butler thus attributes ontological priority to the social, rather than the agent.
En savoir plus

62 En savoir plus

ICTs Use on Linguistics Change and Identity

ICTs Use on Linguistics Change and Identity

3.2. Sample and Data Collection For the purpose of this study, students from a third-year and a fourth-year class from the middle school level and students from a second-year and a third-year class from the secondary or high school level were selected as participants. Each class counts an average of 35 students, for a total of 140 youngsters. The age range of the informants was between 14 and 19 years. All informants live in Oran, but most of them are not originally from there. Ninety percent (90%) of the informants came from middle class families, and this characteristic served as a feature of excluding any social class differentiations. Participants were male and female students and ninety percent (90%) of them were acquainted with ICTs. They were familiar with new communication technology and were using ICTs intensively in their daily life. Most of them owned mobile phones and used the Internet to complete their projects as partial requirements of their courses. The sampling method used in this study was purposive sampling, a method considered appropriate within the realm of qualitative research. According to Fraenkel and Wallen, “[r]esearchers who engage in some form of qualitative research are likely to select a purposive sample, that is, they
En savoir plus

6 En savoir plus

Generalized Perron Identity for broken lines

Generalized Perron Identity for broken lines

will give a counterexample of the Oppenheim conjecture on best approx- imations, see in Chapter 18 of [10]). Various values of three-dimensional Markov spectrum were constructed by H. Davenport in [2, 3, 4]. In this paper we show the geometric interpretation of the Perron Identity in terms of sails of the form (Remark 3.5) and generalise this expression in the spirit of integer geometry. This establishes a relationship between non-regular continued fractions and the values of the corresponding binary quadratic form at any point on the plane (Theorem 2.1 and Corollary 3.4). The result of this paper is based on recent results of the first author in geometric theory of continued fractions for arbitrary broken lines, see [6, 7, 9, 10].
En savoir plus

15 En savoir plus

Experimental experience with Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

Experimental experience with Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

R´ esum´ e Dans l’architecture Internet actuelle, les adresses IP jouent un double rˆ ole. D’une part, elles permettent d’identifier les hˆ otes dans le r´ eseau, et d’autre part, elles servent comme une information de routage. Ce rˆ ole devient de plus en plus probl´ ematique surtout avec les nouveaux besoins de mobilit´ e et multi-homing. HIP (Host Identity Protocol) d´ efinit un nouveau protocole entre la couche r´ eseau et transport pour fournir une meilleure gestion de ces besoins. Le protocole d´ efinit un nouvel espace de nommage bas´ e sur des identifiants cryptographiques qui permet de dissocier les rˆ oles des adresses IP. Ces nouveaux identifiants jouent le rˆ ole d’identifiants d’hˆ otes au lieu des adresses IP. Vu que HIP est un protocole assez r´ ecent, on propose de pr´ esenter une ´ evaluation exp´ erimentale de ses principes de base.
En savoir plus

59 En savoir plus

Narrativity and Identity in the Creative Process

Narrativity and Identity in the Creative Process

Creativity, as described beforehand, is allowed by the social context, as we are the re-appropriation of the socio-historical world that surrounds us, permanently present in any individual creative process. Even more interestingly, we live in an intercultural world. Hybridism, ethnic and racial diversity, new political and cultural identities: these are terms directly related to inter-culturalism. As cultural diversity tracks the history of mankind, the political accent on cultural differences are dated by the intensification of the process of economic globalization, which announces, according to analysts, a new phase of capitalism, known as “late capitalism” (MANDEL, 1982, p. 262). Despite arguments regarding the origins of this new phase, the fact is that discussions concerning inter- culturalism accompany debates regarding postmodernism and the effects of post- colonization in the contemporary scene. The globalization of capital and the intensified circulation of information aided by new technologies, bring affirmation of local and regional identities seeking the right to differentiate themselves through political, cultural, social and artistic manifestations (HALL, 2001). However, it provides a constant and dynamic exchange of information between many different entities, and their individual and/or communal creative instances. This winged exchange of information and social contexts are key to conceptualizing the notion of the We-composer.
En savoir plus

413 En savoir plus

Commentary: Obamacare and American National Identity

Commentary: Obamacare and American National Identity

As Canadians have long noted, systematized health care can be intimately associated with national identity. The potential  exists  for  “Obamacare”  to  contribute  to  the  dy-­ namic definition of American national identity, veering from its frontiersman iconography toward something more akin to a web of social responsibilities.

2 En savoir plus

ELITE: zEro Links Identity managemenT systEm

ELITE: zEro Links Identity managemenT systEm

3.3 Complexity analysis The storage complexity of ELITE-1 is dependent on the number of instances of identities, which is equal to l for each identity. If n represents the number of identities, the storage complexity is equal to O(n · l). ELITE-2 represents a solu- tion that can accommodate the multitude of traits issue, which ELITE-1 cannot, while maintaining the advantage of the basic ELITE-1 scheme. ELITE-2 derives its power from the constant search time of SOBER. However since the ELITE-2 construction requires the use of s bloom filters, the search time is equal to O(s). On the other hand, the use of s Bloom filters increases the storage complexity to O(s · n · l). (Here we do not take into account the constant factor of number of minutiae, which is in the order of ∼ 70 minutiae per biometric information). ELITE-2 takes into consideration the multitude of traits for deletion of biomet- rics while keeping identities unlinked to their hidden biometrics. Table 2 presents a functional and computational comparison between the Setbase approach and the two ELITE solutions.
En savoir plus

17 En savoir plus

Identity authentication through 3D face analysis

Identity authentication through 3D face analysis

L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion de documents scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, émanant des établissements d’enseignemen[r]

203 En savoir plus

The Identity and the Equality Predicate

The Identity and the Equality Predicate

The main point of the intensional identity predicate Id is that the equality that it expresses is based on the ontological level. The identity predicate Id in A expresses the fact that if a and b are definitionally the same play_objects in A, and a : A, then there is a play object dependent on a for the prop Id(A, a, b). If it is the proponent who posits the identity, he must have posited before a : A and a = b : A. Since these are elementary posits, he must have overtaken them from O. The point is that P "imports" some definitional equality into the propositional level by producing an identity predicate. This yields already its formation rule:
En savoir plus

6 En savoir plus

Essays on the impact of information technology on identity

Essays on the impact of information technology on identity

develop a better understanding of emotional experiences tha1 individuals experience as they interact with technology. Indeed, employees are not merely 'rational' beings [r]

264 En savoir plus

Identity Theft in Cyberspace: Issues and Solutions

Identity Theft in Cyberspace: Issues and Solutions

See, Rina CHUNG, Hong Kong’s ‘Smart’ Identity Card: Data Privacy Issues and Implications for a Post- September 11 th America ( 4 A -P . L. & P J.), 519, 531 [2003]. 180 See S. NANAVATI, op. cit. p. 4. 181 The password has been the standard for computer network access for decades. If the system employs some secure challenge-response password transmission protocol [20, 21] and limits the number of failed authentication attempts (as most systems should), it will be resistant to most attacks. Since passwords can be lent, this choice does not offer non- repudiation. Nor does it offer compromise detection. Password maintenance is straight forward, however it may be costly when passwords are forgotten, especially if system policy mandates good, non-dictionary passwords and frequent changes. A commonly quoted cost for each instance of password reset is $30-$50. The problem with a password-only system is that people either forget their password, incurring maintenance costs, or they choose a memorable password, which might also be guessable and that weakens the security of the system. A password plus token combination is the more secure choice for authenticating network access. The penalty is an increased system cost for the token, reader, and system software. There is a convenience cost for the user as well because she still has to remember a password for the token and also has to remember to carry the token. See L. GORMAN, op. cit. p. 19.
En savoir plus

41 En savoir plus

Sobolev algebra through a " carré du champ " identity

Sobolev algebra through a " carré du champ " identity

1.4. Comparison to previous results and examples. Let us compare this re- sult with what we have previously obtained in [4, Theorem 1.5]. First, let us mention that even if [4] was written in the setting of a Dirichlet form (which is a particular case of our current setting here), all of the results in [4] can be described in our present setting, without assuming the ’carr´e du champ’ identity, with iden- tical proofs. The extra main property used in [4] (instead of (1.2)) is the following inequality

14 En savoir plus

The Two Sartrean Theories of Personal Identity

The Two Sartrean Theories of Personal Identity

T ABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction: Locke’s theory of identity and its reception by continental phenomenology 1. Sartre’s first theory. Identity as an “expression” of the reflective consciousness 2. Sartre’s second theory. The “circuit of selfness” of pre-reflective consciousness Conclusion: from the traditional question of identity to the problem of personalization

2 En savoir plus

Show all 3585 documents...